Running can be called one of the many types of cardio. From this it follows that he perfectly trains the cardiovascular system. In addition, such a load increases the endurance of the body, the protective functions of the body, trains the respiratory system, speeds up metabolism, improves metabolism and contributes to overall health.
There are a lot of people who do not play sports professionally. Almost all of them love to run and consider it a good way to maintain their health.
If you do not know how jogging helps in the morning or what its nuances can harm the body, then read this article.
But due to the fact that someone does not like to wake up early, and someone on the contrary, gets up at 5 am, even without an alarm clock, running classes occur at different times. We look at the pros and cons of running in the morning.
To get started, let's get acquainted with some popular opinions that exist in relation to such a run.
What is the use of running in the morning?
The following main positive aspects of such training can be highlighted:
Slimming This type of training in the morning is a good helper in the fight against obesity.
Scientists have long learned that in the process of sleep, the body burns a large number of calories, which are used for brain activity, the work of internal organs and the implementation of various metabolic and regenerative processes.
After a person wakes up, the body is hungry, and there are not enough carbohydrates in it that are needed for energy production. This is the main cause of weight loss — the body is forced to burn fatty tissue in order to get enough energy for vigorous physical activity.
And if you run in the evening, only carbohydrates will be burned, because during the day they enter the body in sufficient quantities. Of course, if you run 10 kilometers in the evening, then the daily supply of these particles of energy will be exhausted, and the body will start burning fat.
But in the morning, the transition from carbohydrate intake to fat is much faster, and those who want to lose weight faster use it.
Strengthens health, including the cardiovascular system
Running is a good cardio load. Morning run strengthens the cardiovascular system. But this happens, if, of course, to comply with certain conditions about the pulse and the time of employment, which will be given below.
The human body is constantly in need of various kinds of loads, so that it has an incentive to develop and strengthen under the influence of external factors. Running is a great way to make your heart beat at an accelerated pace, which, with the right load, will strengthen it and make it more protected from overwork.
Helps keep muscles in shape
Running is muscle training. Although, while running, you will not build up big muscles, you can constantly improve your relief due to the fact that the body dries out during such exercises.
In addition, the muscle tone of the legs, back and abdomen will steadily grow under the influence of the daily load. This will save from accidental damage or muscle sprains, sudden convulsions and other troubles that happen to people who are not involved in sports.
Quickly get tired, and you have shortness of breath when you climb the stairs? Running will help deal with it.
With the help of daily workouts in the form of running, there is a constant increase in endurance. Very often in athletes who are not engaged in running, there is the appearance of shortness of breath after intense exercise. Often this is due to abnormal breathing and low stamina.
Daily cross-country workouts will help to cope with this. A person learns to breathe properly, and the body is trained to expend internal energy reserves in such a way as to last them for the longest possible working life.
It is noticed that almost all the above advantages of running in the morning can not be attributed only to the morning workouts. Running by itself, regardless of the time of day, brings a lot of benefits.
Having carefully and carefully considered the following drawbacks of the morning run, it will be possible for you to decide whether you should do this at all, and there will be a benefit of running in the morning just for you.
What is the harm of running in the morning?
The main negative point that is allocated during morning runs is a stressful state for the body at the moment when it is not prepared for this. What is stress?
When a person wakes up, his body is not yet fully alert. He needs some time to organize his work. How much time must pass for this? There is no exact answer, since in this question the answer is exclusively individual.
At least, doctors say that the morning load on the heart, which will exceed 120 beats per minute, can harm human health. Therefore, they recommend training no earlier than 40-60 minutes from the moment the awakening occurred.
Associated with this and blood viscosity, which is observed in the body in the morning. Due to the fact that it becomes denser in the morning, the heart has to pump it through the body with greater force. In this regard, there may be muscle pain in the body of untrained people who decide to run the morning marathon.
No definitive conclusion
You can not give an exact answer to the question of what runs in the morning, the pros and cons. Reviews of people, doctors and other professionals can be found very different.
Some recommend running no earlier than 3-4 hours after waking up. Maybe this is right, but who in the modern world can afford such luxury? After all, 9 out of 10 people go to work every morning, and in order to meet this condition, they would have to get up at 3 in the morning. Although it would be easier to not go to bed at all.
Athletes, thinking about the pros and cons of running in the morning, highlight the main point being the ability to burn excess fat and increase endurance.
Those people who do not have a goal to lose weight or keep themselves in a certain weight category, recommend running some time after breakfast, so that the body has the strength to overcome such loads.
Speaking about the pros and cons of running in the morning, doctors tell about the need to respect the usual regime of the day. Indeed, in this case, you will have to get up a few hours earlier, which will lead to a deviation from the usual schedule. And this, again, is fraught with stress for the body.
Decide for yourself
Given the above pros and cons of running in the morning, try to listen to your body. If after every morning jog you feel just great, you have a lot of energy and positive emotions, then you should not hold back - keep up the good work. In this case, for your body, the benefits of running in the morning will be undeniable.
And if every morning you start with anger because you have to get up before dawn, or after a run you feel discomfort, then leave this activity for the evening.
To understand more in the technique of execution, you first need to know the exact definition of this type. So, shuttle run is characterized by a reusable passage of the same short distance in the forward and reverse direction.
The length of the distance varies from 10 to 100 m. The number of repetitions may be different. At the final stage, the athlete must run around an obstacle (usually a pillar) or touch the foot of the marked line.
Before you start classes, you must remember that this type of running is more traumatic. And this is due to a sharp change in the direction of movement at the end point of the distance. Therefore, in order to get a good result and avoid the occurrence of injuries, it is necessary to become familiar with the technique of execution and avoid possible mistakes.
- Since the load on the body in these exercises is large, it is necessary to warm up and warm up the tendons and ligaments before training. It will save you from injury.
- First you need to understand what foot jog to choose the right starting position. If you have a leading right lower limb, then bend it until your left hand touches the surface. The left leg at the same time performs a support function. Do not forget to keep your back straight. When the command “to start” is received, the body tilts as far forward as possible. For best results, you need to pick up the maximum speed from the first seconds of the race.
To develop the skill of fast running, you must perform jumping rope at a fast pace.
- The technique of this type involves a turn, for the passage of which it is necessary to apply stopping steps to help change the direction of the entire movement. Incorrect execution can cause injury. With the locking step, the fly foot is thrown forward, and the foot at this moment assumes a horizontal position with respect to the tibia. Proper execution of such an action will help maintain balance when turning.
- After this, a 180 ° C turn is made. Then the locking foot performs the running step, while pushing the supporting lower limb. So that when turning the precious seconds are not lost, you can not perform extra actions. For example, touch the line and rotate at the same time.
- Go to the finish. In this phase, you can use the tricks used by the sprinter to first touch the final line. For example, lunge shoulder or throw chest forward. Only during the shuttle run you need to finish at the maximum speed.
The benefit of this type of exercise is a complex load that develops:
In addition, positive changes occur in the body, such as:
- trains the cardiovascular system
- improves blood flow and metabolic processes,
- the body is cleansed of toxins,
- weight is reduced,
- immunity strengthens,
- fatigue is removed.
Despite all the advantages that are available in the shuttle run technique, it has several drawbacks. The main disadvantage of this type is possible injury. Therefore, you must always remember this, and beginners to begin jogging with caution. Also, older people cannot include such workouts in their sports programs.
Who can not?
Before embarking on these exercises, you should familiarize yourself with the contraindications. So, you can not get involved in shuttle run, if there is:
- cardiovascular diseases,
- varicose veins of the lower extremities,
- poor circulation,
- heart attack
- any disease in the acute stage.
Older people are also recommended more benign types of physical activity, for example, Nordic walking.
Shuttle run not only helps athletes improve their skills, but also improves physical fitness of non-professional amateurs. And in addition, uplifting and giving a charge of cheerfulness.
What do doctors warn
First of all, experts note that you should not start to run in the winter, if you did not run in the summer. The fact is that it takes time to adapt muscles and rebuild the immune system, so it is not only wrong, but even dangerous to start training in the extreme conditions of winter. In this case, instead of the desired weight loss and a sense of cheerfulness, you will feel wild fatigue, and your kilos will remain in place. But there is a much more important problem. Beginners who have not yet learned to control their breathing while running, risk to “pick up” the frosty air, which can turn into a cold, and even the development of pneumonia.
But even if you were actively running in warm weather and became “yours” long ago on an icy treadmill, you cannot begin winter runs if your immunity is reduced due to a previous operation or a long-term, and possibly recently suffered, illness. Sudden temperature drops will be an additional stress for your body's defense system and may not withstand the onslaught of pathogenic microbes. That is, start training, just making sure that your immunity is in order. And also visit a dentist and check your teeth for caries, because the disease processes in the mouth, multiplied by rapid breathing with cold air, can easily turn into angina and inflammation of the bronchi.
Factors complicating running in winter
If you are in perfect order with immunity, and the desire to run with the onset of cold weather has not disappeared, you can safely go outside, having familiarized yourself with factors that complicate winter runs. These include:
- an increased chance of catching the flu and catching a cold
- low temperatures, cold winds and the presence of snow drifts,
- high risk of injury due to icy conditions and poor adhesion of shoes with the road,
- the need to additionally warm themselves and run in warm clothes,
- laziness, which in the winter prevents you from exercising at times stronger,
- low solar activity, resulting in running in pitch darkness,
- low number of endorphins, which in winter, in the background of cold weather and deficiency of the sun is produced many times less,
- the absence of the company, because finding a partner who agrees to run with you along the snow-covered paths is not easy at all.
If the goal of your run is to lose weight, then in winter it is much more difficult to achieve this. It is no secret that for a systematic weight loss by running, each run should last at least 30 minutes with a pulse of at least 140 beats per minute. In winter, when there are snowdrifts and slippery surfaces under your feet, and a cold wind blows in your face, it is extremely difficult to maintain the necessary intensity. By the way, for jogging, which are designed to improve immunity and encourage people, this does not apply.
Separately, let us say about the surface of the tracks for winter runs and take off related problems. The fact is that real athletes, especially residents of large cities, routinely run in the early morning or late evening, when there is much less exhaust from cars. However, here the “runners” face another problem - the icing of the tracks. Early in the morning, the tracks still do not have time to clear ice, and in the late evening they are not cleaned at all. Add to this the fact that it is necessary to run in the morning and in the evening in the dark, which, coupled with the slippery surface of the tracks, significantly increases the chance of slipping and getting injured.
How to run in the winter
Winter runs are significantly different from running in the summer, and therefore we list the basic rules that must be followed while running in the winter.
1. When and how much to run
Professional athletes say that winter runs should be done 2 hours after waking up or 4 hours before sleep. However, this is rather true for real masters who run 40–70 minutes in a training mode for a runner. If you set a goal to strengthen the immune system and lose weight, you can run for 30-40 minutes, starting a run 30 minutes after lifting. For a tangible effect of such winter workouts, you will need at least 4 lessons per week for at least half an hour.
2. Race route
Considering the danger of running in the winter, one day before class you should go out and check the route of running, making sure that you will not encounter snowdrifts and icy areas on the way. In addition, if you are just starting to run, you should follow the planned route and measure the duration of the distance.
3. The temperature outside the window
Before jogging you should definitely look at the thermometer. Our country is large and in each region the temperature regime in winter is different, and therefore it is up to you to decide what exactly the “critical” mark should be in order to refuse to run. However, doctors and women are not recommended to women and girls to run at a temperature of –15 ° C and below. And if the temperature drops below –20 ° C, the representatives of the stronger sex can also walk. In addition, it is worth refusing to run when the weather deteriorates, because the risk of injury from a strong snowstorm or snow and rain increases greatly. In any case, you should be guided by common sense and make informed decisions.
4. Warm up before running
Both in summer and in winter, you should not start training without stretching your muscles. This is especially important in the cold period, because in the cold the muscles are very easy to injure. And given that warming up in the cold is dangerous to health, do not rush to dress and run out into the street. Just walk around the house, do a few squats, stretching your legs, back and back of your hips. Perform basic gymnastic exercises for 3-5 minutes, and without running clothes, so that she does not get wet from sweat. Then get dressed and go jogging!
5. Winter clothes for running
Special attention should be paid to proper equipment. Ideally, you should use a special flaky sportswear and thermal underwear, and not pull on a pair of sweaters and not wrap the neck with a scarf. Blown-away places, such as the arms, head, and waist, should be safely covered from the cold. При этом помните, что во время пробежки температура организма повышается, а значит одеваться нужно с поправкой на это. К примеру, если за окном –15°C, одевайтесь, будто на улице –5°C. В этом случае вы не продрогнете, и не будете исходить потом во время бега. Что же касается обуви, то учитывая скользкую обледенелую поверхность, купите для занятий качественные шиповки.
6. Дыхание во время бега
Если вы никогда не бегали зимой, начинать будет непросто. In order not to “pick up” the frosty air and not to chill the throat, it is important to learn how to breathe through the nose. When a person breathes in through the nose, the frosty air has time to warm up due to the network of capillaries. And this is a reliable protection against inflammation of the bronchi. True to beginners, it is extremely difficult to ensure the full function of the muscles when breathing through the nose, and therefore they often switch to mouth breathing, or even stop running. And it is absolutely impossible to stop while running in winter, because in this case you can easily get sick.
7. Listening to music
As for listening to vigorous music while jogging, it really helps the runner, especially if he trains alone. The main thing is that the headphones are not inserted into the auricles, but were ear-ear. And the player should not burden you or interfere with free running. Ideal in this regard would be the player "clip".
8. How to complete a run
It is best to complete the workout near your home in order to immediately get into a warm, wind-blown room from the cold. Having come home, first of all, take off all your clothes, turn them inside out and dry them. Do not forget to get the insoles from spikes. After that, take a shower and drink warm tea. You can also replenish glycogen stores by replacing tea with grapefruit or grapefruit juice. If you wish, you can eat an apple, a banana or some grain bread, but it is better to start eating a full meal no earlier than in an hour.
Pros from winter runs
Of course, not everyone decides to do jogging on the air in winter. The absolute majority will prefer them a treadmill in a fitness club. But those who agree to step over obstacles and practice on the street will receive as a reward:
- steel hardening, because the body gradually adapts to endure low temperatures,
- powerful immunity - by coping with the cold, the person will receive additional protection against colds and forget about the flu and ARVI,
- increased endurance - winter weather and the need to overcome obstacles will significantly increase the overall endurance of the body,
- a more developed respiratory system - during winter runs, the functionality of the respiratory system is noticeably improved (pulmonary walls thicken and lung volume increases)
- the best work of the heart - regular running in the frosty air strengthens the myocardium, which begins to pump blood more actively and deliver it to all organs and systems without failures,
- the best properties of blood - winter air provokes blood liquefaction, as a result of which the risk of vascular blockage and thrombosis development is reduced,
- a burst of energy - while running in the winter, an athlete passes a large number of negatively charged particles (aeroions) through the lungs, due to which he feels cheerful and positive throughout the day,
- developed will power - having overcome yourself and having left the “comfort zone” for the sake of jogging, you will receive another confirmation of the strength of your personality.
As you can see, running in the winter is definitely a good lesson, both in terms of increasing endurance and strengthening immunity, and for correcting your figure. It is only important not to forget about safety and not to risk your health in vain.
Take care of yourself!
Introduction to shuttle run
The word “shuttle” is often used to refer to the details of the sewing machine to which the thread is attached. She walks up and down, threading through the fabric. Thanks to this invention, the manual labor of creating, for example, clothes has become fully automated.
Shuttle run got its name because of the constant change of direction. This is usually a run between two points back and forth. More often they start from point A, run to point B, they turn around (around point B) and run back to point A. For one race, athletes move from A to B up to 10 times.
Shuttle run is a TRP standard, a mandatory standard for physical education classes in schools. For athletes, this is a great option to work out coordination and a quick change in the direction of running with maximum speed preservation.
Today shuttle running is a type of training, a type of running that anyone can practice.
Features of shuttle run
You will ask why run in the image of the shuttle, if there are interval runs, jogging. We will explain: these are different types of load. This is what happens during the shuttle run:
- You start on the principle of a sprinter, in the first seconds developing a maximum speed. And now, once you have developed this speed, you run up to the turning point. We must try to turn around without slowing down. But inertia will not give you that, believe me.
- Usually at the reversal point you need to touch the floor or some flag, or move the object. In this case, all this is called the shuttle run with the transfer of 2-3 objects. You understand, to maintain speed in this case is unreal, because you need to stop, change direction 180 degrees and accelerate again.
- And so, you change the speed, accelerates, and again at the starting point you need to slow down.
So you look like a shuttle that runs back and forth. This is a complex load that develops coordination, speed, balance and motor muscles. All this is necessary for any ball game, hockey, martial arts.
Since the load in this type of running is big, you need to warm up well before training. Otherwise, you risk injury.
Shuttle run options
Usually the distance between two points in this kind of athletics is 10 meters, 9 or 7-8 meters. For men and women, the distances are different. Running 10 meters is done 4–10 times.
There are many different options: you need to run around the extreme points of the distance, in one direction we run face forward, and back - backwards.
Therefore, the types of shuttle run differ in the technique of execution, the number of segments, and the distance between points A and B (recall that point A is the start, and B is the place of turning or changing the direction of the run).
There is a shuttle run 10x10, shuttle run 3x10. The school practiced shuttle run 4x9. There may be many variations. And this is good athletics - a variety of options makes it an interesting sport.
The shuttle run technique helps to avoid injuries and achieve a better result. Let's take it apart.
In the shuttle run technique of execution involves the following basic provisions and stages.
Starting position - stand, one leg forward, the center of gravity of the body on it. One arm is pulled back and is ready to help at the start, moving the body weight further forward.
When the start team sounds, the body leans further forward, the jog leg does its job, and the second is preparing to quickly take over. Someone recommends running toes for greater speed. Start as you prefer. The main thing is that the speed was good.
Everything, you started. Task number one is to pick up the maximum speed in the first 2 seconds.
Running to point B is a simple matter. But what to do when you reached her? How to run further? You need to start carrying your body's center of gravity back at such a distance from point B, so that your speed drops to the right turn for it at that point, and not earlier or later. In the first case, you risk losing time, and in the second - to run away beyond the desired point.
If you run back your back, everything is easier. You extinguish speed, bending around point B, and run back. If you need to turn around, you lean in the direction of turning like a motorcyclist so that inertia does not take you anywhere.
At point A, do the same as in B.
If you need to lift any object, you can apply emergency braking with the seizure of the object. But this means that your speed will go to zero and you will have to accelerate again. At this stage, you can seriously lose precious seconds. Still, the shuttle run is a sprint race.
Thus, the technique of running solves a lot.
Conditions for the shuttle run
So, now you know how to run the shuttle run. Consider what the requirements for environmental conditions are presented by this sport.
The surface should not be slippery. That is, you can not run on the shuttle type in the rain, ice. In such cases, it is better to move to the gym, otherwise you will stretch out on the asphalt, showing the worst result in your life.
Points A and B should be in a place where there are no walls, fences, or any obstacles. Otherwise you risk flying into them at full speed. From the side it looks ridiculous, but the participant of the collision may face injury, as well as falling on a slippery surface.
For optimal running you need to wear comfortable non-slip sneakers, carefully lace up. A lace untied during a run can also cause a fall. And you will have no time to tie it. Every second counts.
Clothing should not interfere with your movement. But too free, hanging on you like a bag, also does not fit - it will slow down.
How to start to run on the shuttle type
Shuttle trainings are carried out at low speeds. Task number one is to teach the body to move properly, to feel speed and to respond adequately to its change.
If you run fast in the first training sessions, there will be little confusion. First, we accustom the body to the correct technique, then we work out at higher speeds!
And do not forget to warm up your muscles before running. Without a warm-up, you can easily pull something.
Method of running a shuttle
Answering the question of what shuttle running is, we should mention: this technique got its original name due to the analogy with the movement of the shuttle in a loom. So in the shuttle race - the athlete must run the same distance several times back and forth, while performing a U-turn at its end points by 180 degrees.
Shuttle run is performed in such options:
- 3 times 10 m,
- 10 times 10 m,
- 4 times 9 m,
- 3 times 30 m,
- 4 times 30 m each
- 10 times 30 m,
- 3 times 50 m,
- 3 times 100 m,
- 4 times 100 m,
- 10 times 100 m.
These are traditional distances, which suggest NFP, but, in principle, there are no restrictions on combining individual distances for training.
The standards of shuttle running 10x10 for employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation are presented in the table:
What gives shuttle run
Due to its effectiveness, shuttle running is widely used in a variety of sports: all types of athletics, crossfit, fitness, training athletes of martial arts and athletes, winter and team sports, even in the warm-up swimmers.
Using shuttle run contributes to:
- Increased muscle mass and explosive leg strength.
- Strengthen the work of the heart and respiratory system.
- Increase the overall endurance of the body.
- Development Coordination.
- The ability to control the process and properly develop the ability to distribute power.
The practical benefits of this type of training are also in the overall physical development of the athlete and the average person, general health promotion, the ability to quickly improve physical fitness during the recovery period after injuries. It is also noted that the regular execution of the shuttle run contributes to rapid weight loss.
Features of running a shuttle
Naturally, training requires a special shuttle run technique at each of the stages:
- jogging with acceleration,
- preparation for the turn and the turn itself,
- home stretch.
The continuation of the distance is performed in one algorithm, only a jerk is added to the finish line.
In principle, for those who use shuttle run in training, his technique is the same for distances of different lengths and does not depend on the number of repetitions. The only feature: depending on the length of the run and how many times it will be completed, we must learn to choose the optimal pace of movement. The rule is the same as in athletics:
- short distances must immediately be performed with great intensity and the use of all the power potential,
- long distances with a large number of repetitions in the first half should be performed at an average pace, saving energy, and after passing the equator - increase the speed and maximally give everything to the last segment of the distance.
These rules are relevant for professional athletes who go to the record, or when you need to pass the standard. When training for general development, shuttle run can be performed at any convenient pace.
Technique of running the shuttle run in stages
As we mentioned, running by a shuttle includes 4 stages. Each of them has its own subtleties, and if you understand them, then the effectiveness of training will be maximum. The presented algorithm applies to people with traditional right-handedness. Lefties can perform everything in mirror mode.
An important point: before the passage of the distance, a warm-up must be performed - at least 3-5 minutes so that the body smoothly proceeds to high-intensity loads.
Stage 1. Start
- The position is performed from a high start. The supporting leg is in front, the center of gravity is moved to it. The maximum stress is on quadriceps.
- The body is tilted forward, the arms are bent at the ribs, the back is straight. Start explosive, which contributes to the well-developed muscles of the legs.
Stage 2. Run of the first segment
The first part of the distance must be run quickly, so the landing is applied only on the toe, and not on the entire foot. Movement springy, uniform.
Stage 3. Turn 180 degrees
It is executed in the following algorithm:
- per meter before turning the speed is abruptly reset,
- a stopping step is performed when the foot of the front foot is placed 90 degrees and then the other 90 degrees are rotated - this technique preserves the inertia of movement and provides a quick set of speed for the next segment.
Stage 4. Finishing
It is customary to make the final jerk, that is, the speed of movement should increase to the very finish line, and then slowly slow down.
Video run shuttle can help to learn how to run the shuttle run correctly.
Errors during training
The most frequent typical mistakes are made by novice athletes, and most often at long distances. They are:
- Lack of warm-up. This significantly, almost a third, removes the effectiveness and efficiency of shuttle running.
- Wrong calculation of their strength, endurance and load. We repeat - the first part is performed at an average pace, and then smoothly we increase the intensity of movement.
- Do not start with large loads - even trained athletes. Beginners generally recommended low-intensity cardio, for example, a 3x10 or 4x9 shuttle run. Selection immediately loads a large amount can cause irreparable harm to the body.
- Wrong choice of technique and frequency of breathing. To run the shuttle, you need to breathe in 2 by 2 mode, that is, you should take two steps during inhalation and in the same way during exhalation.
The program for beginners
From the foregoing, it is clear that trainings by shuttle run must be performed on an incremental basis: both in time and in length, and in intensity. Occupations should not be more often 2 times a week for the first month and not more than 3 times later. It is necessary to restore muscles and replenish energy costs.
Training will be equally effective both in the stadium and in the gym.
The algorithm of classes for the first month of training in order of number:
- Run 4 to 9 three times.
- Run 4 to 9 - five times.
- Two runs 4 to 9 and 4 to 15.
- Five runs 4 through 15.
- Twice the race 4 to 10 and three times the race 4 to 20.
- Once run 4 to 20 and once 10 to 10.
- 10x10 run twice.
- Two or three times the 10x10 race.
Between the races there should be a short break of 4–5 minutes with the passage of light breathing exercises or light exercises. If, due to lack of physical fitness in this mode, it is difficult to train, reduce the number of races, and stretch the program for two months.
Finally. Shuttle run does not apply to independent sports disciplines, but it is an important component of training athletes in almost all sports, helps to improve individual performance, as well as effective for the overall health of the population.