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Adolescence: brief about transitional age


The transitional age, adolescence, you can say, fire, water and copper pipes to go through and win the battle for the worthy future of their offspring, through which they don’t have to go, and it is this period that becomes real penal servitude, both for the parents themselves and for ex children.

Just yesterday, my beloved daughter was my mother's assistant, a young talent and just a wonderful child, and today she is rude, angry at trifles, abandoned her hobbies and hobbies, but she got friends with non-formals and persuades her parents to pierce her lip.

Beloved son, who never drank anything stronger than half a glass of champagne for the New Year, came home late and soaked with the scent of heavy alcohol. What's happening? Has it really begun? Transitional age in all its glory.

Each of us went through this difficult period, someone had manifested itself in a complex form, while others almost did not notice the difficulties, but still there was a transitional age, and everyone managed to fight with it differently.

It is a pity that for almost every parent, such a new period in the life of their own child becomes something completely unexpected and incomprehensible, such a feeling that everyone, deep down inside, thinks it will suddenly cost, but it was not there.

Not every parent is ready to realize that his small and beloved child has grown, and even if the awareness comes, then it is possible to behave correctly, so as not to harm the psychological and emotional state of the newly minted adolescent.

Another problem lies in the fact that almost every parent, under the phrase "difficult adolescence," undoubtedly sees his own difficulties, forgetting that the child is even more difficult here.

The problems of modern adolescents, in the majority, are rooted in the foundations of modern society, a huge contribution is given to home education, as well as to the inner atmosphere within the family. Children who grew up in a happy, sincere and loving family are much easier to experience the crisis of adolescence, however, there are annoying exceptions here, although if you learn to behave correctly, you can avoid them.

The adolescent period is always characterized by sharp jumps in the mood of a teenager, there is increased attention to their appearance, as well as the desire to become special, mixed with the desire to "be like everyone else"; - also will not be an exception.

Actual issues and problems. How to cope?

It all starts with working on yourself; the parents themselves must clearly understand that the child, no matter how beloved and most caretaker, is a separate person from you, who has the right to self-determination, to solve certain problems and issues.

The main problem of the majority of parents in such a shaky and important period is that they can’t understand that their “baby” has grown up, and therefore children’s responsibilities and, consequently, rights still remain for the teenager.

What is even more stupid is that parents' duties periodically change and improve their age, but with the rights everything remains the same, which makes the adult “child” incredibly angry.

But what to do right? Throw in the pool, and release the child in a full and independent swimming? Not exactly, but partly the truth lies somewhere here: understand that you cannot control your child all your life, the time will come when you have to give him the opportunity to live his life on his own, with what he likes.

But at the same time, if you can live your full, bright and harmonious life in parallel, you will become the best example that your child can orient himself with.

But, how to help, what to do to ensure that the process of psychological and physical maturity in this period is as simple as possible? After you have accepted the fact of maturation of your child, it is necessary to move on to the second point: what is possible and what is not?

“I'm not small anymore!”

Gather a family council on which you distribute all the duties and rights that will suit everyone. The general meaning is as follows: since you are an adult now, then yes, you can come home later, solve some of your problems on your own, and also choose sections and hobbies.

However, like all adults, you are obliged to: make some mandatory purchases, monitor the cleanliness of your room, and maybe contribute part of the funds to the family budget.

Everything depends, of course, on the age of the adolescent himself, a difficult period usually starts from 12-13 years old, and ends at 16-18, all individually. During this time, the child goes through several stages, and the fact that under the power of a 16-year-old is quite early for a 12-year-old, therefore the system of “obligations and rights” must be edited over the course of age.

In this situation, the child needs to see how everything works within the family, how the family budget works and, it turns out, that it needs to be replenished, you need a lot of hard work.

The main thing is that the rules and foundations you have worked out should be observed immaculately, both by the child and the parent, and not depending on what mood you have today.

If the parents do not follow their own rules, then how will the child follow them? Right, no way. Another is a personal example of parents. You do not like that your child comes late and does not warn you about it? Does everyone in your family do that? If so, then the child herself quickly realizes that this particular pattern of behavior is correct and normal.

I already grew up, but I do not notice!

Another point why there are problems with adolescence, it is connected with the social foundations of our society: as early as 12-15 years old, a child completely forms a personality, he feels himself an adult and capable of doing something, but the ability to fulfill his needs , not.

Give a teenager the opportunity to feel his strength, to try himself somewhere away from home, for example, camps or excursions that will take place away from home are perfect.

Another great opportunity to give a teenager a sense of his importance and “maturity”, to offer him some extra work: it could be a summer part-time job, an attraction to the family business or a few hours after school in the service sector.

Not bad is the option when parents are released in a more adult adolescence to work somewhere in another city, for example, at some resort, they always need support staff.

Experts have found that children who are actively involved in adult life from an early age, at least partially, experience this difficult period much easier, or it is completely erased as such. After a teenager can earn, he respects himself, and even you can look at your "baby" from a slightly different angle.

Sexual difficulties

It was during adolescence that a former child suddenly realizes that he is no longer a child at all, he changes physically, a libido appears and the first signs of an “adult person”, first lovers and sexual contacts.

Everything would be fine, it should have happened someday, only the problem remains that we can have children physiologically at least 15 years old, but morally before that, we still need to grow and grow.

The duty of parents in such a situation does not become a tedious and itchy creature that only confuses and does not understand anything (and that’s what teenagers think).

Here it is necessary to act subtly: try to watch thematic films, discuss a case by the example of your friends (unplanned pregnancy, illness, etc.). Remember that talking in the forehead rarely leads to something good, again, a personal example is the best way to show what real feelings, love and romance are.

Teenagers obsessed with gadgets

The current younger generation spends most of their free time on social networks, for them it is a way to stay always in touch with their friends. Many teenagers are addicted to computer games and do not consider this hobby their problem at all. However, spending too much time on the Internet can interfere with other aspects of their lives, such as learning, home help, and self-development.

In order to avoid many problems with the child in the future, install a computer in the common room at home to be able to control the teenager. Enter the time limit rule for computer use. In addition, you can set parental controls to block sites and programs with unwanted content.

Teens are rude to parents

Rudeness, hostility and rudeness are a very obvious change in the behavior of a teenager and one of the main problems of modern adolescents. It is possible and not to notice when your tender child turned into an irritable teenager who behaves disrespectfully, speaks boorishly and ignores all your rules. Teenagers begin to behave according to their own patterns of behavior, which should be different from the behavior of parents. Features of adolescence

Unfortunately, at this age, adolescents value the opinions of friends significantly more than the opinions of relatives. In this lies a small danger, since adolescents are largely amenable to someone else's influence. Whatever the case, it is important to demonstrate to the child the basic norms of behavior, and to establish the rule of respectful communication in the family.

Teen often breaks out and rebel

Any words provoke a teenager to rage and anger. Mobility and mood swings are a problem of adolescents that they face daily. Teens tend to scream and immediately cry, stomp their feet and run into another room. And all these emotional reactions can be very spontaneous and violent. Often they are the result of the physical and hormonal changes that a growing child is experiencing. However, this behavior seriously complicates communication with him and makes it difficult to establish a trusting, calm relationship.

Try changing your tactics of raising a teenager. For example, instead of morals and advice, sympathize with him. This will allow you to avoid unnecessary conflicts in the family.

Teens telling lies

There are many reasons why a teenager may lie. And he does not at all think that a lie can become a problem for a teenager. Although he may lie, for example, in order to hide some facts from his parents.

It seems to teenagers that they are thus affirmed in their independence and independence. Of course, when a child hides the details of his life, it can alert the parents. They may decide that the teenager got into a bad company and is engaged in illegal business. It can also mean that a teenager will not turn to you for help if she needs her.

In this case, if you often catch the child in a lie, first of all take care of your reputation. That is, if you are a too strict parent for a child and he thinks that for his offense you will kill him, then of course he will be afraid to tell you everything.

Only trust, partnership, an atmosphere of mutual understanding and trust can break down the barriers between you and a teenager. Let him know that you forgive him for his mistake, but do not cease to be demanding and consistent in your upbringing.

Teen comes home late

Teenagers often intentionally violate the curfew. Such a protest may be an unconscious manifestation of independence. Memo to parents of a teenager

Before you make a scandal, try to find out whether the curfew set by the parents of his friends is much later than yours. Take with the child a promise to warn you of your lateness. And conduct preventive conversations with the child so that he is warned about the consequences of asocial and illegal actions.

Teen Chooses Bad Friends

It may seem to you that some friends of your growing up child have a negative impact on him. However, this is not always a cause for alarm and often unjustified.

A teenager can be very attached to his friends. And then any criticism of them will be perceived acutely, as personal criticism. In order not to lose the trust of the child, it is better to refrain from harsh, unfounded remarks towards his friends.

An exception can only be the company of drug addicts, gangsters and other asocial groups. Here it is necessary to intervene in time, isolate and save him from this problem of modern adolescents.

Teenager learns poorly

Or does not want to learn at all. This is another problem of modern adolescents. The thing is that in a teenage child the outlook is significantly broadened, the world perception changes, and by itself, schooling becomes less valuable for him. How to understand a teenager?

Learning motivation is reduced, especially in the period of active growth of a teenager at about 13 - 14 years. And this is exactly the period when, until graduation, another 5 years and the teenager simply loses his inner motivation. That is, he thinks: “why study, if there are so many different perspectives around?” Or “Biology in my life will not be useful”

In order to help a teenager it's time to do vocational guidance. Make him reflect on the issue of professional self-determination, starting with the simplest: “What do you want to do in life?”

Even if the child will answer you sharply: “Not with anything!” Believe that he will look for the answer within himself. And it is also very important to approximate the results of school studies. Tell your child why it is needed, explain its importance and significance for its future education.

Features of adolescence

  • Comprehensive puberty, accompanied by rapid physical growth, changes in height and weight, changes in body proportions (for example, boys have increased shoulders, the figure becomes more “masculine”)
  • Formed and completed sexual orientation of a teenager. Formed secondary sexual characteristics (see above). Increasing interest in potential partners.
  • Difficulties in the blood supply to the brain, the functioning of the lungs, the heart, associated with the rapid growth of organs and the restructuring of the body.
  • The ability to think logically, to operate with abstract categories, to fantasize (young children do not have such abilities, they develop over time). That is why in adolescence children often begin to engage in creativity: to draw, write poems and songs, as well as they are interested in philosophical teachings and strive for logical thinking, debates on philosophical and other topics.
  • The ability to empathize appears, the experiences themselves become deeper, the feelings become stronger. There is interest in previously uninteresting areas of life (social, political, etc.).
  • Communication with peers becomes a necessity, it gives an opportunity to express emotions, share, and also gives an opportunity to form norms of behavior in society.
  • Communication with parents and relatives goes to the background.
  • There is a need to belong to a group of teenagers. In particular, which welcomes certain elements of clothing, speech turns, etc. When it is, those who do not have these signs may not be accepted in this group.
  • The desire to assume the duties and rights of adults.
  • Formation of self-esteem of the child, the ability to accept both their positive and negative features, incl. in volitional sphere.

The main difficulties of adolescence

  • Angle and clumsiness. In connection with the gradual growth of the body (first the hands and legs grow, then the limbs and, last but not least, the body), many adolescents become clumsy and complex because of this.
  • Frequent changes in mood and physical condition that occur in the body due to the growth of internal organs.
  • Rapid excitability, the influence of emotions on the spiritual life.
  • Resentment, bitterness, irritability (especially in adolescents in difficult situations).
  • Tensions with parents, avoiding communication with them, giving preference to peers arise in cases where parents are not ready to treat a teenager as an independent, adult person, respecting his views and feelings.
  • The emergence of the so-called. teen loneliness.

We were all teenagers and went through all the difficulties. We are sure that this was possible, thanks to the support of parents, families, teachers, who could with understanding treat our “antics”. Much depends on parents and teachers: unfortunately, there were many cases when a child “broke”, left the right road, got involved in bad company and even committed suicide.

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1.1. Features of adolescence

1.2. Identity crisis as a problem of adolescence

1.3. Depersonalization as a teenage crisis problem


2.1. Deviant behavior as a pathological problem of adolescence

2.2. Aggression as a problem in adolescence


It is unconditional that the child develops, becomes a teenager, a young man, a person and acquires certain patterns of behavior in the social environment surrounding him. Higher mental functions of a person are initially formed as external and only gradually become internal. But adolescence is rather complicated from the psychological and sociological point of view, since at this time the child already has adult judgments, he understands that he is changing, therefore he has a fear of many problems, both internal and external.

The relevance of the work lies in the fact that adolescence is the most difficult and difficult of all childhood ages, representing the period of the formation of a personality. This age is characterized by the presence of a wide variety of psychological problems and difficulties, which are most often superseded due to the fear of awareness.

Adolescence is the age when a teenager begins to reassess his relationship with his family. The desire to find oneself as a person gives rise to alienation from all those who habitually influenced him from year to year, and this primarily applies to the parental family. The desire for exemption from custody by adults in some cases leads to more frequent and deepening conflicts with them. However, adolescents do not really want complete freedom, because they are not yet ready for it, they just want to have the right to make their own choice, to be responsible for their words and deeds.

Parents, being the most important people in the life of their children, directly contribute to the formation of certain character traits, personality traits, and abilities. Children, responding to the direct and unspoken demands and expectations of their parents, try to be as good as possible by meeting these demands. However, parents do not always realize what their personality traits and properties affect the development of a child, its formation as a personality, the formation of certain patterns of behavior.

An alarming symptom is the increase in the number of adolescents with problem behavior, manifested in asocial, conflict and aggressive actions, destructive and autodestructive actions, lack of interest in learning, addictive tendencies, etc. Adolescence is indeed problematic, since this is a transitional period when no longer a child ”, but also a“ not yet adult ”person. Psychophysiological transformations occur in the body of an adolescent, which prepare the adolescent for adulthood, but many psychological problems arise on this basis. It is necessary to consider the main of these problems.

The purpose of the work is to study the main problems of adolescence.

  1. To study the characteristics of adolescence, based on the works of domestic and foreign psychologists,
  2. Consider the adolescent crisis as a problem of the relationship between the child and adults,
  3. Consider deviant behavior as a pathological problem of adolescence,
  4. Consider aggressive behavior as a form of deviation in adolescence.

Subject of research: problems of adolescence.

Object of study: adolescence.

1. Adolescence as a problem in psychological science

1.1. Features of adolescence

Adolescence is usually characterized as a crucial, transitional, critical, difficult age of puberty. Adolescence in child development is usually considered particularly difficult for both parents and teachers, as well as the day of the children themselves. The basis of this assessment is the abundance of critical, psychological and physiological states that objectively arise in the process of development, which are sometimes referred to as "critical periods of childhood."

Psychophysiological characteristics of a teenager are different from those of a different age, since this age is characterized by significant transformations in the physiological sphere, which has a significant impact on the psychological development of a teenager.

Adolescence - the period of a person's life from childhood to adulthood in the traditional classification. In this period, the shortest in astronomical time, a teenager goes a great way in his development: through internal conflicts with himself, with others, through external breakdowns, ascents. However, the society that opens up to his consciousness cruelly initiates it.

The main content of adolescence is its transition from childhood to adulthood. This transition is divided into two stages: adolescence and youth (early and late). However, the chronological boundaries of these ages are often defined quite differently. The process of acceleration has violated the usual age limits of adolescence. Medical, psychological, pedagogical, legal, sociological literature defines different boundaries of adolescence: 10-14 years, 14-18 years, 12-20 years. Turning to national history, it can be noted that the age terminology relating to adolescents was also not unambiguous.

At the present stage of the border of adolescence approximately with the education of children in middle classes from 11–12 years old to 15–16 years old. That is, from about 12 to 15 years (± 2 years), is characterized by the beginning of the restructuring of the child's body: accelerated physical development and puberty. There are dramatic changes in the body due to the activity of the endocrine glands, in particular, the sex glands. Intensified metabolism. The disruption of the former coherence in the body’s activities and the still unregulated new system of its functioning are the basis of the adolescent’s general imbalance, his irritability, explosiveness, sharp mood swings from violent activity to lethargy and apathy. The peculiarity of adolescence lies in the fact that outwardly and according to its pretensions it is an adult, and in its internal features and capabilities it is still a child in many ways. Hence the continuing need for a teenager caress, attention, interest in games, fun, romp with each other. Along with this, along with a sense of adulthood, a teenager is awakened and actively formed self-awareness, a heightened sense of self-esteem, awareness of gender. Teenager characterized by increased criticality. If, as a child, he did not pay attention to many events in the outside world or was indulgent in his assessments, then as a teenager, he begins to overestimate the long-familiar and familiar, making his own judgments, often very straightforward, categorical and uncompromising.

As a result, the authority of parents and teachers may be significantly weakened or lost forever.

But it should be noted that the main criterion for periods of life is not the calendar age, but anatomical and physiological changes in the body. The most significant in adolescence is puberty. Indicators of it and define the boundaries of adolescence. The beginning of a gradual increase in the secretion of hormones begins at seven years, but an intensive rise in secretion occurs in adolescence. This is accompanied by a sudden increase in growth, maturation of the body, the development of secondary sexual characteristics.

Teachers psychologists such as Fridman L. M., Bozovic L. I. talk about the problematic nature of adolescents. Teenagers are very painful about everything that concerns not only the assessment of their personal qualities, but also the assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of their family, parents, friends, and favorite teachers. On this basis, adolescents may come into deep conflict with the abuser. They can react in the most extreme and unexpected way to the loss of the authority of parents or someone else who was previously significant: to withdraw into themselves, become rude, stubborn, aggressive, defiantly contradict, start smoking, use alcohol or drugs, make dubious acquaintances, leave at home, etc.

Adolescence, according to L. Vygotsky, is a combination of conditions that are highly predisposing to the effects of various stressful factors. The most potent of them are the unworthy behavior of parents, the conflicting relationship between them, their weaknesses, humiliating from the point of view of the teenager and others, an offensive attitude towards the teenager, manifestations of distrust or disrespect for him. All this not only complicates the educational work with them, but also makes it sometimes almost impossible. A teenager on this basis may experience various deviations in behavior.

L. S. Vygotsky, like P. P. Blonsky, approached adolescence as a historical education. He believed that the characteristics of the course and the duration of adolescence vary considerably depending on the level of development of society.

E. Spranger developed a cultural and psychological concept of adolescence. Adolescence, according to Spranger, is the age of growing into a culture. He wrote that mental development is the growth of the individual psyche into the objective and normative spirit of a given epoch. Discussing the question of whether adolescence is always, the age is a period of “storm and stress”, described 3 types of adolescent development:

The first type is characterized by a sharp, turbulent, crisis over, when adolescence is experienced as a second birth, as a result of which a new “I” appears.

The second type of development is smooth, slow, gradual growth, when a teenager joins adult life without deep and serious changes in his own personality.

The third type is such a developmental process when a teenager himself actively and consciously forms and educates himself, overcoming internal anxieties and crises by force of will. It is characteristic of people with a high level of self-control and self-discipline.

The main neoplasms of this age, according to E. Spranger, are the discovery of “I”, the emergence of reflection, the awareness of one’s individuality. Based on the idea that the main task of psychology is the knowledge of the inner world of a person closely connected with culture and history, E. Spranger initiated a systematic study of self-consciousness, value orientations, adolescents' worldview, and also tried to understand one of the most profound experiences in human life - love and its manifestations in adolescence.

E. Stern considered adolescence as one of the stages of personality formation. According to Stern, the transitional age is characterized not only by the special orientation of thoughts and feelings, aspirations and ideals, but also by a special course of action. Stern describes it as intermediate between children's play and serious responsible activities and selects for it a new concept of "serious play." An example of a "serious game" is playing sports and participating in youth organizations, choosing a profession and preparing for it, playing a love character (flirting, flirting).

In the concept of D. B. Elkonin, adolescence, as any new period, is associated with neoplasms that arise from the leading activities of the preceding period. Learning activity produces a "turn" from the focus on the world to the focus on yourself. The solution to the question "Who am I?" Can only be found by colliding with reality.

Features of development of the teenager at this age are shown in the following symptoms:

  1. Difficulties arise in relations with adults: negativism, stubbornness, leaving school, because the main thing for a teenager is happening now outside of her.
  2. Children's companies (searching for a friend, searching for someone who can understand you).
  3. The teenager begins to keep a diary.

Comparing himself with adults, a teenager comes to the conclusion that there is no difference between him and an adult. He begins to demand from others that he was no longer considered small, he is aware of his equality. The central neoplasm of this age is the emergence of the idea of ​​oneself as “not of a child”. The teenager begins to feel like an adult, he rejects his affiliation with children, but he still does not have a feeling of genuine, full-fledged adulthood, but there is a huge need for the recognition of his adulthood by those around him. Types of adulthood identified and studied T. V. Dragunova. These include the imitation of the external signs of adulthood, the equal quality of adults, the desire to master different "adult skills" - social and intellectual adulthood.

The activity of communication is extremely important for the formation of the personality of a teenager, because self-consciousness is formed in it. The main neoplasm of this age is the social consciousness transferred inward. According to L. S. Vygotsky, this is self-consciousness. Consciousness means shared knowledge. This is knowledge in the relationship system. And self-consciousness is public knowledge transferred to the inner plane of thinking. The teenager learns to control his behavior, to design it based on moral norms.

Modern social life makes different demands on the psyche of a teenager than half a century ago. The flow of information has become more abundant, life experiences are more diverse and richer, the pace of life is faster, and education is more complex. New training computerization programs have been introduced. All this requires the development of intelligence and abilities. And if we add to this the collapse of ideals and the disintegration of adolescent organizations (pioneering and others) and almost nothing created instead of this, then it becomes clear why adolescent behavior disorders have become an urgent problem.

Personality characteristics of adolescents:

1. The central neoplasm of a teenager is a sense of adulthood.

2. The development of self-consciousness.

3. Critical thinking, a tendency to reflection, the formation of introspection.

4. Difficulties of growth, puberty, sexual experiences, interest in the opposite sex.

5. Increased irritability, frequent mood swings, imbalance.

6. Marked development of volitional qualities.

7. The need for self-affirmation, in activities that have a personal meaning.

Thus, in the course of rapid growth and physiological restructuring of the body, adolescents may experience anxiety, irritability, and reduced self-esteem. As common features of this age, there are mood variability, emotional instability, unexpected transitions from fun to despondency and pessimism. Therefore, adolescence has crisis traits.

1.2. Identity crisis as a problem of adolescence

A crisis within a person is a psychological problem that a person periodically faces. In adolescence, intrapersonal crisis is most acute. No other age has such strong emotional, positive and negative experiences as in adolescence.

The peculiarity of adolescence is an identity crisis (the term of E. Erickson), which is closely related to the crisis of the meaning of life.

The process of formation of own identity accompanies a person throughout his life. «В основе данного процесса лежит личностное самоопределение, имеющее ценностно-смысловую природу.The formation of identity, especially intensively passing in adolescence and youth, is impossible without changing the system of social relations, in relation to which a growing person must develop certain positions. ”

The complexity of the task facing a maturing person is, on the one hand, to clarify their role as a member of society, on the other, to understand their own unique interests, abilities, which give meaning and direction to life. Virtually every life situation requires a certain choice from a person, which he can only realize by clarifying his position regarding different spheres of life. “The structure of identity includes personal and social identity. Moreover, in identity there are two types of characteristics: positive - what a person should be, and negative - what a person should not be.

The formation of identity can occur against the background of the socially-safe environment of a teenager with a high level of mutual understanding with close adults, peers, with a sufficiently high self-esteem. The choice of patterns of behavior in this case is carried out in a real social circle. In an unfavorable situation, the more surreal these samples are, the more difficult the identity crisis is experienced by a teenager, the more problems he has with others. ” The attainment of a personal identity by a teenager and young men is a multi-level process that has a certain structure, consisting of several phases, differing both in the psychological content of the value-willed aspect of personality development and in the nature of the problems of life difficulties experienced by the individual.

One of the causes of the adolescent crisis and conflicts with others at this age is the overestimation of its increased opportunities, which is determined by the desire for a certain independence and autonomy, a painful vanity and resentment. Increased criticality in relation to adults, an acute reaction to the attempts of others to diminish their dignity, diminish their adulthood, to underestimate their legal capabilities, are the causes of frequent conflicts in adolescence.

Orientation to communication with peers is often manifested in the fear of being rejected by peers. The emotional well-being of the individual more and more begins to depend on the place that it occupies in the team, begins to be determined primarily by the attitude and assessments of the comrades. .

Intensively formed moral concepts, ideas, beliefs, principles by which adolescents begin to be guided in their behavior. Often, boys form systems of their requirements and norms that do not coincide with the requirements of adults.

One of the most important moments in the personality is the development of self-awareness, self-esteem, young people have an interest in themselves, the qualities of their personality, the need to compare themselves with others, to assess themselves, to understand their feelings and experiences. Self-esteem is formed under the influence of other people's assessments, comparing oneself with others, successful activity plays a crucial role in the formation of self-esteem.

Thus, the identity crisis in adolescence is that he feels uncertain in all walks of life, and that scares him. The structure of identity includes personal and social identity. Moreover, in identity there are two types of characteristics: positive - what a person should be, and negative - what a person should not be.

1.3. Depersonalization as a teenage crisis problem

The adolescent crisis is also understood as a state in which distortions of the adolescent's relationship with reality may occur. One of the cardinal signs of this crisis is the experience of the alienation of one’s “I” (depersonalization), one’s loneliness and isolation from the world.

Depersonalization is a key phenomenon of personality crisis. It covers a wide range of disorders - from the weakening of the figurative component of the perception of the environment, the loss of empathy towards him to cases of delusional split personality. Different authors refer to depersonalization as deeply pathological phenomena with phenomena of complete alienation of one's own will, thoughts and feelings, and manifestations of desocialization with violation of the “legal feeling”, the ability to distinguish between good and evil, justice and meanness, etc.

As applied to the concept of a crisis of personality, depersonalization acts, first of all, as an existential-phenomenological characteristic. The process of opening one’s self, the tendency to self-observation, the clash between exaggerated self-esteem and the assessment of others leads to contradictory puberty conflicts: from denying authority to striving for dependence on them.

A teenager feels unprotected, doubting his identity and autonomy, he is deprived of a sense of consistency and connectedness of his actions. This leads to the fact that his life is aimed at self-preservation of himself, and the circumstances of life are perceived as threatening his existence.

The lack of confidence in the stability of their inner world, their concern that this world may be lost, form the basis of constant stress.

Subjectively, the feeling of internal discord, the change of one’s own “I”, of one’s identity, the components of the core of depersonalization, are mixed with a feeling of discomfort, a decrease in affective attitude to the surroundings, the difficulty of focusing attention, and reflection. Arising from an altered sense of self-awareness and the emotional background of the installation, motives and orientations cause violations of the behavior and activities of the individual.

The crisis-related processes of self-awareness are closely related to specifically adolescent groupings, whose significance in shaping the motives for the crime is enormous. In obedience to the laws of the group, sometimes as irrational as it is inevitable, adolescents go to incredibly brutal crimes in order, as it seems to them, to restore the connection of their own “I” with the group that is vital for them.

Thus, the crisis of adolescence is an absolutely normal phenomenon, testifying to the development of personality, but in the presence of some unfavorable factors and conditions, this crisis condition leads to pathological behavior.

2. The main problems of adolescence

  1. Deviant behavior as a pathological problem of adolescence

The main extreme problem of adolescence is deviant behavior, that is, deviant behavior of a teenager.

The first in Russia to put into use the term "deviant behavior", which is currently used along with the term "deviant behavior", Ya.I. Gilinsky, which he described as deviating from the norm.

Foreign scientists determine deviance with conformity or non-compliance with social standards-expectations. Consequently, deviant behavior is not satisfying the social expectations of this society.

In the domestic literature under deviant (Lat. Deviatio - evasion) behavior: “The act, the actions of a person that do not meet the officially established or actually established norms in a given society,“ whether they are mental health norms, rights, culture or morality ”.

A social phenomenon expressed in mass forms of human activity that does not correspond to the norms that are officially established or actually established in a given society.

In the first meaning, deviant behavior is primarily the subject of general and age-related psychology, pedagogy, and psychiatry. In the second meaning - the subject of sociology and social psychology.

Since deviant behavior became associated with many negative manifestations (the personification of “evil” in the religious worldview, a symptom of a “disease” from the medical point of view, “illegal” in accordance with legal norms), even a tendency to consider it “abnormal” appeared. Therefore, it should be emphasized that deviations as mutations in living nature are a universal form, a way of variability, therefore, of life activity and development of any system. Since the functioning of social systems is inextricably linked to human activity, in which social changes are also realized through deviant behavior, behavioral deviations are natural and necessary. They serve to expand individual experience. The diversity arising on the basis of this in the psychophysical, sociocultural, spiritual and moral state of people and their behavior is a condition for the improvement of society and the implementation of social development.

A number of scientists believe that the deviation is the boundary between the norm and pathology, an extreme variant of the norm. Deviance cannot be determined without the knowledge of norms. In medicine, the norm is a completely healthy person, in pedagogy a student who achieves all subjects, in social life there is no crime. The most difficult thing is to define the “psychological norm” as a combination of certain properties common to most people, a peculiar standard of behavior. These are norms-ideals. Since the definition of norms in different social environments has significant differences, and the norms-ideals, the system of basic values ​​are general in nature, they are difficult to apply to specific social objects.

So, the norm in psychology can be considered as a standard of behavior, following the personality adopted in this community at a particular time moral requirements. In an ideal behavioral norm, a harmonious norm (adaptability and self-actualization) must be combined with the creativity of the individual.

Social norms are understood as requirements imposed by social being that are imposed by society (class, group, collective) on the behavior of an individual in its relationships with certain communities and other people, and the activities of social groups and public institutions. Each social norm allows, prohibits, obliges or implies the desirability of certain actions and actions of an individual. A person who builds his way of life and behavior in accordance with the requirements of social norms is considered normotypical, fully adapted (adapted) to social conditions. The core of social norms are the norms of morality and legal norms.

In addition to the social norm, in the characteristic of deviant behavior, the mental norm of behavior is also singled out, under which specialists understand this state of mind, in which the individual is fully aware of his actions and deeds. A mentally normal person is a sane person, responsible for all his actions and deeds, not suffering from mental illness.

The behavior of a teenager’s personality and its development that does not meet the requirements of social and mental norms are socially deviating (deviant) behavior, and its essence lies in the wrong awareness of its place and purpose in society, in certain defects of moral and legal consciousness, social attitudes and established habits , in violation of brain function.

Behavior can be taken behavior that does not match age patterns and traditions, which is the result of a number of reasons. The presence of a standard that fixes the typical features of a child of a certain chronological age allows us to consider each individual child as an option, more or less deviating from the main type. Taking into account the standard - a child of the mass type of age development - L.S. Vygotsky singled out a retarded child, a primitive child with a delay in the development of sociocultural origin and a child-disorganizer (both “difficult” and gifted). A teenager with deviant behavior is usually a disorienting child.

The psychological approach considers deviant behavior in connection with intrapersonal conflict, destruction and self-destruction of the personality, blocking of personal growth and degradation of the personality.

The criteria for deviant behavior are ambiguous. Latent offenses (ticketless travel, traffic violations, petty theft, buying stolen goods) can be ignored. However, abrupt changes in behavior, when the needs of the individual do not match the proposal, a decrease in the value attitude towards oneself, one’s name and body, a negative attitude towards the institutions of social control, intolerance to pedagogical influences, rigor in relation to drug addiction, prostitution, vagrancy, begging, special victimization experience, offenses are the most well-established signs of deviant behavior. It is unacceptable to label a deviant on some kind of behavior in all circumstances.

If, in determining the norm and deviation, to proceed from some approach, depending on the framework of the culture in which he lives, it is impossible to unambiguously determine what is the norm, and what is deviation.

The phenomenological psychological approach allows us to note that in practice psychologists often encounter not deviating, but unacceptable, rejected, rejected adult behavior. Thus, the label "deviant" among teachers are undisciplined children who constantly attract attention, give the greatest concern using obscene and slang vocabulary, occasional use of alcohol, tobacco, fights.

It should be emphasized that from the standpoint of the adolescent himself, certain age and personality traits make it possible to consider the behavior considered by adults as deviating “normal” game situations that reflect the desire for extraordinary situations, adventures, winning recognition, testing the boundaries of what is permitted. Adolescent search activity serves to expand the boundaries of individual experience. During the period of growing up it is difficult to distinguish between normal and pathological behavior.

Therefore, it is possible to call a teenager a deviant who “not only once and accidentally deviated from the behavioral norm, but constantly demonstrates deviant behavior,” which is of a socially negative nature.

With certain reservations, the category of gifted adolescents can also be attributed to deviants, since both those and others stand out sharply among their peers, both in real life and in educational institutions among the objects of frontal pedagogical influences. There is a certain affinity between the creative and the deviant person (especially with addictive behavior). This is a special type - “exciter finder”. The difference lies in the fact that for genuine creativity, pleasure constitutes the creative process itself, and for a deviant kind of search activity, the main goal is “the result is pleasure”.

It should be noted a teenager - “nerd” - a kind of fan of study, whose obsession with educational activity turns out to be an obstacle to the establishment of full-fledged intimate and personal communication with peers. On the other hand, such a mono-channel activity of a teenager cannot be assessed as a kind of deviant behavior, as it has a pro-social orientation.

Some domestic and foreign scientists consider it expedient to subdivide deviant (deviant) behavior into criminal (criminal), delinquent (pre-criminal) and amoral (immoral). These types (varieties) of deviant behavior are identified, taking into account the peculiarities of the interaction of the individual with reality, the mechanisms of the emergence of behavioral anomalies.

Criminal name the person who committed the crime. Murder, rape, inhuman acts around the world are considered a deviation, despite the fact that during the war, murder is justified.

Delinquency is traditionally understood as an offense or unlawful act that does not bear criminal responsibility. In German, the concept of “delinquency” includes all cases of violation of the norms provided for by the criminal code, i.e. all legally punishable acts. Domestic scholars call the personality of a minor who committed a crime delinquent, of an adult - criminal.

A.E. Under delinquent behavior, Lichko implies minor social actions that do not entail criminal liability: school absenteeism, association with an asocial group, disorderly conduct, mockery of the weak, etc. however V.V. Kovalev objects to this interpretation of the concept of “delinquent behavior”, equating it with the “criminal” one.

Therefore, regarding adolescence, deviant behavior should be divided into two types - delinquent and non-delinquent.

There is another point of view that defines delinquency as a fault, aptitude, a psychological tendency to offense. Делинквентными расцениваются такие характеристики поведения, как агрессивность, лживость, прогулы школы, бродяжничество, крайнее непослушание, враждебность к учителям и родителям, жестокость к младшим и животным, дерзость и сквернословие.

Поскольку отмеченные качества являются аморальными (противоречащими нормам этики и общечеловеческим ценностям), наблюдается определенная трудность в отграничении делинквентных и аморальных поступков. По многим характеристикам криминальное и делинквентное поведение похожи. Различие между всеми этими понятиями заключается в том, что преступное и делинквентное поведение носят антисоциальный характер, аморальное - асоциальный. Immoral behavior, reflecting anomalies of character, predisposes to committing delinquent and criminal misconduct.

There is another classification that identifies the following forms of deviant behavior: antisocial (immoral, destructive, political crime), delinquent (criminal) and paranormal.

The third generalized classification identifies such types of deviant behavior: crime, alcoholism, drug use, prostitution, suicide. These types can be attributed both to painful manifestations and to normal ones, and even to be ignored if society treats them tolerantly (such as, for example, abortions and homosexuality in different cultures, at different times).

The term “addictive behavior” that has appeared means the abuse of various substances that alter the mental state before dependence is formed on them, and auto-aggressive behavior is directed at itself, is associated with mental illness or severe mental disorders and is defined as a suicide.

Belicheva S.A. among deviations from the norm, identifies asocial type of deviant behavior, considers social deviations of mercenary orientation (theft, theft, etc.), aggressive orientation (insult, hooliganism, beating), socially-passive type (evasion from civic duties, avoiding active public life), believes that they differ in the degree of public danger, content and target orientation. She distinguishes the pre-crime level, when the minor has not yet become the object of the crime, and the criminogenic manifestations are the asocial behavior of the criminal orientation.

V.V. Kovalev identifies 10 main variants of deviant behavior:

  1. evasion of training and work. For schoolchildren, refusal to study, systematic non-fulfillment of tasks, absenteeism was partly due to gaps in knowledge that made further continuation of studies impossible,
  2. systematic stay in antisocially minded informal groups,
  3. anti-social violence. They are expressed in aggression, fights, the commission of petty robberies, damage and destruction of property and similar actions,
  4. antisocial self-serving actions, expressed mainly in petty thefts, petty speculation, extortion,
  5. antisocial acts of a sexual nature. This variant of deviant behavior is expressed in the commission of cynical, obscene acts of a sexual nature, usually aimed at persons of the opposite sex,
  6. alcohol abuse
  7. use of narcotic and toxic substances,
  8. leaving home, vagrancy,
  9. gambling
  10. other types of deviant behavior.

A.E. Licko identifies the following forms of manifestation of behavioral disorders: delinquent behavior, escapes from home and vagrancy, early alcoholism as toxic behavior, deviations of sexual behavior, suicidal behavior.

Thus, deviant behavior should be understood as a system of actions deviating from the legal, moral, aesthetic norms adopted in society, manifested in the form of imbalances in mental processes, non-adaptability, violation of the process of self-actualization, in the form of deviation from moral control over one’s own behavior.

Adolescent deviating behavior as a category is an interaction with the micro-social environment that violates its development and socialization due to the lack of adequate consideration by the environment of the peculiarities of its individuality and manifested by its behavioral counteraction suggested by the moral and legal social standard. For the age of the age, various types of disturbed behavior are also inherent. It is necessary to highlight the delinquent actions common among teenagers - drug addiction, substance abuse, alcoholism, theft of vehicles, runners, home theft, bullying, teenage vandalism, aggressive and auto-aggressive behavior, overvalued hobbies, as well as typical teenage deviation occurring only at psychopathological type - Dismorphomania, Dromomania, pyromania, heboid behavior.

2.2. Aggression as a problem in adolescence

In a complex adolescence, periods of aggression quite often arise associated with psycho-physiological transformations in the body of a teenager. Many aggressive actions of adolescents that fall in the field of view of law enforcement and investigative bodies and require, by virtue of their incomprehensibility and causal groundlessness, psychiatric analysis, are the result of a personal crisis. Therefore, very often the aggressive behavior of a teenager is completely unexpected and inexplicable for his relatives, acquaintances, peers and eyewitnesses.

In theories of the emergence of aggression in adolescents, we can distinguish two main trends. It is either a predominantly biological mechanism, which emphasizes the role of neurophysiological mediators and the functional state of the deep structures of the brain, or a dynamic theory of aggressive behavior is advanced, suggesting that the main mechanism of aggression is pathological personal development, especially during life crises.

Often, signs of personality disorder are manifested in the form of a painful attitude to the perception of one’s “I” by other people, loneliness and isolation from the world, inconsistencies of one’s “I” with certain, often false, ideals, and a sense of loss of the integrity of the inner world accompanied by cruel aggression.

Within adolescence, both in boys and girls, there are age periods with higher and lower levels of aggressive behavior. So it is established that the boys have two peaks of manifestation of aggression: 12 years and 14-15 years. Two peaks are also found in girls: the highest level of aggressive behavior is observed at 11 years and at 13 years.

Comparison of the severity of various components of aggressive behavior in boys and girls showed that boys are most pronounced tendency to direct physical and direct verbal aggression, and in girls - to direct verbal and indirect verbal. Thus, for boys the most characteristic feature is not so much a preference for aggression by the criterion “verbal-physical”, as its expression in direct, open form and directly with the conflicting. For girls, the preference is precisely verbal aggression in any of its forms - direct or indirect.

Speaking about the features of aggression in adolescence, it is necessary to take into account the fact that a teenager grows in a family, the family is almost always the main factor of socialization, it is also the main source of living examples of aggressive behavior for most children.

The formation of aggressive behavior in adolescents is a complex process involving many factors. Aggressive behavior is determined by the influence of family, peers, and the media. Children learn aggressive behavior, both through direct reinforcement and by observing aggressive actions, trying to stop negative relationships between their children, parents can inadvertently encourage the very behavior they want to get rid of. Parents who apply extreme harsh punishment and do not control the activities of children may find that their children are aggressive and disobedient.

Numerous studies have shown that families, from which aggressive children go, have a special relationship between family members. Such trends are described by psychologists as the "cycle of violence." Children tend to reproduce the kinds of relationships that their parents “practice” in relation to each other. Teenagers, choosing methods of clarifying relations with brothers and sisters, copy the tactics of conflict resolution from parents. When children grow up and get married, they use rehearsed ways to resolve conflicts and, closing the cycle, pass them on to their children, by creating a characteristic style of discipline. Similar trends are observed within the personality itself (helix principle). It has been reliably established that abuse of a child in a family not only increases the aggressiveness of his behavior in relation to his peers, but also contributes to the development of a propensity to violence at a more mature age, turning physical aggression into a person’s life style.

The formation of aggressive behavior is influenced by the degree of family cohesion, proximity between parents and child, the nature of the relationship between brothers and sisters, and the style of family leadership. Children who have a strong discord in the family, whose parents are alienated and cold, are relatively more prone to aggressive behavior. Adolescents receive information about aggression also from communication with peers. They learn to behave aggressively by observing the behavior of other children (for example, classmates). However, those who are very aggressive are likely to be committed by the majority in the class. On the other hand, these aggressive children can find friends among other aggressive peers.

One of the most controversial sources of aggression education is the mass media. After years of research using a wide variety of methods and techniques, psychologists and educators have not yet figured out the degree of influence of the media on aggressive behavior. It seems that the media still has some influence on the aggressive behavior of adolescents. However, its strength remains unknown.

Thus, all the above factors should be taken into account by parents, teachers, psychologists and society as a whole when interacting with adolescents, because aggression is easier to prevent than to correct aggressive behavior later. Methods and technologies for the prevention and correction of aggressive behavior in adolescents will be discussed in more detail in the next chapter.

As a result of this work, we can draw some conclusions.

Adolescence is quite complicated from the psychological and sociological point of view, since at this time the child already has adult judgments, he understands that he is changing, therefore he has a fear of many problems, both internal and external. This age is characterized by the presence of a wide variety of psychological problems and difficulties, which are most often superseded due to the fear of awareness.

Adolescence is the age when a teenager begins to reassess his relationship with his family. The desire to find oneself as a person gives rise to alienation from all those who habitually influenced him from year to year, and this primarily applies to the parental family. The desire for exemption from custody by adults in some cases leads to more frequent and deepening conflicts with them. However, adolescents do not really want complete freedom, because they are not yet ready for it, they just want to have the right to make their own choice, to be responsible for their words and deeds. Parents are not always aware of what their personality traits and properties affect the development of the child, the formation of him as a person, the formation of certain patterns of behavior.

An alarming symptom is the increase in the number of adolescents with problem behavior, manifested in asocial, conflict and aggressive actions, destructive and autodestructive actions, lack of interest in learning, addictive tendencies, etc. Adolescence is indeed problematic, since this is a transitional period when no longer a child ”, but also a“ not yet adult ”person. Psychophysiological transformations occur in the body of an adolescent, which prepare the adolescent for adulthood, but many psychological problems arise on this basis. It is necessary to consider the main of these problems.

The problem of identity crisis in adolescence is that it feels uncertain in all walks of life, and that scares him. The structure of identity includes personal and social identity. Moreover, in identity there are two types of characteristics: positive - what a person should be, and negative - what a person should not be.

During the rapid growth and physiological restructuring of the body, adolescents may experience anxiety, irritability, and reduced self-esteem. As common features of this age, there are mood variability, emotional instability, unexpected transitions from fun to despondency and pessimism. Therefore, adolescence has crisis traits.

The crisis of adolescence is an absolutely normal phenomenon, testifying to the development of personality, but in the presence of some unfavorable factors and conditions, this crisis condition leads to pathological behavior.

The deviant behavior should be understood as a system of actions deviating from the legal, moral, aesthetic norms adopted in society, manifested in the form of an imbalance of mental processes, non-adaptability, violation of the process of self-actualization, in the form of deviation from moral control over one’s own behavior.

Adolescent deviating behavior as a category is an interaction with the micro-social environment that violates its development and socialization due to the lack of adequate consideration by the environment of the peculiarities of its individuality and manifested by its behavioral counteraction suggested by the moral and legal social standard. For the age of the age, various types of disturbed behavior are also inherent.

Thus, all the above factors should be taken into account by parents, teachers, psychologists and society as a whole when interacting with adolescents, because aggression is easier to prevent than to correct aggressive behavior later. Methods and technologies for the prevention and correction of aggressive behavior in adolescents will be discussed in more detail in the next chapter.

List of used sources

  1. Averin V.A. Psychology of children and adolescents. - S. Petersburg. 1998. -379 p.
  2. Bandura A., Walters R. Teenage Aggression. M. 2000. - 462 p.
  3. D. Bekoeva Psychology of deviating behavior of children and adolescents. -M., 1997.- 179c.
  4. Bozovic L.I. "Personality and its formation in childhood". - M., Enlightenment, 1968. - p. 164.
  5. Grischenko LD, Diamonds B.N, Escape from home and vagrancy. Sverdlovsk.1998. - 282 s.
  6. Eliseev O.P. Workshop on the psychology of personality. - SPb .: Peter, 2001. - 476 p.
  7. Kozyrev G.I. Intra-personal conflicts // Social and humanitarian knowledge. 1999. No. 2.-C.108.
  8. Craig G. Developmental Psychology. St. Petersburg: Peter, 2000. - p. 434.
  9. Carroll E. Izard. Psychology of emotions. Per. from English - SPb .: Peter, 2000. p.
  10. Lichko A.E., Bitensky V.S. Adolescent Addiction Medicine. L., Medicine, 1991.- 304 p.
  11. Marinina E., Voronov Y. Teenager in the "flock" // Education of schoolchildren. 1994. № 6. S. 42-43.
  12. Mendelevich V.D. Psychology of deviant behavior., -M .: "MEDPress". 2001. - 286 s.
  13. Rean A.A. Aggression and aggressiveness of personality. // Psychological journal. 1996. №5. P.3-18.
  14. Semenyuk L.M. Psychological features of aggressive behavior of adolescents and the conditions for its correction. M. 1996.
  15. Savina O.O. “Features of the formation of identity in adolescence and youth” // Internet resources: http://www.new.psychol.ras.ru/conf/savina.htm
  16. Friedman L.S., Fleming N.F., Roberts D.H., Hyman S.E. (Ed.) Narcology. M., St. Petersburg: Binom-Nevsky dialect, 1998. - p. 213.

Craig G. Psychology of development, St. Petersburg: Peter, 2000. - p. 434.

Bozovic L.I. "Personality and its formation in childhood". - M., Enlightenment, 1968. - p. 78.

Puberty: information everyone needs to know.

Adolescence (puberty) - has no clear boundaries. According to the general periodization, it comes from 12 years and lasts 2–3 years (up to 14–15 years). In some cases, its frame is shifted and it can be shorter or delayed.
Despite the dependence on some purely individual factors, each teenager in varying degrees, shows the main characteristics of puberty:

  • Vulnerability to assessment. During puberty, the body begins to change and acquires features characteristic of adults. At this time, a teenager is no longer a child, but not an adult either. He does not know how to assess his external data and therefore focuses on the statements of others. Accordingly, his self-esteem depends on other people and getting unsatisfactory marks, the child closes. This problem of adolescence - affects the acceptance of oneself and is one of the most important.
  • Uncompromising attitude. Categorical and stubbornness are one of those characteristics that prevent a teenager from building relationships. During puberty, the world is divided into two sides: “good” and “bad” (I make friends or completely ignore, do or refuse). At this time there is no compromise, for example, the child really does not understand how to communicate with an unpleasant person, even if it is necessary.
  • Emotional instability. On the counterbalance to the uncompromising decision, an unstable emotional background appears. Это проявляется в резкой смене настроения, желанием привлечь к себе внимание и при этом демонстрация полной независимости, противостояние каким-либо авторитетам, но наследование кумиров.

Приведенные психологические проблемы подростков в той или иной мере будут проявляться в течение всего периода. Зачастую, родители не понимают, что происходит и стараются своим авторитетом «помочь» ребенку определится. It is precisely at this time that the well-known conflicts of adults and children are ripening, which can lead to the complete removal of a teenager and his protest. Unfortunately, at this stage it is very difficult to resume trusting relationships and right now professional help is most needed. You can apply for it online, through the forum, but more effective. individual psychological counseling.

The psychological problems that a teenager is going through.

Changes in body proportions, love relationships, interpersonal conflicts, the world’s incompatibility with “idealistic” expectations and entry into adulthood are a serious challenge for the child’s mind. Regardless of external factors, every teen is experiencing psychological problems of adolescence.
Today there are several types of problems that cause emotional stress and a sense of inferiority in a teenager:

  1. Search for your “I.” Every crisis in a person's life opens up new ideas about himself, but it is adolescent that becomes the basis for the formation of personality. At this time, the child does not know what he wants. He wants to be part of society, while trying not to lose his opinion. This problem of psychological age easily solved if you turn to a psychologist. He will help the child explore himself, his virtues and help determine interests.
  2. Financial independence. When leaving a carefree childhood into adulthood, a child certainly understands that you have to pay for purchases, but he doesn’t know how to earn money, how much effort is needed for this, and therefore does not give them such value as his parents. Also, a situation of manipulation often arises when, because of the desire to control, adults reproach their child depending on them. It is these situations that make the child look for options for financial independence now.
  3. Sexual development. As a result of puberty, splash hormones and body changes, a teenager begins to study her sexuality. Now he looks at the opposite sex in a different way and shows signs of attention. Against the background of sexual development, there are some other psychological problems of adolescents. So, the child begins to study his body tactilely, he can look at all sorts of information, and at the same time he feels shame for his actions.
  4. Rejection of a different opinion. By virtue of uncompromising thinking, a teenager during puberty takes only the opinion of her authority. Accordingly, he is not ready for another point of view and categorically rejects it. This is connected with situations when a student in a school is arguing with a teacher, proving in every way that he is wrong, if he heard a different opinion.

Of course, psychological problems of adolescence have a wider range, but it is these four that unite the main and most powerful experiences. Regardless of how your child behaves, you should pay maximum attention to him and help him in his problem.
In order not to lose trust and bring up a really mature person, you should follow a few simple recommendations of a psychologist:

  • Do not blame money. Of course, the child is still financially dependent on you, but he will get rid of it, so it is very important that in your relationship he appreciates the goodwill because of which he will strive to his home.
  • Disassemble every conflict situation. If you have a quarrel - talk about it. Tell me what you did not like and listen to the position of the child. So you can see the situation from his side and at the same time build open relationships.
  • Do not impose. Even if a teenager has a problem and he does not want to talk about her - give him time. In this case, just show that you are ready to listen so that he does not care. Maybe everything will be decided by itself, but on another time he will be sure that you are ready to help.
  • Do not control. Of course, when children have emotions in full swing, parents even voluntarily begin to experience and control. Of course, to know where the child is and what it does is necessary, but do it without manic pursuit. Explain why this is important to you and stipulate the rules of conduct that will suit both parties.
  • Do not be ashamed. At puberty, the child still begins to study his body and sees it in a completely different way. If you have witnessed an unusual situation, gently speak it and tell about the peculiarities of maturation.

Maybe some psychological problems of adolescents often seem no more than fiction or exaggerated, but it is important to remember that personality is formed at this time. Depending on how a teenager learns to interact and take responsibility, so he will build his future.

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Adolescent issues

teen psychological communication personality

Perhaps adolescence is the most discussed in the psychological literature. Many parents are afraid of the onset of this age of their children and are waiting for the inevitable problems. Remembering himself, rarely anyone wants to return at this particular age, everyone misses his childhood, but very rarely does the desire to be a teenager sound. Of course, this is a difficult time, not only for parents, but also for the most maturing child.

In essence, a teenager is a person who is in a transitional period between the two fundamental states of childhood and adulthood. He no longer has the advantages of a child, but has not yet reached the capabilities of an adult.

First of all, I would like to indicate the boundaries of the age that we call adolescence. An early onset of the transition period can be considered a child attaining 10 years of age. Usually the most difficult for a teenager and his parents is the period from 12 to 14 years. As a rule, by the age of 16-17, the emotional intensity subsides and the family atmosphere is harmonized. But it happens that the framework is shifted in one direction or another due to the peculiarities of the emotional development of the individual child.

In my work I want to consider the problems that parents of teenagers often face.

1.Psychological features of adolescence

Adolescence - the period of the completion of childhood, sprouting from it, transition from childhood to adulthood. It usually corresponds with the chronological age from 10-11 to 14-15 years. Formed in learning activities in middle school classes, the ability for reflection is directed by the student to himself. Comparing himself with adults and younger children leads a teenager to conclude that he no longer a child, but rather an adult. The teenager begins to feel like an adult and wants others to recognize his independence and importance.

Basic psychological teen needs - the desire to communicate with peers, the desire for independence and independence, emancipation from adults, to the recognition of their rights by other people.

The feeling of adulthood is a psychological symptom of the onset of adolescence. By definition d.B. Elkonin, a sense of maturity is neoplasm of consciousness through which a teenager compares himself with others (adults or comrades), finds patterns for learning, builds his relations with other people, reorganizes his activities. The transitivity of adolescence, of course, includes a biological aspect. This is a puberty period, the intensity of which is emphasized by the notion of a hormonal storm. Physical, physiological, psychological changes, the emergence of sexual desire make this period extremely difficult, including for the most rapidly growing in all senses of the adolescent.

Until the XVII-XVIII centuries, adolescence was not distinguished as a special age period, it is a relatively recent historical education. In the XIX century. in many countries systematic schooling was introduced. This innovation has led to a significant increase in the period of economic dependence in the child’s life and to the postponement of the moment of his accepting the roles characteristic of an adult. The boundaries and content of adolescence are closely related to the level of socio-economic development of society, with the peculiarities of historical time, with the social position of adolescents in the world of adults and the specific circumstances of this adolescent’s life.

Adolescence as a transition is fully unfolded only in an industrial society, where there is a great contrast between childhood and adulthood, a pronounced gap in the norms and requirements imposed on generations of adults and children. In modern society, social adulthood does not coincide with the moment of puberty. The first adolescence singled out as the time of the second, independent birth into life and the growth of a person's self-consciousness. J.J. Rousseau. The main ideas, which today form the core of the psychology of adolescence, were set out in S. Hall's work "Growing Up". Hall formulated an idea of ​​the transitivity, the intermediate nature of adolescence, the period of the storm and the onslaught. He developed the substantive-negative characteristics of this stage of development (difficulty-raising, conflict, emotional instability) and outlined a positive age acquisition - a sense of individuality.

K. Levin spoke about the peculiar marginalities teenager, expressed in his position between two cultures - the world of children and the world of adults. The teenager no longer wants to belong to the child culture, but he still cannot enter the adult community, meeting resistance from reality, and this causes a state of cognitive imbalance, uncertainty of guidelines, plans and goals during the change of living spaces.

The development of the personality of a teenager was analyzed in a psychoanalytic vein by 3. Freud and A. Freud. In adolescence, puberty, a surge of sexual energy undermines the previously established balance between personality structures, and children's conflicts are resurrected with a new force.

E. Erickson considered adolescence and youth as a central period for solving the problem of personal self-determination, the achievement of identity.

In Russian psychology, the basics of understanding the patterns of development in adolescence are laid in the works of L.S. Vygotsky, D.B. Elkonina, T.V. Dragunova, L.I. Bozovic, D.I. Feldstein, G.A. Zuckerman and others. Often, the entire adolescence period is interpreted as a crisis, as a period of normal pathology, emphasizing its rapid course, complexity both for the adolescent himself and for adults interacting with him. D.B. Elkonin, on the contrary, regards adolescence itself as a stable age and highlights crises (pre-adolescent and during the transition to adolescence). Adolescence as a stage of mental development is characterized by the child’s access to a qualitatively new social position related to finding their own place in society. High claims, not always adequate ideas about their capabilities, lead to numerous conflicts between a teenager and his parents and teachers, and to protest behavior. Even as a whole, a normally flowing adolescent period is characterized by asynchrony, intermittently, and disharmony of development. There is both interindividual unevenness (the discrepancy between the developmental time of different aspects of the psyche in adolescents of the same chronological age) and the intraindividual one (for example, the intellectual side of development can reach a high level, and the level of arbitrariness is relatively low).

Domestic psychologists also focus on the negative circumstance that in modern society there are no “spaces” suitable for solving the problems of adolescence, so crisis phenomena tend to drag on.

Leading activity in adolescence to remain academic, it remains relevant, but psychologically recedes into the background. The main contradiction of adolescence is the child’s insistent aspiration to the recognition of their personality by adults in the absence of a real opportunity to establish themselves among them. D.B. Elkonin believed that communication with peers became the leading activity of children of this age. It was at the beginning of adolescence that the activities of communication, conscious experimentation with their own relationships with other people (searching for friends, finding out relationships, conflicts and reconciliation, changing companies) are allocated to a relatively independent area of ​​life. The main need of the period - to find its place in society, to be significant - is implemented in the peer community.

In adolescents, the possibility of broad communication with peers determines the attractiveness of classes and interests. If a teenager cannot take a satisfying place in the system of communication in the classroom, he “leaves” the school psychologically, and even literally. The dynamics of motives of communication with peers during adolescence: the desire to be among peers, to do something together, the motive to take a certain place in the peer collective, the desire for autonomy and the search for recognition of the value of their own personality. In communication with peers, there is a replay of various aspects of human relations, the construction of relationships based on the “partnership code”, the desire for deep mutual understanding is realized. Intimate and personal communication withpeers - This is an activity in which the practical development of moral norms and values. It forms self-awareness as the main neoplasm of the psyche. Often, even the basis of the deterioration of performance is a violation of communication with peers. At a younger school age, solving the problem of academic performance often again leads to harmonization of the sphere of communication with peers, to an increase in self-esteem, etc. In adolescence, it's just the opposite - relieving tension in communication, easing personal problems can lead to an improvement in academic performance.

Another point of view about the nature of the leading activities of adolescence belongs to D.I. Feldstein. He believes that the main value in the mental development of adolescents is socially useful, socially recognized and approved,unpaid activity. Prosocial activities can be presented as educational, educational, industrial, organizational, social, artistic or sports, but the main thing is a teenager's sense of the real significance of this activity. The content of the activity is a matter that is useful for people, for society, the structure is set by the objectives of the relationship of adolescents. The motive of the socially useful activity of a teenager is to be personally responsible, independent. Socially useful activity is also present in elementary school, but it is not fully developed. Attitudes towards socially useful activities at different stages of adolescence change. Between 9 and 10 years, the child has a desire to self-affirmation and recognition of themselves in the adult world. The main thing for 10-11 year olds is to get an assessment of their capabilities from other people. Hence their focus on classes, similar to those performed by adults, the search for activities that have real benefits and receive a public assessment. The accumulation of experience in various types of socially useful activities activates the need for 12–13-year-olds to recognize their rights, to be included in society under the conditions of fulfilling a certain, significant role. At the age of 14-15, a teenager seeks to show his capabilities, take a certain social position, which meets his need for self-determination. Socially significant activity as the leading type of activity in adolescence must be purposefully shaped. A special organization, a special construction of socially useful activity implies a new level of motivation, the implementation of the installation of a teenager on the system “I and society”, the deployment of diverse forms of communication, including the highest form of communication with adults based on moral cooperation.

Thus, the intimate-personal and spontaneous-group nature of communication prevails in the event that there are no opportunities to carry out socially significant and socially approved activities, the possibilities of pedagogical organization of socially useful activities of adolescents are missed.

2.Psychologicalproblems of adolescence

One of the most important causes of a teenager’s psychological problems is their families. For example, constant quarrels with parents, strong punishment in the family, too many restrictions, etc. P.

Often, the cause of many psychological problems in adolescents can be:

- the teenager’s realization that something serious and abnormal is happening in his family

- violence (physical, moral)

- neglect from parents

- constant quarrels and fights between parents

- a feeling of not desire and not love in your home.

Also one of the reasons is incomplete families. Большинство подростков растут в неполных семьях. Более 50% новорожденных проведут, по меньшей мере, часть своего детства в неполной семье. Сегодня многие уверены, что мать или отец в одиночку не могут так же уверенно и успешно воспитывать ребёнка, как может сделать это полная семья.Since such a parent has not only to earn a living, but also to run the household, and often such families are on the verge of poverty. Many also think that when a teenager began to live on his own (finished school, found a job, went to study), everything that happens between his parents does not affect him. These are families formed as a result of a divorce, the death of one spouse, and also if one of the parents lives and works in another place or if the parents of the child have never lived together.

Each of the selected types of incomplete families is characterized by its specific features:

· In divorced families, the child in most cases observed conflicting, disharmonious relations between the parents,

· In widowed families, memories of parents living together are often accompanied by positive emotions,

· In maternal families, the child actually does not observe the real process of family communication and functioning.

Despite the existence of single-parent families consisting of a father with children, most often these are families in which there is only a mother experiencing "chronic emotional stress, aggravated by constant employment and chronic fatigue." If the parents remarry, there are problems in building relationships with the stepfather, stepmother, half-brothers and sisters, etc. The absence of a father weakens his social position and may be the cause of painful experiences.

The main psychological problems of adolescence:

1.Suicide At this time, suicides in adolescence are becoming more and more frequent. In childhood and early adolescence, suicides occur very rarely, but at the age of 15 to 19 years, the number of suicides greatly increases. Suicide attempts are more common for girls, but men are 3 times more likely to be fatal. The reasons for this, low self-esteem, indifference on the part of parents, a feeling of loneliness, depression, all this may give rise to the idea of ​​suicide.

2.Homosexuality Not always teenagers are sexually attracted by the opposite sex. Sometimes homosexual relationships between teenagers. Homosexuality - sexual attraction to members of their gender. Scientific evidence suggests that homosexuality is not associated with improper upbringing, because it can be practiced by children of normal families. But still there is an opinion, which the author of this work adheres to, that homosexuality is a consequence of warm relations with the mother in the absence of the same relationship with the father, especially if the father does not accept the teenager. The reason for this may be incomplete families.

3.The wrath of a teenager. Many believe that the anger of a teenager is something abnormal. However, the feeling of anger itself cannot be either bad or good. Anger is normal and can occur in any person. The problem is how to manage it. In adolescence, passive-aggressive behavior appears quite often. The purpose of passive-aggressive behavior is to bring parents or other people involved in his upbringing out of balance. All this is done unconsciously, the result of unspoken anger. The teenager begins to do actions in retaliation to parents. The cause of most problems with adolescents (from bad grades to drug addiction and suicide) is passive-aggressive behavior. The whole tragedy is that if a teenager by the age of 16-17 does not learn a mature attitude towards anger and does not get rid of passive-aggressive behavior, then such a line of conduct will take root in him and become an integral part of his life.

4.Adolescent depression. Depression is a mental disorder: melancholy, depressed mood with a consciousness of one's own worthlessness, pessimism, monotony of ideas, decrease in impulses, inhibition of movements, various somatic disorders. Adolescent depression is difficult to recognize because its symptoms are different from the classic symptoms of adult depression.

a) Easy teen depression. Manifested in dark fantasies dreams waking or in night dreams. This degree of depression can be identified by knowing the thoughts of a teenager and knowing the state of his soul. Usually, there is a cause of teenage depression. Such an event could be a death, illness or departure of an important person for a teenager, a divorce or conflict in the family, relocation, etc.

b) moderate teenage depression. The teenager behaves as usual, but the content of his conversations is emotionally colored. It concerns, first of all, those oppressing him.

c) Moderate degree of depression in adolescents. This is a serious stage. It influences the process of thinking. The teenager loses the ability to think clearly, logically, and rationally. It requires medical assistance.

As a way out of depression, boys choose a more violent way than girls. They may try to relieve the symptoms of depression by stealing, lying, fighting, speeding, hacking, entering homes, suicide. Girls usually try to get out of depression in a less violent way, but due to the harmful influence of the media, their type of behavior begins to change. Often, girls relieve their depression through promiscuous sexual relationships: the suffering caused by depression is alleviated during physical intimacy. However, when this relationship ends, these unfortunate children feel even worse.

5.Personalself determination. The term "self-determination" is used in the literature in a variety of ways. So they say about self-determination of the individual, social, life, professional, moral, family, religious.

Thus, at the level of a specific psychological theory, the problem of self-determination is as follows. The problem of self-determination, thus, is the key problem of the interaction between the adolescent and society. At different levels, this interaction has its own specific characteristics. The main task that confronts an individual in early adolescence, according to Erikson, is to create a sense of identity as opposed to the role ambiguity of the personal “me”. The young man must answer the questions: "Who am I?" And "What is my future path?". In search of personal identity, a person decides which actions are important to him, and he develops certain norms for evaluating his or her behavior and the behavior of other people. This process is also associated with an awareness of one’s own value and competence.

The most important mechanism for the formation of identity is, according to Erikson, the sequential identification of a child with an adult, which constitute a necessary prerequisite for the development of psychosocial identity in adolescence. The sense of identity is formed in a teenager gradually, his source are various identifications, rooted in childhood. The teenager is already trying to develop a unified picture of the world perception, in which all these values, assessments should be synthesized. In early adolescence, a teenager seeks to reassess himself, in relationships with loved ones, with society as a whole - in physical, social and emotional terms. He works hard to discover the various facets of his I-concept and become, finally, himself, for all previous methods of self-determination seem unsuitable to him.

The main danger, which, according to Erikson, a young man must avoid during this period, is blurring the sense of self, due to confusion, doubts about the ability to direct their lives in a certain direction. This becomes a big problem for a teenager. When a teenager grows up, he remains the same inside as he was at 17, without answering the questions: Who am I? Why am I here? What should I do? That's how he lives his whole life, which is why there are so many adults now who behave like teenagers.

3.Recommendationsallowing to reduce tension in communication with a teenager

The best way to maintain a good relationship with a child in adolescence is to become his friend. After all, friends trust everything, they have no secrets. Relations between parents and children should be built on trust and mutual understanding.

In adolescence, specific laziness is manifested. Too lazy to learn, too lazy to clean up after themselves in the room, too lazy to take a walk with the dog ... How to deal with the laziness of a teenager without spoiling the relationship with him? Very often, laziness appears due to gaps in the upbringing of the child in the earlier period. If the girl is not taught to wash a plate and a cup at a younger school age, she will not do so later. Parents need to teach children to work from an early age - then the problem of teenage laziness can be avoided.

In cases where a teenager ceases to be interested in learning and begins to skip lessons, parents should be patient and do not scold the child. Each act has its own reasons, and these reasons need to be clarified. Perhaps the teenager simply became uninteresting to learn, he ceased to see the point in intensive study of a foreign language or in music lessons. And, it is likely that the grown-up child is right, after all, it was not he who had once chosen a German language tutor and a music school for himself.

This choice was made by parents, not always interested in the opinion of their children. And the child could have other inclinations - for example, a tendency to auto-model or to dance, but adults thought it was more promising to learn languages ​​and play the violin. To avoid such conflicts, parents should always listen to the opinion of the child.

The process of education in some families is based on a monetary reward: a teenager does homework or goes to the store for a certain amount of money. Doing parents in this way is not worth it. Having accustomed the child to money, adults will not be able to get him any voluntary help.

You should never compare a teenager with yourself. Phrases like: “But I’m at your age ...” are completely irrelevant, because a child should not copy one of his parents. A teenager is already a fully formed personality, he has his own tastes and preferences. Father and mother should maintain the individuality of a teenager, respect his choice. In situations where it is impossible to accept the child’s point of view, it is necessary to calmly explain to him why this cannot be done.

First love is a wonderful feeling that arises during puberty. Teen event this brings a lot of positive moments and experiences that can not be said about his parents. Adults quickly forget about themselves in adolescence and begin to panic when they notice signs of attraction to the opposite sex in their child.

And you should not panic, because the child is growing, and it is quite natural that he begins to have tender feelings for someone. The soul of a teenager is very vulnerable, and in the period of falling in love, he needs the help and support of his closest people - his parents. How many life examples can be cited when banning a teenager from meeting with his love object ruined forever the already fragile relationship between him and his parents.

Teenagers often have secrets from their parents. If only recently the child told his father or mother about everything that happens to him, now he has become more secretive. This behavior is characteristic of absolutely all adolescents, no matter what their relationship with their parents. Adults should try to pay more attention to their grown-up child, to communicate with him on any topics and to spend part of their free time together. Any manifestations of autonomy in the behavior of the offspring should be encouraged, but complete permissiveness is unacceptable.

The older generation should learn to gently limit those actions of the child that do not quite fit into the general rules of behavior: the daughter wants to go to the disco - let him go, but before 2.0 she must return, the son has been asking him to buy a moped for a long time - so let him earn some money for him taking a job during the summer holidays to work.

So, the basic rules of parents' behavior with adolescents can be formulated as follows: be a child friend, always listen to the adolescent’s opinion, strive to maintain trust between the older and younger generations, to be at his side in the most important and crucial periods of the adolescent’s life, to take a proper interest in the child’s life but do not climb into his soul. And may parental love help a teenager successfully survive the adulthood stage!

The leading role in solving parent-youth conflicts should be attributed to the parents themselves. Parents are adults who, from the height of their life experience, must objectively approach the solution of this problem. After all, the strongest is always inferior. Of course, in no case should you be led by your child. It is just necessary to have patience and in something, maybe, give in to him, be silent. You also need to treat your child not as a little person, but as a person, regardless of what age he is. A person already in the first months of his life becomes a person. Very often, parents try to impose their opinion on their already grown-up child, considering this opinion to be the only correct one that should be carried out unconditionally. But children have their own lives. In no case can not say that the child, as a person, is responsible for his life. But still you can not deprive him of independence. Parents should just share their life experience with the child, suggest when difficulties arise in solving some problems. A person learns from his mistakes, and without ever making a mistake, he will not understand that he was wrong. The task of the parents is to make their child make as few such mistakes as possible and help, support him morally, when the mistake is still made. The child must be given freedom in his actions, and his clues should be presented as if the child had come to this with his mind. A person, especially in transitional age, needs to feel love from parents, their support, and not listen to their moralizing.

List of used sources

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