A healthy lifestyle is primarily a sport and a balanced diet. Sometimes a healthy workout of any sport can turn into unhealthy injury. Constant companions of physical exercises are not only success, weight loss, slim body, athletic achievements, but also injuries. An injury does not always mean a fracture or a bruise, it can be a sprain or other manifestations of an overload of muscles, joints, bones. Consider what sports injuries and 6 training satellites that can happen to anyone.
Sports injuries: objects and causes
Injuries during exertion can cause legs, arms, head, back. The main objects of sports injuries are ligaments, tendons, joints and bones. Although soft tissues are also affected, internal organs (in severe cases). Most often there are sprains of tendons and ligaments, as well as sprains, bruises.
Sprain is the breaking of tissues at the microscopic level without compromising the integrity or the complete tearing of tissues. The ankle and knee joints most often suffer.
Dislocation is a violation of congruence as a result of injuries or destructive processes (arthritis, arthrosis).
In simple words, when injured under mechanical stress, the end of the bone changes its normal physiological location. Dislocation can occur with violation of the integrity of the articular bag or without its displacement.
As for the reasons, they can be different, depending on the sport. These can be blows when wrestling, falling when skating or while climbing a hill, clashes in the game sports training, muscle overload in gymnastics, figure skating.
Injury number 1 Bruises in the first place in number
This type of injury is hard to predict. A bruise is damage to the tissues or organs without compromising their structural integrity. As a result of the bruise, soft tissues are affected, mobility is limited, discomfort and soreness in the damaged area is felt. Occurs after a collision or when falling, hitting.
How to handle: Apply ice to the injury to reduce pain or swelling. Best of all will help a special gel that is cooled in the freezer and does not harden. The gel will completely cover the injury site and cool. It is recommended to apply ice gadgets about 3 times a day.
Injury # 2: Tear or break after overload
The desire to perform a difficult asana or to make a sharp turn, jump or jump can turn into a rupture of ligaments or tendons. Tearing up the ligaments at the microscopic level brings less trouble; the affected area hurts most when the ligaments rupture. The recovery time after the rupture of the ligaments is significantly different from the microscopic strain. In the first case, the ligaments can recover in a week, and in the second - they can not cope in a month.
How to cope and what to do: as an assistant, take the ice, consult with a specialist about the use of painkillers ointments or gels. You should also not forget about the means for the rapid resorption of hematoma. Wrap the wound with a bandage or elastic bandage.
Injury number 3 Ankle injury
It is possible to turn the foot while running, while jumping or just while walking, if a stone hits under a heel. The situation may end with edema and the appearance of blue, the design of a sick ankle in gypsum and rest for a month. Sports injuries of the ankle are received by runners, football players, dancers, gymnasts and others.
What to do: it is better to start rehabilitation with treatment to the doctor. The specialist will advise how to get out of the existing injury: apply a plaster or just bandage, which drugs to use, which ointment to rub.
Trainers recommend that in order to protect the foot from injury or dislocation, you should wear the right shoes for training. Special sneakers with a rigid back and a wide sole can protect from sports injuries.
Trauma number 4 Lower back pain
This injury or symptom occurs through the fault of sports training or stoop, sedentary lifestyle, improper training techniques. In this case, sports injuries are not long in coming. In addition, back pain may be after a fall or bruise.
What to do: Strengthen your back muscles, sign up for a pool, do yoga, or start exercising at home.
Injury # 5 Cramps as an injury or symptom
Muscle cramps - a sign of the body about possible violations or overload. Cramps after workouts - this phenomenon will pass after the rest. But cramps during rest or in a dream - a sign of problems, which is worth exploring.
How to help: cramps occur as a result of a lack of potassium or magnesium, as well as other trace elements necessary for normal recovery after exercise. If convulsions are associated with a deficiency of potassium and magnesium, the cause may be a malfunction of the heart. Eat foods containing these trace elements, drink vitamin complexes.
Injury number 6 violation of heartbeat
Heart problems occur in many cases. Heart palpitations can occur with banal fatigue or during the storming of magnetic storms. But, there are cases when a chord in the heart makes itself felt or other diseases of the heart muscle. Therefore, before rushing headlong into sport, examine your heart and make sure that its accelerated beating is a consequence of overstrain and fatigue, and not a serious illness.
Sports injuries can happen both on the sports field and in the transition, the subway or at home. Take care of yourself and let sports be only fun!
Do not stop training
If you have injured a muscle, a tendon or a ligament, you should not limit movement at all: movement will help you recover faster. Exercises increase blood circulation around the injured area, so that tissues get nutrients faster and get rid of waste.
In addition, movement provides positive stress, which improves the formation of connective tissue. This is important because connective tissue grows where it is needed, where the body is under stress.
If during recovery you will not stress the injured place, it will not build enough connective tissue that can withstand the load when you return to your previous workout.
Therefore, keep repeating familiar movements, reducing their intensity. Perform them every day if this is possible and if your physical therapist has not forbidden to do this.
Work on the bugs
After an injury, the intensity of your workouts is greatly reduced, which means that it is time to work on your weaknesses. For many athletes the following is characteristic:
- mobility problems
- bad exercise technique
- inability to breathe properly
- lack of aerobic endurance.
If you don’t know your weaknesses, just remember what you hate doing the most, or ask a friend what he thinks you should work on.
Train your aerobic endurance
Aerobic exercise improves blood circulation, including in the injured area. This means that the cells get more nutrients, waste is removed more quickly, and recovery is accelerated.
Aerobic exercise has a positive effect on the work of the nervous system: they increase the parasympathetic tone, which provides the body with rest and recovery.
Two or three times a week, do aerobic training for 60–90 minutes. Instead of the usual long-term cardio, you can use a series of low-intensity controlled movements.
Learn to breathe correctly
Breathing stimulates the lymphatic system, digestion, blood flow, and immune system. All this speeds up recovery.
Medication, pain and anxiety due to injury or surgery affect the autonomic nervous system and bring down respiratory patterns. Due to impaired respiration, the optimal acid-base balance of the body is shifted, which leads to a cascade of negative reactions and slows recovery.
Therefore, perform breathing exercises every day, include them in your workouts, for example, between sets. This will help you not only recover faster, but also improve your performance in the future.
Injuries to shoulders, wrists, elbows
With such sports injuries, you can train your legs, bark muscles and a healthy arm.
Train your healthy arm
Load legs and buttocks
For recovery, remove the load from the back: take a break from squats and deadlifts. Instead, you can do other exercises for the legs and buttocks.
Lunges with weight in one hand:
Add explosive exercises. They are well trained lower body and do not overload the back.
Jumping on the cabinet:
Jumping out of a squat:
Jumping out of a squat on one leg:
Knee and ankle injuries
It is more difficult to train with leg injuries than with injuries of the upper body. But it is still possible.
Train your upper body
Even with an injured knee or ankle, you can do exercises on the upper body. Here are a few options that you can include in your workout:
Train your healthy leg
You can do exercises with a healthy leg.
Train your core muscles
Injuries to the lower back, hips, abdominals
The hardest thing is to continue to train when the bark muscles are injured, as they participate in almost any movement.
Try to find isolated exercises on the top of the body. For example, the bench press free weights lying on the floor or traction with the support of the chest on an inclined bench.
Thrust with chest support on an inclined bench
Do exercises with light weights, low intensity and excellent technique. Such a scheme of work will help improve blood circulation and activate the parasympathetic nervous system. After working approaches, perform breathing exercises.
Initial recovery phase
This stage can last from several weeks to months. At this time, inflammation and recovery are constantly going on in your body. Your goal is to fix the weak points and at the same time not to prevent the body from recovering, but, on the contrary, to encourage it.
Here is what should be included in the program during this period:
- 2-3 a week, spend time aerobic activity.
- Perform squats, bends, thrust, presses and other exercises. Keep a very low intensity, low weight and number of repetitions, do not use a sore spot.
- Perform breathing exercises every day.
- Concentrate on your weak points.
- Eat right to support immunity.
- Sleep at least eight hours a day. Sleep is of great importance for recovery.
- Move through the day. Go for a short walk, do 20–25 air squats, pushups, pull-ups or other light exercises every two hours.
- Avoid heavy strength exercises, anaerobic workouts, exhausting training sessions.
The middle stage begins when you stop using painkillers and are ready for a more aggressive load. At this time, you need to adhere to an exercise system that will provide the desired hormonal response for accelerated recovery.
Alternate workouts of medium intensity with days of rest, and spend days of rest actively, perform aerobic exercises.
Here is an approximate workout plan that will increase growth hormone and testosterone, but will not overload your nervous system:
- Do different variations of basic strength exercises: squats, deadlifts, various presses, traction and pull-ups.
- Do a full body workout. Choose 3–5 main exercises and do 3–5 sets of 5–10 repetitions.
- Perform a superset of 2-4 exercises. Between the circles, rest until full recovery.
- Use medium intensity. Keep 2-3 repetitions in stock and focus on the perfect technique.
Regarding the number of workouts per week, be guided by your feelings. You must fully relax and recover from a previous workout.
Return to previous workouts
The last 10–20% recovery is always perceived hard. Here are the key points of this period:
- Slowly return to the same intensity.
- Ensure that the injured limb moves correctly during different exercises.
- Follow the technique of the main power movements, ask a friend to point out mistakes or record you on video to track out the wrong patterns.
- Think about trauma in the long run. It’s not scary to miss one season, it’s much worse all your life to suffer from a non-treated injury that repeats over and over again and reduces your performance. So take your time and do not take risks.
And you continue to train during recovery after injury?
Do not exercise through pain
No matter how effective the exercise is, if it causes pain in the joints, it cannot be done. Pain is a great problem signaling mechanism. Weak - warning, sharp - stop signal. But some ignore the body's hints — bandage their joints and use painkillers before training. Obviously, the gun should fire sooner or later.
Even if it is morally difficult to part with squats, traction or other favorite exercises, it is worth doing. There are many ways to load muscles, and much more progress can be seen by focusing on what does not cause harm. Do not try to adapt to the exercises - on the contrary, adjust the exercise to you: change it so that it becomes comfortable. Comfortable exercise - does not mean easy, it means the absence of pain.
Among other things, pain causes the body to find workarounds. Thus, various compensatory movements appear, which along the chain leads to the overload of other joints and their possible injury.
If the exercise caused pain suddenly, in the middle of the approach, you need to stop right away, even if the pain is not acute.
Technique is more important than weight
In order not to get injured, you need to learn how to move the weight correctly, before you begin to move a large weight. Learn how to do the exercise correctly, otherwise injury is a matter of time. The main task of a beginner is to bring the ideal technique to an automatic machine and only then go to weight records and work to failure.
Ego-fitness is a frequent novice problem. Almost everyone thinks they are in better shape than they are.
An overvalued person is easy to recognize: he puts pancakes on the barbell and cannot do the exercise in full amplitude. He swings and uses inertia to pull the weight. It forces the body to use workarounds and include the wrong muscles, just to shake and pull at any cost.
The easiest way to get hurt is to start exercising without warming up. It looks like a trip in the winter by car without warming up.
The task of the warm-up is to warm the muscles, prepare the joints for the load, relax the hyperactive muscles that make it difficult to perform the exercise qualitatively, improve mobility, coordination, prepare the nervous system for work. General warming up on any cardio-simulator, relaxation of over-active muscles and activation of the weak ones is the scenario of an ideal dynamic workout. It does not take much time, but brings many benefits.
Do not do as taught on Youtube
There are many good channels on Youtube where they show the right technique and understand the exercises in detail, and almost all of them are English-speaking. But there are much more channels of those who show their personal trainings, on which they do what they themselves are used to, and what works for them. Repeating them for a beginner can be fraught if the body is not ready.
Give the body a controlled stress, not destroy
In order for muscles to grow, they need to be loaded hard enough - more than what they are used to. This controlled stress causes the body to adapt to make it easier to carry in the future. That is how muscles grow.
But too much stress exceeds the capacity of the body (muscles, connective tissue of the joints) to recover and can cause injury - cumulative or acute.
Make sure you have time to rest and recover between workouts. Competent program, sleep and food - the most important things.
Find an opportunity to practice with a coach
One of the best ways to avoid injury is to take a few lessons from a trainer. It is important that the technique immediately learns the correct, and then do not have to relearn - it is much more difficult than learning new things from scratch.
All people differ from each other in growth, length of arms, legs and body. If you have long hips relative to body length, in squats with a barbell you will have to lean forward to maintain the center of gravity. The more forward bending, the greater the load on the lower back, so heavy squats with a barbell on the back may not be the best choice for such a person.
Плохая осанка — это неправильное положение костей в скелете, под которое со временем подстраиваются мышцы, становясь в одним местах короткими и гиперактивными, а в других — удлиненными и слабыми. Если не учитывать осанку, любое упражнение может стать вредным.
Thus, with a strong stoop and kyphosis of the thoracic spine, presses due to the head, traction behind the head and sometimes ordinary presses and traction become dangerous for the shoulder joint. You may have to change the grip angle to make the exercise safe. Pumping the pectoral muscles with a slouch will only worsen the problem.
For people with hyperlordosis (large deflection in the back and pelvic tilt forward), abdominal exercises with lifting legs, hanging, lying, twisting with a separation of the waist from the floor are harmful - this increases the load on the lower back.
If you know you have problems with your knees, do not jump, do leg presses and any other exercises that overload your knees. With other joints the same.
Women have more risks to injure the anterior cruciate ligament in the knee. In women, the joints are more mobile and the muscles are weaker. Add to the problem and wider than in men, the hips, which create a greater angle between the thigh and lower leg - the so-called Q-angle:
Some studies have shown a link between the menstrual cycle and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Scientists suggest that hormones may increase joint mobility in the first half of the cycle, before ovulation, and women become more susceptible to knee injuries.
Therefore, all exercises with aggressive flexion of the knee should be treated carefully and not be carried away by those exercises that overload the knees - for example, squats in a smith machine with legs extended forward, jumping with bad touchdown mechanics, running and exercises with an abrupt change in body position.
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Before training, you need to do a warm-up to prepare the muscles and joints for future load. The best option would be to moderate cardiac loads that contribute to muscle tension and increase blood flow, which will provide the body with enough oxygen for the upcoming effective work in the gym. After warming up the muscles will become more elastic, and this will save you from stretching.
If you train in the gym, then as a warm up for about ten minutes, work out on an elliptical trainer or treadmill. If the simulator is not available, then you can run on the spot or jump rope. It is also useful to supplement the workout with bends and squats, sweeping arms and legs.
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