In the Christian tradition, baptism is one of the most important religious sacraments. Only after carrying out this rite is the person becoming the son of God / the daughter of God, since he accepted faith as Jesus Christ said.
Many people with the sacrament of baptism have many questions. And if the task of buying everything necessary for the process of baptism can be solved in the baptismal store, then in terms of faith, things are more complicated.
However, a large number of people, nevertheless, the question arises why it is necessary to baptize a child in infancy. Is it not better to wait until the baby grows up, begin to more or less realize the purpose of this rite, understand the meaning of baptism, understand the essence of faith?
In the Orthodox Church, it is believed that baptism in infancy is necessary because, as stated in the most important Christian prayer, the “Symbol of Faith”, baptism removes the original sin that each of us inherits from our parents. In general, the “Symbol of Faith” prayer in the process of baptism plays a very important, if not to say the most important role.
In preparation for the very ceremony of baptism, it is highly recommended that the “Symbol of Faith” be read, understood, and it is highly desirable to remember this prayer before baptism. In general, the rite of baptism is something like rebirth, a person is born into a new life. After all, in order to receive the love of God and Eternal life, every person must be born in the Faith of God.
The value of the sacrament
A person can be baptized at any age. But despite this, the question of whether to baptize an infant / child is asked quite often. So, what are the counter-arguments put forward by opponents of the baptism of children?
First, the first argument of all opponents of the baptism of children is that choosing for children in favor of baptism is very bad, it is violence, let when the child grows up, he will decide for himself to be baptized or not to be baptized. However, let's see here. Throughout the upbringing of the child, parents are constantly faced with the fact that they are forced to make choices for their children.
Parents choose their children almost everything: school, place of residence, which sections the child will attend, try to instill in the child their own understanding of good and evil. In a word, they try to introduce the child to their value system. But after all, baptism is not a simple change of status for a person in the heavenly office, for a person who has received baptism is, first of all, the acquisition of a large number of new opportunities.
The whole question in this issue is how parents perceive God. If for both parents God is the most important and most valuable in their lives, then such parents would never even think of not baptizing their child, leaving their child without the Lord God. If for parents God is only a part of culture, one of the forms, so to speak, of knowing the world, then they may well hide behind the thought that the child, when he grows up, will choose to be baptized by him, or not to be baptized.
Secondly, the next argument of all opponents of the baptism of children is that there is no special need for the baptism of children, since a baby under seven years old is already sinless. It is true that children under the age of seven in the Orthodox tradition are considered babies who are not able to answer for their actions, and, therefore, confession is not obligatory for them. But children are not free from original sin, from which baptism is set free.
Moreover, in the absence of baptism, children do not have access to numerous opportunities: they cannot take communion, they cannot celebrate their angel's day (since they simply do not have one), they can only pray at home for unbaptized children, since this cannot be done in the church.
In any case, the decision to baptize, or not to baptize the crumbs, should be made not by grandmothers, grandfathers, friends, but only by parents only.
Do I need to baptize babies? one
In the Orthodox Church, the question of whether to baptize children never stood. Children can be baptized! The sacrament of baptism is not a legal reconciliation with God, not a dedication, attached to some secret knowledge. The sacrament of Baptism is the inculcation of a twig to the Tree of Life, to Christ. To be born again, from above, to enter into a close grace-filled union with the Lord.
Is it possible only for an adult.
The legitimacy of infant baptism, wrote Protopresbyter John Meyendorff, “does not rely on the idea of“ sin ”, which can make babies guilty in God's eyes and needing baptism for the sake of justification, but that at all stages of life, including infancy, a person needs , to be “born again,” that is, to begin a new and eternal life in Christ. After all, the “conscious adult” cannot fully comprehend the ultimate eschatological goal of the new life. ”2
This is not the opinion of the modern Orthodox theologian, but the general statement of the holy fathers: “If the only meaning of baptism was the abandonment of sins, why would baptized newborns who had not yet had time to taste sin? But the Sacrament of Baptism is not limited to this; Baptism is the promise of great and most perfect gifts. It is the essence of the promises of future joys, it is the image of the future resurrection, communion with the Passion of the Lord, participation in His Resurrection, the robe of salvation, the vestment of joy, the vestments [woven] of light, or rather the light itself (Bl. Theodore Kiry) 3.
So, baptism introduces man into fellowship with God. Turn to face God, believe - anyone can, and not a baptized person. But completely different - baptized. This is a person who wants not only to believe in God, or in something higher, respecting religious ideas ... This is a person who wished to connect with the lord take root to the Lord ... Desiring to begin a completely new life, he passes through the rite of Baptism as a rite of dying ... To die as Christ died, and immediately rise, as He rose from the dead. And from now on, having united with the Lord, to live with Him in unity.
That is why we baptize children.
Many scriptures speak of the importance of baptism. For us, the truth and truth of the words of Christ are undoubted: if one is not born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God (John 3: 5) 4. Why, even formally speaking, should we ignore this text and refuse baptism to babies? The Savior himself persuaded his disciples notprevent children from coming to Him, «for of such is the kingdom of God (Mk.10: 14).
Children are not godless, they would like to live with God 5, why will we prevent them from doing so?
This should be especially mentioned, since voices are heard here and there about the senselessness of the baptism of young children. But is it not possible that the Jewish babies were happier than the Christian ones, because the ceremony of joining the People of God (through circumcision) was performed on the eighth day after birth?
Does a baby have a conscious faith? Well from that, it is impossible to reduce all the mental and spiritual activity of man to the work of the mind.
And following what intellectual movements, John the Baptist, while still in the womb, felt the approach of the Savior of the world, also still in an embryonic state?
When Elizabeth heard Mary's greeting, leaped baby in her womb, and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost (Luke 1: 41).
God sanctifies children before birth, as the prophet Jeremiah Himself says (Jer. 1: 5):
Before I formed you in the womb, I knew you, and before you came out of the womb, I consecrated you…
And later the Apostle Paul will also say this (Gal.1: 15):
…God who chose me from my mother's womb and called me by his grace ....
We do not know if babies were baptized in the first century, but we don’t have evidence to the contrary, on the contrary, we find evidence of the Baptism of entire families:
Lydia (she was baptized and her family - Acts 16: 15)
Prison Guard (and all who were in his house - Acts 16: 31,33)
Crisp (Crisp, the head of the synagogue, believed in the Lord with his whole house - Acts 18: 8),
Stefan (I also baptized Stephan's house - 1Cor.1: 16).
It is unlikely that in all these newly baptized families there would be no young children.
We can also recall several Old Testament types of Baptism, which will convince us that children, just like adults, are not rejected by God from the People of God. The first such prototype - the passage through the Red Sea. Passed all of Israel with babies, and for the Apostle Paul this is a sign of the future of Baptism:
“I do not want to leave you, brethren, in the ignorance that our fathers were all under a cloud, and all passed through the sea, and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and at sea” (1 Cor. 10: 1-2).
If all Israelites were delivered by God from Egyptian captivity and all were baptized in Moseswhy it is necessary to reject Baptism into Christ and the mystery of deliverance from sinful captivity. If we recall that in the consciousness of the Jew, the Jewish people are the “Assembly of God”, “The Community of God”, “The People of God”, that any circumcised Israeli baby 6 was involved in this, and the Christians as successors of these promises are new people of god it is easy to conclude from here: Christian babies are also involved in this new people, the church.
“And in the pages of the Gospel, we see that Christ concludes the New Testament not with Peter and not with John, but with the new people of God, to the Covenant Cup, poured out“ for you and for many, ”Christ invites“ all. ” God gives his grace and protection not just to one individual, but to a community of people — the Church. ”7
“Christ is not only the bearer of the eternal News, which He repeats one by one to every surprised person, but the One in whom humanity finds an unexpected solution to the problem of its organic unity.” 8
How a Jew became a member God's people through circumcision, so the christian babe is made a member People of the New Testament through baptism 9.
We know that in the 2nd century babies were baptized both in the West and in the East, as evidenced by the fathers and teachers of the Church 10. At over. Irinea read:
“Christ came to save all, through Himself, all, I say, who are born from Him to God — infants, youths, young men and old men.” 11
"The Church accepted the tradition from the apostles to teach baptism and babies." 12
In the Apostolic Tradition of St. Hippolyte of Rome (circa 215) said:
“Put on the clothes and first of all baptize the children. All those who can talk about themselves, let them speak. For those who cannot speak about themselves, let their parents or one of their relatives speak. ”13
From this fragment it follows that even very small children who could not speak were allowed to be baptized. But if from words of sv. Hippolyta, we still can not find out how old the children were baptized, then from the words of St. Cyprian of Carthage becomes clear that baptized them, not even postponing until the eighth day of birth, namely, on the second and third day 14 .
At the Local Carthage Council in 252, which was presided over by sv. Cyprian, it was said:
"... not to prohibit [Baptism] an infant who, barely born, did not sin in anything, except that, having come from Adam's flesh, he perceived contagion of ancient death through birth itself, and which is more convenient to start accepting absolution, that not his own, but others' sins are released to him ”15.
St. Cyprian writes to the addressee about the past Council:
“At our Council such a definition took place: we should not remove anyone from Baptism and the grace of God, to all who are merciful, good and indulgent. If it is necessary to hold on to everyone, then especially, as we think, it is necessary to observe this in relation to newborn babies, who already deserve primarily our help and God's mercy, that from the very beginning of their birth they offer one prayer with their tears and tears " sixteen .
At a later time, the practice has not changed. And sv. John Chrysostom (in the East), and of sv. Ambrose Mediolansky, blazh. Augustine (in the West) confirms that the baptism of children was a common practice, and they are building this practice by the time of the apostles 17. But the 124th Rule of the Carthaginian Council (year 418):
"Who rejects the need for the baptism of small, newborn babies from the womb, or says that although they are baptized for the remission of sins, they do not borrow anything from the ancestral Adam's sin, that it would be necessary to wash with the bath of pakibytiya, let it be anathema ... And the babies they have not yet been able to do any sins by themselves, they are truly baptized for the remission of sins, but through pakirozhdenie what they have taken from their old birth will be cleansed in them. ”18
If there were disputes at the time, it is not about whether at all baptize infants, and as to the age at which to baptize children 19.
Near the fifth century, almost only children are baptized in the Church. However, the dates of baptism fluctuate. At one time they were baptized at 8 days and at 40, but the most popular practice was the baptism of a child after several years after birth. St. Gregory the Theologian wrote:
“What can we say about babies who do not understand what grace is, or what punishment is. Do you baptize them? Certainly if danger was due. Regarding others, I give advice to wait three years or a little more, or less, so that they can hear and repeat the right words of the sacrament at all and if not completely, at least, figuratively understand it. ”20
In Late Byzantium and in Ancient Russia they also usually baptized after a few years after birth. In the XI century, the Metropolitan of Kiev John (d. 1080) to the question: "Is it possible to baptize a newborn child, if it hurts. »Answers:
“... relatively healthy [child]. Fathers ordered to wait three or more years. But for sudden deaths, the term is shorter, but if it hurts at all, let it be 8 days, even less so that it does not die unbaptized. To baptize such babies, at whatever day and time the death danger insisted. ”21
Novgorod Bishop Nifont (XII century) to the question how long you can postpone the baptism of children, answered:
“There is no sin for a male even up to ten years old, but don’t ask about girls, for they can quickly sin with you in their youth.” 22
The attention in this text is attracted not by the discrimination of girls, but by the fact that the term of Baptism is gradually being postponed: from infancy to conscious (more and more) age 23.
Here it is important to recall that, according to Orthodox understanding, baptism is not general children, but children only christian parents.
“According to the basic Jewish consciousness, descendants are included in ancestors, and ancestors are contained in their descendants. The circumcision committed by Moses was related not only to those who were circumcised, but to all their descendants. By virtue of this, Abraham became the father of many nations (Romans 4:17). Birth from Christian parents is a testimony for the Church that God calls children born from them to the Church. Therefore, we cannot say that the Baptism of infants violates their free will, since children do not have this free will at all, as we do not say that physical birth violates the free will of children born. ”24
“Born from believing parents, enters the world as God-called into the Church. Through the baptism performed by the Church, he becomes a member of the Body of Christ. His active life in the Church depends on his later faith. The latter is the personal response of the baptized in childhood to the call of God. At the same time, this faith is his response to the Church, which, on the basis of God's call, baptized him. This answer may be positive and negative, but in one case and the other it remains a member of the Church. It is impossible to blot out the fact of physical birth, so you cannot blot out the fact of spiritual birth. By virtue of his birth, he is simultaneously residing in the present eon, but belonging to the future eon. It depends on the baptized to realize their membership in the Church. The responsibility for this realization lies not only with him, but also with the Church, which, on the basis of the faith of his parents, baptized him, and consequently, on his parents. ”25
However, understanding the practice of the baptism of children has undergone a disastrous change for a thousand years.
“When adults were baptized, personal and free faith ... remained a prerequisite for admission to the Church. For minors and babies, their personal faith was replaced by the faith of their parents ... In the formula Faith - Baptism The first part, which is absent in children and infants, is replaced by the faith of their parents at the time of Baptism. Replacing the personal faith of baptized children with the faith of their parents opened up the possibility of not appropriately transferring personal faith to others if the parents' faith was insufficient or lacked it at all. This, in turn, opened up a breakthrough in the doctrine of the sacrament of baptism, which opened wide access to coercion and violence incompatible with the nature of the sacrament. The baptism of children from unknown parents ... from non-Christian parents ... from mixed marriages indicates the widespread place that coercion has taken in administering the sacrament of baptism.
It is only necessary to be surprised that in Byzantium and in the West in the Middle Ages the state and church authorities did not extend coercion to baptism of all babies, regardless of whether they were born from Christian or from non-Christian parents. ”26
Today there is another paradoxical situation. Детей приносят ко Крещению неверующие люди 27 и в восприемники детям выбирают своих неверующих друзей. И крестят не для того, чтобы приобщить к Церкви, а чтоб здоровенький был, так положено, няня иначе отказывается с ребенком сидеть и проч.
Нелишне напомнить, что долг пастыря – не профанировать Таинство, а, выяснив причины, побудившие крестить младенца, и условия его дальнейшего воспитания, поговорив с восприемниками и получив представление о мере их церковности, составить мнение: стоит ли такого младенца крестить, или нет.
В Православной Церкви детей крестят так же, как и взрослых, трижды погружая в воду. The same prayers are read over children as over adults (except in ancient times, when a child was baptized, sometimes the prayers of announcement were lowered or shortened).
It is necessary to mention that from the very first day of the child’s life the Church has been surrounded by his care and attention.
There are special ranks dedicated to mother and baby. The first one is Prayers on the first day, after the birth of the boyfriend.
The birth of a child is a long-awaited and happy event, especially if both the mother and the child are healthy. The natural reaction of the Christian heart is to thank God for this gift and ask that He continue to support his mother and child and protect them from demonic obsessions and dangerous accidents. That is why the Church has established special prayers on the first day of a child’s life.
“When a baby is born of a godly wife, the priest comes and glorifies God, thanks to man was born into the world (John 16:21). Then, he signifies, blesses the newborn and prays (God) for the newborn to be alive and worthy of baptism and anointing. By asking the mother for all that is needed for salvation, he teaches grace and sanctification to those who are with her ... ”28
In ancient times, the priest sprinkled the house of the woman in labor blessed by the priest 29 with water 30, then he marked the baby with the sign of the cross “on the forehead, for the mind, and on the lips, for the word and the breath, and for the heart, for the life force, let him stay under saving baptism "31.
On the 8th day, the child is given a name, through the special rite of the Book of Trebnik, called today: Prayer, when he prescribes the adolescent, accepts the name on his birthday (see section Prayers over the mother and child).
Then we have the child baptized, whereas in Byzantium and in Ancient Russia the child was first churched, that is, on the 40th day they performed the rite of bringing the children of Christian parents to the Holy Church and to the temple 32.
In Protestant Communities, the issue of of reality Baptism perpetrated on babies remains controversial.
Lutherans recognize children's baptism, and, for example, Baptists reject, on the basis of the statement that baptism is possible only as a conscious acceptance of the atonement granted by Christ 33.
Recognizing child baptism, Lutherans usually refer to:
a) the unconscious faith that the infant has (Luther wrote that faith does not disappear when a person is sleeping),
b) to the statement that the child is baptized by the faith of the parents (in the broader sense, we can say that according to the faith of the church, as they say Lutherans) 34.
Moreover, Luther wrote that with the Baptism of infants we should not hesitate, for we can be confident in their faith more than in the faith of adults: if the latter can consciously resist the grace of God, then infants cannot have conscious resistance 35.
1 Fragment from my book: The Sacrament of Entry into the Church. St. Petersburg: Neva - OLMA-PRESS. 2002. Ss. 121-132. ^
2 Meiendorf I. Protopres. Byzantine theology. M. 2002. p. 273. ^
3 Cit. by: Meyendorf I. Protopres. Byzantine theology ... p. 274. ^
4 Protestants also recall other words: “Who will believe and be baptized will be saved, and who will not believe will be condemned” (Mark 16:16). However, it is not difficult to see that these words do not say anything about children's baptism. They were told to the disciples when they went to preach, and they were addressed to adults who accepted Christ’s sermon. If such people believe, then, as a result, they will enter the Church (through Baptism) and will be saved. If they do not believe, they will be condemned. Here the emphasis is not on baptism, but on faith. ^
5 I can confirm these words with a personal testimony. My daughter, baptized in her infancy, was brought to the temple and participated in the sacraments of the Church from the very first years of her life. And she has felt God in her life since her conscious age. At 2-3 years old, when a child learns to speak, she composed her first prayers from the heart. When she was four years old, she knew by heart the basic church prayers and, most importantly, she knew what they were talking about, which means this or that Church Slavonic word. From the age of five, the child began to live a completely conscious spiritual life, I mean consciously resisting sin, repentance, if suddenly it turned out not to be high, fasting, attending worship services. All this without any pressure, without coercion, of their own accord. ^
The soul of a child reaches out to God. So, if, from infancy, to direct her towards God, to help her in this way, we will see both a three-year-old and a four-year-old conscious Christian.
6 That precisely circumcision was the seal of the belonging of a person to God's chosen people can be seen from the fact that a heathen could become a member only through circumcision. ^
7 Kuraev A., Deac. Is it possible to baptize children? Protestants about Orthodoxy. M. Ed. Moscow monastery of the Holy Trinity-Sergius Lavra. 1999. P. 68. This article is about. Andrei Kuraev, in my opinion, is the best contemporary work on this topic. ^
8 Bulletin des anciens eleves de Saint-Sulpise. 11/15/31. Quoted by: de Lubac A. Catholicism. Milan: Christian Russia. 1992. p. 284. ^
9 That baptism replaces circumcision can be clearly seen from the words of St. ap. Paul: “In Him you are circumcised by circumcision, not made by hands, by the removal of the sinful body of the flesh, by the circumcision of Christ” (Col.2: 11). Here it is clearly seen that circumcision of Christ is baptism. ^
10 Tertullian. About Baptism. 18. Tertullian himself condemns the practice of the baptism of children. In his characteristic sharp manner, he wrote: “... considering the peculiarities, character and even age of each person, it is more useful to delay with baptism, especially for small children. Why, if it is not so necessary, to endanger the godparents who themselves may not fulfill their promises, being mortal, or may be deceived by the manifestation of the evil inclinations of their successors? Meanwhile, the Lord said: Do not forbid them to come to me! So let them come when they grow up. Let them come when they study, when they are taught where to go. Let them become Christians when they could know Christ. What to rush to an innocent age for absolution? In worldly affairs, proceed more cautiously. How to entrust the affairs of heaven to those who are not trusted with earthly things? Let them learn to ask for salvation so that it will be clearly seen that You gave it to the one who asks. ”^
11 St. Irenaeus of Lyons. Against heresies. 2.22.4. Writings Per. prot. P. Preobrazhensky. SPb. 1900. ^
12 Interpretation on Ep. Paul to the Romans 1.5.9. Quoted by: Afanasyev N., Protopres. Joining the Church. Paris. 1952. (2 nd ed. M .: Pilgrim. Center for the Study of Religions. 1993.) p. 102. For a selection of Origen's quotes on this topic, see: A. Almazov. History of the rites of baptism and anointing (with applications). Kazan 1884. pp. 581-582. ^
13 St. Hippolytus of Rome. Apostolic Tradition. § 21. ^
14 See: St. Cyprian of Carthage. 46. Letter to Fidu on infant baptism. / Creations. Library of Fathers and Teachers of the Church. M .: "Pilgrim". 1999. p. 544. ^
15 St. Cyprian of Carthage. 46. Letter to Fida ... p. 546. ^
16 Ibid. Pp. 546-547. ^
17 See: N. Afanasyev, Protopres. Introduction ... S. 102, Diamonds A. History ... S. 586sl. ^
18 Cit. by: Book of Rules of sv. Apostle, sv. Ecumenical and Domestic and St. father. Ed. Holy Trinity Sergius Lavra. 1992. ^
19 Let me remind you that the three-year age was considered the most acceptable. ^
20 Migne. PG. t. 36, 400. Translation cited by: En. Riga. The service of the Russian Church before the Mongolian time. M. Ed. Moscow University. 1847. p. 13. ^
21 See: Russian Historical Library. Vi. Rules of Metropolitan John. Rule I. SPb., 1880. pp. 1-2. ^
22 Questions Kirik. § 49. Cit. by: G. Krechmar, prof. The ministry of the baptized to the world according to the testimony of the fathers of the Church // Theological Works. Sat 10. M. Ed. Moscow Patriarchate. 1973. p. 155. ^
23 Without giving a personal assessment of this fact, we refer to the interesting opinion of the Lutheran pastor and theologian prof. G. Krechmar. According to this view, such a gradual postponement of the term for infant baptism is associated with changes in the understanding of the meaning of baptism and, even more broadly, in the understanding of the Christian life itself. If the infant's baptism originally made him a member of the Body of Christ, the Church, opposing the sin-infected world, and the infant was involved in this opposition to the forces of evil and demonism from the first days of his life, then later, in the period of late Byzantium, the idea of personal salvation came to the fore. According to this idea, the task of man is to commit as little as possible. And if so, then why rush into baptism, the baby still does not commit sins ... (Krechmar G. The ministry of the baptized ... p. 155.) ^
24 N. Afanasyev, Protopres. Introduction ... p. 108. ^
26 Afanasyev N., Protopres. Introduction ... p. 113. ^
27 Of course, God alone knows the measure of faith of a person. But even if the faith is declared, however, if it is not church-oriented, not oriented to the church and to participate in the Eucharist, such faith is dead. ^
28 St. Simeon of Thessalonica. Talk about holy rituals and sacraments of the church. Writings SPb. 1856. § 26. ^
29 See: St. Simeon of Thessalonica. A conversation ... § 27. ^
30 It is noteworthy that such a custom has been preserved today in the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. There, the rite of the First Day is called Prayer over the wife in the day that she bore, and the blessing on so-called. "Babin water". In this rite, the third prayer is specifically dedicated to the blessing of the water that the woman will drink and with which she will sprinkle herself and the child. See: Requiem of the Bulgarian Church. Sofia: Edition of the Holy Synod. 1949. ^
31 St. Simeon of Thessalonica. A conversation ... § 27. ^
32 On the Internet, I met an interesting exchange of views on the term of infant baptism. Their opinions were expressed by quite ordinary, unchurched people who somehow came into contact with the baptism of children (their own or others). And most of the participants came to the conclusion that it is necessary to baptize either up to 4 months - then the child understands very little, keeps the head, is not afraid of strangers, and if you approach it with tenderness, it is unlikely to cry, or ... after 4-5 years. At this age, the child is already conscious, and if you carry out some preparatory work with him, he will not cry.
Experience shows that children, even after 5 months, and in general at any age, if the priest speaks in a soft voice, does not make sudden movements, smiles, most often behave calmly.
The problem here is that the child after six months may be nervous, because the mother is far from him and he is in the hands of someone else's aunt - the godmother. In fact, there is no problem for the mother to hold the baby in her arms. Let me remind you that, according to the tradition of ancient times, a woman cannot attend the temple until the 40th day. When on the 40th day in Russia the child was baptized, my mother stood in the narthex or to the side. And then, after Baptism, the priest read a permissive prayer over her.
But if a child is baptized older than 40 days (and this is a common occurrence today) from the day of his birth, then the permissive prayer of the mother can be read before the Mystery of Baptism! And the mother will be standing not far away, but near, and if the child is nervous, the mother can take him in her arms. ^
33 Some Baptists may, with difficulty, as a concession to the ecumenical dialogue, accept the Baptism of infants, perfect by the order of the Catholic Church: water baptism is followed by confirmation at a conscious age associated with personal confession of faith, but “such an option now seems unacceptable Baptist churches, since it represents a concession to ecumenical tendencies rather than a convincing theological position ”(Schweizer L. What kind of fellowship with other Christians can be recognized as Baptists? // Pages . St. Andrew M. Journal 1999-number 4: 4.) ^.
34 See: M. Erickson, Christian Theology. SPb .: "The Bible is for everyone." St. Petersburg Christian University. 1999. p. 922-923. ^
35 See: D. Muller, Christian Dogma. World Wide Printing Duncanville, USA. Lutheran Heritage Foundation. 1998. P. 592. ^