In many houses there are various plants. Periodically they need to replant, fertilize. Each plant has its own rules for performing these procedures. Many housewives are interested in how to properly transplant a palm tree at home. There are several varieties of this plant that do not take root at home. Indoor palm tree is considered whimsical, so some rules should be followed for transplanting.
This indoor plant can not only be purchased in the store, as it is easily grown independently. It is necessary to take a bone of ripe fruit and vertically place it on average in size ceramic pot.
The soil is wet sand and sawdust. After 4 months a sprout appears. After this, the question arises: how to transplant a palm tree? At home, step by step is easy to do.
What is necessary?
First you need to prepare the soil, which consists of:
- From turf land.
- Leafy land.
- Of humor.
- Yellow sand.
The components are mixed in a ratio of 2: 2: 4: 1: 2 with the addition of charcoal in small quantities. This composition ensures the normal development of the plant.
For a palm tree to grow well, you need to choose a suitable container. It should not only be beautiful, but also correspond to several indicators:
- Choose a container larger than the previous diameter by 2-3 cm to fit overgrown roots.
- There should be holes at the bottom.
- You should not buy a pot with a reserve in size, as there is a risk of water retention and death of the flower.
- For an adult flower, a glass-shaped container is an excellent choice. The pot material does not affect the growth of a palm tree, so it can be anything.
Palm trees have a complex root system. They are sensitive. Usually for transplant used method of transshipment. Treat the plant with care. Care must be taken not to damage healthy tissue.
Performing this procedure, you must be careful not to tear the remains of the family from the roots. A sprout similar to a small green stick appears. This confirms that the plant is developing properly.
How to transplant a palm tree at home so that it develops correctly? To do this, choose a spacious pot, the diameter of which should be equal to 8-10 cm. It should be placed in a lighted place. If sunlight comes in, it will allow the palm to grow and strengthen.
When transplanting every year you need to flush the root system. If required, some roots can be trimmed so that it does not harm the plant. It also improves the supply of nutrients to the leaves and the trunk. After cutting the roots, they are treated with disinfecting components - charcoal or ash, epin. After drying, the palm must be transplanted into a larger pot.
It is necessary to put claydite at the bottom of the tank in order to prevent strong soil moistening. Then you need to water the palm. If it is not possible to water it every day, then it should be done every 2 days, taking into account the condition of the soil and the temperature. In the afternoon the plant should be sprayed, creating the effect of heavy rain.
Transplantation of non-common types of palm trees
Keeps the plant in good shape competent transplant. It is necessary for its normal development. How to transplant a palm tree at home? It should pick up loose soil without lumps and hard layers. It must have nutritional components for normal plant development. It is desirable to perform transplanting in the springtime, when the palm tree rested from the winter.
How to transplant a date palm at home? This procedure is carried out according to the standard method as for an ordinary houseplant. It is important to choose a suitable soil, perform maintenance, fertilize.
After 5 years, you do not need to repot the plant every year, so the procedure is performed after a few years. Before purchasing a pot, you need to inspect the root system of a palm tree so that the container fits. It should fit. It should be borne in mind that the roots grow in breadth and depth. If you have doubts about how to transplant a palm tree at home, then you should ask a specialist to do it.
It is important to know not only how to properly transplant a palm tree at home, but also how to care. Due to the drying up of the plant, many pests can appear that were found in the soil. Preventing trouble will be obtained by disinfecting the soil, which is done before transplanting.
Experts advise to warm the soil mixture (1 kg) at a high temperature in the microwave. So all unnecessary microorganisms will die. Palm trees are scary drafts, so they should be put in a safe place. If there is no good drainage in the pot, there will be stagnation of water and rotting of the root system. Yellowing of the leaves indicates the need for transplantation and feeding.
In order to prevent the death of plants, this procedure should be performed in the near future. Drying the ends of the leaves indicates a lack of moist air. Spraying the plants with warm water from a spray bottle will help eliminate this problem. You can wipe the leaves with a rag. For palm trees, there must be natural conditions, and then they will develop perfectly.
Interested in how to transplant palm tree dracaena at home? This procedure is standard. It is important to observe the same principles as for ordinary room palm. Plants can hurt, so if signs of deterioration are found, then you need to show it to a specialist. Do not delay with this, as some diseases lead to the death of palm trees.
Plants are often affected by viruses that are common in the room. To prevent this, you need to do every day inspection of the leaves, and during transplantation and the root system. How to transplant yucca palm tree at home? The procedure is carried out in the same way as with a normal plant.
For watering should choose purified water. Its temperature should be the same as that of air. If tap water is used, it must be defended within 24 hours. In all types of palm trees, the frequency of watering is different. Water should be used so that excess flowed out through the drainage. With an insufficient amount of moisture, salts accumulate in the ground, and therefore the plant suffers.
Seed propagation is considered a difficult process. With this method there is a small chance of germination. Acquired seeds may lose their properties and not germinate. Before planting, it is necessary to file a hard shell, soak it in warm water for 4 days. When a sprout appears, it is transplanted into a small pot so that the plant is protected from overgrowth of the roots.
Propagation by parts of the plant may not occur with all palm trees. Thanks to meticulous care and constant watering, you can control growth. Palma will delight its owners, as well as clean the air in the room.
You can grow a palm tree by planting a seed, but it is a laborious and long business. It is better to buy a little tree already grown in the store. When choosing, be careful! You are greatly at risk by acquiring a fully grown palm. It will take her about half a year to adapt to new conditions, and if the plant doesn’t like something, it can get sick and even die. Therefore, buy small shoots or very young palm trees. They quickly get used to change and increase green mass. Choose copies with beautiful healthy leaves without various stains, creases and injuries. Make a purchase in the spring during active growth, then by winter the plant will get stronger.
You just want to put a large palm in the corner of a room, but you shouldn’t do that, because it does not tolerate blackout. Find a place where scattered sunlight will fall on a guest from the tropics throughout the day. As a rule, these are windows that face east, southwest, and southeast. On the northern window-sill, additional lighting will be needed.
Most types of palm trees do not tolerate direct sunlight, so in the summer, shade them with a curtain. But in the winter plants can be put without fear on the window sill, if, of course, dimensions allow. To stem grow straight and smooth, periodically change the side lighting of the palm tree. Focus on the top of the young sheet, which unfolds - it should be directed deep into the room.
How to care for a palm tree?
It is necessary to transplant a palm tree every two-three years in process of its growth. At the same time, a new pot should be chosen one third more than the previous one. Its form is also important: the best are high variants. Small bowls do not fit, because the palm root system is powerful, the roots grow down and to the sides. Check that the drainage holes are large.
Palm trees are tropical plants, so it is very important to provide them with high humidity and regular watering, but without stagnant moisture. To estimate the humidity, take a handful of earth from the top layer, squeeze it in a fist, and then unclench - dry earth will fall apart, no wet. In winter, water the plant only with separated water at room temperature. cold water is strictly prohibited. Palm trees like spraying and showers, especially in summer, and in the winter a couple of times a week just wipe the leaves with a damp cloth.
How the plant feels, it is easy to recognize by its appearance. If the tips of the leaves turn yellow, then the air in the apartment is dry, try to create more moisture. If the leaves curl, you need to check the state of the root system: the plant is either flooded or, conversely, dried out.
5 best palm trees for home
There are a lot of types of palm trees, but conditionally they are divided into two large groups, the names of which speak for themselves: pinworms and fan-leaved ones.
Very original palm tree. Its leaf blades consist of two feathers, for which it received the name fishtail. Low karyoti (1.5-2 m), tolerates low temperature and low humidity. Cariotism grows both in the form of a single-trunk tree, and in the form of bushes, which over time form real thickets.
The leaves of the classical form are inherent to palm trees: they are spreading and fan-shaped, in young plants they look like an accordion. At home, the palm tree grows no higher than 2 m. Old leaves, withering away, form scales characteristic of a palm tree. Care for it is quite simple, but it is demanding on the soil and the humidity in the room.
The name of the plant from the Greek translates as "rod" or "stick." Therefore, flower growers often call the plant palms palm. Rapis - ideal for small spaces. The plant is unpretentious in the care, it does not need frequent watering and spraying. Even inexperienced flower growers should not be afraid of it, because the main advantage of this palm tree is the ability to quickly adapt to different conditions.
This is a classic fan palm pattern that is striking in size. Sabal can reach a height of 2 m even in room conditions, and the width of its luxurious leaves - up to 2 m. Scope needs space. Care of him will not take work, because this palm tree is almost the only one who easily forgives you for a short-term drought, overflow or lack of fertilizing.
This palm tree has a rare ability to tolerate temperatures as low as -10 ° C, and also grows well in room conditions. Its appearance is unusual: the trunk is covered with coarse fibers, it is decorated with a spectacular bunch of fan leaves. In the room, trachycarpus grows to an impressive size - up to 2.5 m.
How to grow a palm tree at home?
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Do you want to create a unique exhibition of beauty? Grow a tree plant. For those who have such a desire, a date palm from a stone at home is the best option.
How to sprout bone date?
Any plant begins with a seed. Date palm is no exception. Search specifically for its seeds is not necessary - you can buy dates in any grocery store. It does not make sense to plant sprouted date palm seeds. Most likely, they simply will not ascend or the process will be delayed for a very long time.
So, we sprout:
- we choose from the stones bought at the store,
- inspect them for damage, mold or insects, the whole standard is not rejected,
- soak in clean water for a day to remove the remnants of the pulp, changing it several times, the pulp contains substances that inhibit seed germination,
- wash the bones,
- wake up the seed for 48 hours in a thermos with slightly heated melt water with the addition of a few humate grains,
- put in a container with moist loose material: vermicult, hydrogel, crushed and sphagnum sterilized with moss, putting it all in a plastic bag,
- For seed germination, a temperature of about 35 degrees is needed - a place near a heating radiator is ideal,
- germination lasts from 2 to 3 months, and all this time you need to monitor the humidity of the substrate and remove the condensate formed on the film.
As soon as sharp little shoots appeared, it was time to move the bones into the ground.
There is no consensus among florists. Most people think that the stone needs to be stuck vertically so that there is a 1 cm layer of soil over it. But there is an opinion that it is better to germinate the seeds laid in pots horizontally with a seam downwards and covered with a layer of soil 2 cm thick. no worries. Germination is not very good, so it's easier to plant several seeds in two pots in different ways and see which one is more effective. Waiting for seedlings will have to be patient. Germination can take up to 5 months. All this time a plastic bag should be put on the pot, which should be removed for ventilation. The soil is sprayed from a spray bottle to maintain its moisture. Pots should be at a temperature of from 20 to 30 degrees. Light at this time they do not need.
How to care for a palm tree at home?
In order to grow a date palm out of a stone, it is not enough to plant it, you need to properly care for newly emerged shoots and adult plants. This tree is very sensitive to any errors in the care, which responds to poor health. Young newly sprouted shoots are especially in need of attention. They grow very quickly, which is not surprising - it is a tree. It has much higher growth power than grassy plants. Only after the first leaf blooming, growth rates slow down. The first leaves are completely unlike palm, they are linear with clearly visible longitudinal grooves. It is then they split into segments that make up amazingly beautiful fans.
At the beginning of growth, a palm tree requires especially a lot of light, so the pots are placed on the brightest window. The air temperature for young plants should not fall below 20 degrees. In winter, you can warm the window sill from below so that the cold air does not lower the temperature of the soil in the pot.
If there are several plants in a pot, everyone will need an individual capacity for growth.
Soil for transplanting need the following composition:
- humus - 4 parts,
- peat - 1 part,
- turfy and leafy ground, sand - in 2 parts.
It is good to add crushed charcoal to the mixture. Transplantation into individual pots with a diameter of about 15 cm is carried out when the first leaf is 15 cm long. Drainage should consist of expanded clay mixed with charcoal. Its thickness is about 2 cm.
If possible, a palm tree should be held outdoors in summer. Such a "summer holiday" will benefit the tree.
The main conditions for keeping a date palm in room conditions:
- Maximum lighting, but diffused light, the tree withstands the scorching rays of the sun at home without compromising health, they can cause a burn on the leaves in the room, even in winter the day should not be less than 12 hours for the plant, it is prolonged by lighting the fitolamps.
For the symmetrical development of the crown every 14 days, the plant pot is rotated 180 degrees.
- air humidity of about 50%
- air temperature in summer is from 20 to 25 degrees, in winter it is reduced to 16 degrees in order to slow down the metabolism in plant tissues in conditions of lack of lighting,
- planting and transplanting for date dates, having a neutral or slightly acid reaction,
- obligatory drainage
- daily ventilation of the room
- timely correct feeding and watering.
How to water?
The schedule of watering and the amount of water depends on the season. In the summer, they water it in such a way that the earth com does not dry out - from 3 to 4 times a week. In the period of forced rest from watering to watering, the earthen room should be slightly dried. It is enough to moisturize the palm 1-2 times a week. Overflow is harmful, therefore, the excess water from the pan must be poured out in half an hour after the soil is moistened. Particular attention is the quality of irrigation water. Ideally, it should be thawed or clean rain, soft with a minimum amount of salt. Water temperature is about 33 degrees.
Растение хорошо отзывается на опрыскивание теплой мягкой водой, особенно летом. Потребуются ему и санитарные процедуры – протирание листьев влажной тряпочкой с последующим подсушиванием сухой тканью. Раз в месяц растениям можно устроить теплый душ, но почву в горшке нужно прикрыть, чтобы она не намокла.
Подкормка и удобрение
In the season of active growth - in spring and summer, the tree is fed with complex fertilizer for palm trees with a frequency of every 14 days. In winter, the intensity of dressings is reduced by 2-3 times.
Palma responds very well to foliar dressing on the leaves. They are made with the same fertilizer, but its concentration in the solution is reduced by 10 times. The frequency of feedings - from 3 to 1 times a month, depending on the strength of the growth of the plant.
The best time to transplant palm trees is April. Young plants need this operation annually. After 5 years, transplantation is practiced every 2-3 years, and in plants older than 10 years they simply change the upper layer of the substrate. The palm tree itself will tell you that it needs a new pot - roots will appear in the old one from the drainage hole.
They are thick palm but fragile. To their damage, it is extremely negative. For her, a transplant is a big stress, you need to do it carefully, keeping the ground ball as close as possible.
The pot is chosen high, each transplant diameter is increased by 3-4 cm. Drainage must be laid on the bottom of the pot. Soil is prepared in the same way as for planting young plants.
Date palm is transplanted only by the method of transshipment, without exposing the roots.
If this happens, it is necessary to cut a part of the leaves in order to maintain a balance between the underground and aboveground parts. Even non-old plants can replace the top layer of soil - there will be more nutrition for the palm tree. This procedure is carried out every six months.
If the daughter plant has developed roots, it can be separated.
- Use a sharp knife to cut the baby as close to the trunk as possible without damaging it.
- We transplant the delenka into the ground for palm trees, acting in the same way as when transplanting an adult plant.
- At first, you will have to put on a plastic bag on the pot with a young palm tree so that it will take root better.
Do not forget to spray young plant more often.
Date Palm Pests and Diseases
A date palm that was spending the summer on the street can acquire a spider mite, a shield, or a mealy bug. But even if the plant is constantly kept in room conditions, pests still appear. Insecticides will help to cope with them, for example, Aktellik. Only treat them plant preferably in the open air. Of the preventive measures, a good monthly warm shower with washing the leaves with soap and water is good. But the potted soil needs to be protected from it.
The main diseases of the palm tree are pink rot and spotting. Usually sick plants, weakened by poor care. Control measures are fungicides, but not containing copper: Mancozeb, Ridomil.
Possible problems with growing
Palma is very sensitive to compliance with all rules of care. When retreating from them, leaves are the first to suffer.
- Dry the tips of the leaves - the air is too dry, you need to spray the plants more often.
- The leaves turn yellow - lack of moisture, you need to water more often.
- The leaves darken - waterlogging, reduce the number of waterings.
- Date palm stops growing - it is too cold in the room. At temperatures below 16 degrees, the roots function poorly, practically not assimilating nutrients. Another reason could be high acidity of the soil. It is acidified when watered with hard water. Such a plant will have to be transplanted.
In general, the care of the indoor giant is not so difficult. Palm trees are very responsive to care and will delight the grower with good growth and healthy appearance.
Palma - an exotic home plant
Are you dreaming about a tropical corner on your window sill? About the exotic? Then get a room palm. And how to care for such an exotic indoor plant, you will tell the World without Harm ...
What palm trees do not grow at home
Before we proceed to specific advice and recommendations on how to care for a palm tree at home, let's decide what kind of plants are not to be kept in indoor conditions. And no matter how hard we try - to create comfortable conditions for them to grow in an ordinary apartment - we are unlikely to succeed. The point is that
such palm trees need special maximum illumination, and throughout the entire daylight hours it should be direct sunlight, high temperature and high humidity.
To create such a microclimate on a windowsill is not possible. Therefore, in order not to torment the plant, and not to disappoint yourself, you should not start the following types of palm trees at home: Bismarkia noble, Brahea, Archontophoenix cumminghaniana (King Palms), Pinangas and Cyrtostachys, most of Licualas, Syagrus romanofskiana (Queen Palms), types of Verschefeltia , Ravenea rivularis, Genomonas ...
If you can create for such plants comfortable and proper conditions for growth and development - dare, and these exotic guests will delight you with their wild growth.
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What soil is suitable for growing palm trees at home?
In order for the plant to grow and develop, you need to provide it with a sufficient level of waterproof and breathable soil mixture - a special extract of the earth. In other words, the soil should be such that after watering a palm tree, the excess moisture can flow freely through special drainage holes within a few minutes after you water the plant, while the delay of such moisture in the soil will lead to rotting of the roots and your indoor flower perish. Also, you should understand that palm trees - although unpretentious in plant care, but they have a special relationship with the soil in which they grow, therefore, they transplant the soil rather traumaticly because of transplanting from one pot to another. Therefore,
if you are going to transplant a palm tree - in no case do not try to free its roots from the earthen coma around them - so you can damage the root system and the plant will not take root in the new pot.
Also, it is worth remembering that the longer an indoor flower grows in one pot without replacing the soil - the more intensive the processes of changing the acidity of such a soil, and since the transplant tree does not like transplant - the maximum that you can do to not seriously injure the plant is replace the top layer of soil with a special earth extract, which is intended for growing palm trees - it can be purchased at a flower shop.
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How to water a palm tree and how much water
Try not to water your plant with hard water (from the tap), but choose soft and purified (you can rain) water for irrigation. If you ignore this recommendation, the soil mixture in which the palm tree will grow, get saturated with salts, and this will negatively affect the plant’s “nutrition”, it will become weak, the leaves will start to turn yellow.
As for the water temperature for irrigation, it should in no case be lower than the effective temperature in the room where the palm tree grows, remember this, otherwise your tropical guest will start to ache. Watering the palm itself can be divided into 3 types: without drying the earthen coma, with a slight drying of such an earthen extract and with a strong drying of the contents of the flowerpot. The last option of watering should not be too frequent, as the roots of the plant may begin to rot.
How much water to water a palm tree? Fortunately, you are dealing with a "smart" plant, therefore, it has the ability to regulate the processes of water consumption, because you just need to observe the regularity of watering, and the rest - your palm will figure it out. Excess moisture, it will release through the drainage hole in the pot (it must be). And, here is the lack of moisture, it will gather, though not from the amount of water for irrigation, but from the frequency and regularity of irrigation.
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Optimal palm moisture and lighting features
Since palm trees are tropical plants, and in the tropics, despite the high temperatures, a high humidity indicator, it can show itself in all its glory if you provide it with a high humidity indicator. True, in the conditions of apartments - this is not easy to achieve, however, it is possible to increase the humidity exclusively for the room palm, if
place a special container with water next to the plant, use a humidifier for air, spray the plant (especially in heat) with distilled or rain water.
In no case do not spray the leaves of palm trees with ordinary hard tap water - white patches form on them and the flower will start to ache. Also, do not spray palm leaves in autumn, winter and spring, otherwise the plant, in the absence of conditions for evaporation of such moisture, can get a fungus. It is also not necessary to arrange such water procedures for palm trees, if the plant is in the shade, or it is a dull day outside ...
As for lighting, palm trees love light, however, how much of such light should be - here it is necessary to take into account the appearance of the plant itself.
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How to care for palm leaves
Healthy green leaves - palm status indicator
If you did not know, then periodically it is necessary to cut the leaves, however, the correctness of pruning such leaves, first of all, depends on the type of your palm. The leaves themselves should be periodically washed with warm water or wiped with a damp cloth in order to collect dust from them.
Is it possible to use special chemical cleaners for cleaning leaves? Experienced palm breeders claim that this is not worth doing, because the exotic guest is very sensitive to chemical components and instead of being good, you will harm the plant, and its leaves will start to turn yellow and ache ...
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How to fertilize a palm tree
If we consider a palm tree as a tree, then for its development this plant can use limited resources. However, if you do not provide the plant with proper conditions of maintenance - if you do not follow the recommendations regarding soil, watering, humidity, then as a result of stunting and not comfortable habitat, the palm tree will begin to experience a deficiency of vitamins and trace elements. And then you have to “feed her”. However, depending on the type of palm tree and on the state of the plant, it is necessary to regulate both the amount and composition of such top dressing. Also, it is worth knowing that it is possible not only to feed the soil, but also the roots of the palm tree itself, and this should be done at least once a month.
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Diseases and pests of decorative palm trees
Sometimes, in some sources you can find information such as “as a result of a lack of moisture - a spider mite can appear on a palm tree”. However, if you think about the formulation itself, then there is no connection between humidity and the emergence of a spider mite. So, the pest either is - or not, just under conditions favorable for its development, it manifests itself in all its glory. Therefore, do not be lazy, buying a palm tree, carefully examine all the leaves of the plant - after all, on a guest from the tropics there may be parasites and ticks, which not only destroy it, but also harm other plants in your home. When you brought a palm tree home, create quarantine conditions for it and do not rush to surround it with your home flowers. If the plant looks healthy and is such - remove the quarantine and equip a place for a palm tree for permanent residence. By the way, as practice and experience shows,
plants bought from hands or brought from tourist trips - almost always require the subsequent control of pests that live on their leaves ...
Now, as for palm diseases, they can be divided into 3 types - bacterial, fungal and physiological. And, if diseases of a physiological nature are still self-treating, then fungal and bacterial infections are more difficult - they are difficult to identify, they are hard to cure, not all drugs help, most of these drugs pose a threat to human life and health, the likelihood of being infected other plants are very big ...
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How to choose a pot for palm
Choose a pot for palm size
Palma, despite the fact that in this case it is an indoor plant - it grows very quickly, therefore, be prepared for the fact that every 2-4 years, you will have to, as she does not like it, after all, transplant it into a more volumetric capacity. Therefore, buying expensive pots is not entirely appropriate, because after a few years, you will have to replace them. In addition, choosing a pot for a palm tree - choose it so that in the future you can easily get the root of a palm tree with an earthen clod from there, and not damage the plant root system, therefore, it is better to choose a plastic container - you can easily cut, whereas in the case of a ceramic pot - you have to break it, which is not very safe for you and for your exotic flower.
Also, with regard to ceramic pots, although they look more beautiful than plastic - they earthen room dries faster, therefore, in such a ceramic pot, especially if the ceramics inside are not covered with glaze, you will have to water your palm tree more often.
As for the color of the pot, it is better to choose light shades, but if you are a supporter of the dark color of the pots, then you will need to put it in a pot of light color - then the palm roots will not overheat.
Do not forget about the special drainage holes at the bottom of the pot - without them, moisture will accumulate, and the roots of the plant will begin to rot.
Well, and regarding the size of the pot - small plants can not be planted in large containers. So, for a small sprout a pot with a capacity of 200 milliliters is suitable, then 400 milliliters and 500 ... All subsequent transplants of a plant should increase the volume of the pot by no more than 25-30%.
Why it is impossible to plant a small flower in a large pot (after all, so you warn subsequent transplants of the plant, and save the flower from stress)? The plant in such a pot is likely to die, because the root system will rot from excess moisture in it. Well, and if it turns out to be in a too small pot, then it will stop developing ...
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In this group of plants, thin stems resemble bamboo shoots with a height of 1 m or more. They are suitable for spacious rooms.
Have Hamedorei Seyfriz (Chamaedorea Seifrizii) and Hamedorei breaking through (Chamaedorea Erumpens) dark green leaves, only the first they are narrow, the second wide. Their height can reach 2–3 m.
Wai plants of this group are divided into leaves, which can be soft and arched or hard and straight.
Large leaves are divided into segments, fan-shaped from the base of the leaf blade. Petioles long, with spikes.
Hamedorea Graceful (Neanta) (Chamaedorea elegans)
One of the most common compact species. She is fond of flower growers for being perfectly adapted to pot growing in small rooms, although she grows in humid forests in her native Mexico. It grows very slowly, reaches only 60 cm over several years. With good lighting, adult flowers appear yellow flowers and fruit are tied.
The varieties of this palm tree are shade tolerant, resistant to pests. Does not lose decoration with dry air in the room. A suitable plant for beginner gardeners who want to grow an exotic southerner for the first time.
Unpretentious Asian palm tree, drought resistant. At home, grow several types: Rapis tall (Rhapis excelsa), rapis multisected (Rhapis multifida)as well as popular varice high varieties with variegated foliage.
Growing conditions at home
To succeed in growing indoor palms, you need to know the conditions in which they grow in nature and try to recreate them as much as possible at home.
The most luxurious specimens grow when they are from all sides enough natural light. In the conditions of a city apartment it is difficult to create such greenhouse conditions. But there are plants, for example, common Hovey and Hamedoreathat have adapted to the penumbra.
Since palm trees are plants of a humid climate, then at room conditions they need daily sprayingotherwise, sooner or later, the process of leaf death will begin.
Plants should protect from drafts and sudden changes in air temperature. In the summer, they will be comfortable at 18–22 ° C, in the winter, cool content at a temperature of 10–15 ° C.
Palm Soil should not be too loose. Light store substrate is more suitable for young plants. For adult palm trees it is better to cook it yourself, mixing 2 parts of garden soil, humus and peat with 1 part of sand.
How to grow a palm tree from seed?
Growing palm seed
For home cultivation, garden stores often offer seeds dates of Canarian and Robelen, Washington, filamentous, Hamedorei elegant, Hamerops, Livistons Chinese.
You need to buy fresh seedsThe less time elapsed from the collection date, the greater the chance of success.
It is important to pay attention to seed maturity. Fully matured must be black, red, or yellow-brownbut not green.
Before sowing seeds soaked in water for 1-3 days, changing it daily. Manganese or sodium humate can be added to the water. Then, if there are residues of unpeeled peel on swollen seeds, it is scraped with a knife.
Hard-shelled seed cut the shell и приступают к проращиванию.
Берут маленькие пластиковые стаканчики, внизу делают дренажное отверстие. Субстрат для посева should be loose and wet, suitable peat, leaf soil with the addition of vermiculite or ready soil for palm trees.
Seeds one by one are laid out in each cup., the sawn side down and buried.
For seedlings need create a warm and humid environmentlike a tropical climate. Capacity covered with a plastic bag and put in a warm and lighted place. Periodically mini-greenhouse airingso that mold does not appear, monitor the humidity, if necessary, water.
Palm seeds ascend a long time. Terms of germination in different species range from two weeks to several months. When a long-awaited seedling appears on two or three simple leaves, they are seated in separate pots, trying not to disturb the root.
Room palm care
Palm does not take out dry air. Every day their sprayed with a spray bottle so that the water flowed from the leaves. Some growers to get rid of dust rub leaves wet sponge. This should be done very carefully so as not to damage the wax coating or short hairs that are plant protection.
Water for irrigation and spraying should be separated, with a temperature not lower than 30 ° C. Summer and spring plants water plentifully, during the winter period irrigation reduces. In cold weather, it is enough to keep the topsoil wet.
Palm trees love top dressing organic fertilizers, but you can use ready-made mineral complexes. From spring to autumn, root dressings alternate with foliar treatments.
Important point in the care – correct removal of naturally dead leaves. It is necessary to wait until the sheet itself dries completely and then removed. If you cut at the beginning of the process, then the young leaf that replaced it will not last long and will begin to die.
Indoor palm trees do not like transplantation, once again they should not be disturbed. One of the reasons for the procedure is the proliferation of the root system, filling the entire earthen coma in a pot or flowerpot.
Young plants are transplanted in the first 3 years - once a year, adult specimens less often - once in 3-4 years. If the plant is very large and it is problematic to transplant it, then the upper layer of soil is changed in the container.
Transplantation is best done in the spring. New capacity for the grown-up palm should be 3-5 cm more than before. Be sure to take care of drainage, the roots should not be stagnant water. At the bottom of the pot lay a layer of expanded clay.
The main thing when transplanting - do not damage the leaves and scapes. The plant is carefully transferred to a new container. Also need pay attention to the roots. In adult palms, they often rot, so when transplanting, the dead parts are carefully removed. If the damage is severe, then immediately after the procedure it is necessary to provide bottom heating to 25–30 ° C. So rooting will go faster and there will be more chances that the plant will survive. At first, the transplanted palm tree is protected from direct sunlight.
What is this plant?
Palma is a plant belonging to the family of monocots and grows mainly in tropical latitudes. Many palm trees are arboreal, that is, they have a solid unbranched trunk with primary thickening. But in some species there are so-called climbing or creeping shoots. In total, the family includes about 3400 species and more than 180 genera.
In nature, a palm tree can grow to impressive size, but in room conditions it will grow slowly. By the way, such a plant in many cultures and countries is considered a symbol of victory, so that it can bring success to its owner. Also, the palm tree personifies the world, thereby helping to create a calm and favorable atmosphere.
What are they like?
All palm trees can be divided into peristisolist, having leaves, shaped like feathers, as well as fan-leaved, having rather wide leaves.
Now it is worthwhile to list some particular types of palm trees:
- Chrysalidocarpus is considered to be a rather unpretentious plant, as it tolerates both penumbra and sun well. Watering should be sufficient, the optimum temperature - 18-23 degrees.
- Rapis does not tolerate direct sunlight and requires fresh air. Watering should be abundant, humidity - high, spraying - regular. This is a very capricious look, so it is not suitable for beginners and busy people.
- Although Hoveya loves natural light, it grows beautifully with artificial light, and also tolerates shadow. Watering should be regular, but use separated water for it. Daily spraying is also required.
- The date palm in the photo looks like a small bush. Such a plant at a young age requires diffused light, but after 4-5 years it also transfers direct sunlight. Humidity should be high. In addition, it requires constant access of oxygen, so that you need to air the room regularly, and in summer you can take the pot outside. The optimum temperature is 23-27 degrees. Watering should be abundant, but to prevent stagnant moisture can not.
- Hamedorea is an ideal option for beginning flower growers, as it is absolutely not capricious. It will grow at normal room temperature, and even in an unlighted place. But watering and spraying should be regular.
- Hamerops grown in the summer in the fresh air, and in the winter sent to a rather cool room. The air must be fresh. Frequent spraying is also required.
- Coconut palm can be called the most photo-loving, so it is important to provide such a plant sufficient lighting. The optimum temperature for growing is about 20-24 degrees. Be sure to provide fresh air and spray the leaves. When watering, make sure that the moisture does not fall on the nut, as it can rot.
- Trachicarpus can grow in partial shade and in a well-lit place. Watering should be moderate, but in no case do not let the soil clod dry out. Leaves should be sprayed and wiped, and the pot should be turned from time to time.
- Beautiful livistona loves light and moderate watering with warm water. In summer, the best plant to send in the garden or on the balcony.
Placing a palm tree requires a well-lit place, so it is best to place it near the window. But other plants should not be near, they can block the light and reduce the amount of oxygen, and this is very harmful.
From May to August, the plant can be kept outdoors, and brought home in the winter.
The pot should first fit in size. So, seedlings should be placed in a container with a volume of about 200-300 ml. Grown up shoots need to be transplanted into a pot of about 0.5 liters. Thus, each of the following pots should be about no third more than the previous one. You should not buy a pot "for growth", then the plant may not receive the required amount of nutrients from the soil. With small sizes the roots will be cramped.
Pay attention to the material, shape and even the color of the pot. So, its height must necessarily be greater than the diameter, that is, small containers do not fit, as the roots grow not only sideways, but down. There should be a drain hole in the bottom.
As for the material, you should choose ceramics or plastic. But since ceramics absorb moisture, watering will have to be made more frequent. The color should be light, since the dark one can heat both the tank and the earth lump, which is unacceptable.
For the cultivation of such plants suitable special soil for palm trees. It can be replaced with a mixture consisting of two parts of leafy ground, three parts of humus, part of river sand and three parts of sod. Place a drain on the bottom of the pot.
The lighting should be sufficient, but some types of palm trees do not tolerate direct sunlight, so it is better to block the window with light curtains or blinds.
Humidity should be high.
How to water?
Watering should be sufficient and regular. The soil should be wet, but do not allow moisture stagnation. It is desirable to use distilled water at room temperature, but not cold.
Also palm tree care includes spraying the leaves and wiping them with a damp cloth. Spray the plant preferably every day with settled water. You can wipe the palm once or twice a week and without cleaning products!
A palm tree should be transplanted every two to three years as it grows (up to three years, transplantation should be carried out annually, since during this period active growth is observed). Do not expose the roots and move the plant with the soil, replacing only its top layer. In order not to damage the root system, you can split or cut the pot.
Adult plants should be fed during the growing season. Fertilizer is desirable after impregnation of earthy coma. Used compositions for ordinary indoor flowers.
- Do not allow drafts.
- Do not cut the top shoots, otherwise the palm tree will simply die, because the growth point is at the top.
- Do not allow hypothermia. In cold weather, it is better to lift the pot from the floor to the chair.
Let your palm tree be healthy, grow fast and always make you happy!
How to grow indoor palm tree
Therefore, going to a party with friends or relatives, you can choose a beautiful indoor palm tree as a gift, and cheap flower delivery in Moscow will help you safely and safely deliver any real flowers to the addressee.
Many interior designers are confident that the palm can be organically fit into any style.
The graceful silhouette of this plant will certainly become the center of attention in the sweet baroque, in the solemn empire, and in strict English classics, as well as among the high-tech glass and steel surfaces.
Like any luxurious creature, the palm tree does not tolerate crowding, shady corners of the house or nondescript surroundings.
But, in order to grow indoor palm trees, it is not at all necessary to move to a spacious palace.
Due to the variety of appearance and habits of palm plants, a suitable copy can be selected for almost any room.
First of all, for experienced florists ask about the final height of the adult plant, because the palm can not be shortened - a tropical beauty from this dies.
For example, a date palm is able to reach three meters in height, which will inevitably become a problem for residents of a small apartment.
In addition to the date, such large specimens as Washingtonia, Hamerops, Liviston Chinese require special conditions of detention and are more acceptable for breeding in the halls of private mansions.
To decorate an apartment, it is better to opt for medium-sized species: Hamedorea is elegant (up to 2 meters high), chrysalidocarpus is yellowish or dates are palely colored.
Palm should not be placed in a draft and planted in cramped dishes, when choosing it, give preference to natural materials.
Young plants need to be transplanted every spring in more spacious pots, and mature palm trees can not be disturbed, but periodically add a fresh layer of soil.
Indoor palm tree does not like direct sunlight, their effect after watering the plant can lead to yellow spots on the leaves.
It is better to locate the home palm at some distance from the south window so that it is illuminated by diffused light.
For evenly lush foliage, periodically turn the palm towards the light so that the arrow of the new sheet is always directed toward the room.
Regular watering and spraying prevent the appearance of dry ends on the leaves. Winter watering - once a week, and summer - daily.
By spraying palm leaves, the necessary moisture is provided, and in winter, trays with water can be installed near the heaters.
People from the tropics need a sufficiently warm air temperature, about 20-25 degrees, so protect the palm tree from the cold.
In conclusion, I would like to draw attention to the terms of the acquisition of palm trees.
Spontaneous buying "from hands", especially in the winter season, can lead to severe stress of the plant and its death, and, besides, the conditions for growing palm trees play an important role for the subsequent development.
Therefore, buy indoor palm tree only in specialized stores. When the temperature is low, wrap the plant with thick paper and a plastic bag.
In the first month of palm adaptation to new conditions of existence, it is not necessary to change the location of the plant, water it abundantly or spray it.
For the peoples of the world, the palm branch has, and had different meanings:
- in ancient China, this plant bears the symbol of dignity and fertility,
- in the Arabian state - associated with the tree of life,
- in Christianity - a symbol of immortality, divine blessing and eden, victory over death,
- in the early period of Catholicism, it is a funeral symbol.
A palm branch is also present in the emblem symbolism of ancient peoples. In the modern world, they also use a palm branch in heraldry: Bolivia, Cuba, Cyprus, Sierra Leone, and so on. Here it symbolizes the territorial location of states and their economic priorities.
Basic conditions for growing palm houses
Is it possible to grow your palm tree at home in a regular apartment? Can. And it is quite capable of anyone who treats green pets with love. The main requirements for the normal growth of the plant include:
- Bright room, diffused light (dries in a dark place).
- Compliance with the temperature: no sudden changes. No drafts.
- Finding a number of other plants is not welcome - a single palm tree.
- Compliance with the rules of irrigation and humidity. If the air is dry - it is recommended to regularly spray the leaves on both sides with warm water. Also recommended wiping leaves with a damp sponge dipped in water. As a preventive measure against pests, you can use a weak chamomile decoction.
- Regular fertilization of plants during growth (from March to September) - once a week, in the fall - 2 times a month, in winter - once a month.
- For young plants, fertilizing is carried out 6 months after transplantation, using conventional fertilizers for flowers.
Plants up to three years old should be replanted annually. After three years, trees are replanted 1 time in 3-4 years.
IMPORTANT! With each subsequent transplant take a larger capacity. When transplanting minimize damage to the roots, the procedure is carried out carefully.
For planting, you can use special soil for palm trees, which are sold in ready-made form. But you can prepare the mixture yourself by taking:
- two parts of humus-sheet soil,
- two parts of clay-soddy soil,
- one piece of rotted manure,
- one piece of peat,
- one piece of sand
- some charcoal.
Before planting a plant at the bottom, we form a drainage layer, it is possible from small expanded clay. We water the tree for the first 14 days with care so as not to flood the root system without accidentally flooding it.
A small video on the cultivation of palm trees at home:
Palm trees are grown by different methods, but the main one is seed cultivation. Next, consider growing out of the stone on the example of a date palm, as the most acceptable for home conditions.
Preparatory work, planting and transplanting plants
To increase the chances of a positive result, it is better to prepare a few bones for planting, given that the germination percentage ranges from 40 to 60 percent. In order for the seed to sprout faster, it is necessary to clean it from the pulp, so as not to provoke the process of rotting in the soil. Bone need to wash to dry.
Then the seed is placed in a small container, filled with warm water, and placed under direct sunlight or on the battery for a couple of days, changing the water periodically.
When bone swells, transplanted into pots. Before planting, you need to mix sawdust and sand in equal parts, and add this mixture to a pot filled with peat.
Next, in the prepared container, covered with 2/3 of the planting soil, spread the bone and sprinkle with the same mixture to a depth of 1-2 cm.
We water. After that, the pot is cleaned in a warm place, the air temperature is not below 25 ° C and watered regularly. To achieve the best result, you can make an imitation of the greenhouse effect - to cover the container with a transparent film.
Bones sprout, as a rule, in one and a half-two months. By this time, the sprout must be transplanted into a larger pot (300 ml). And slightly change the composition of the soil: four parts of sand, two parts of turf, peat, humus and one part of charcoal. The bottom must be filled with drainage (small pebbles or expanded clay). A pot with a sprout planted in a well-lit place, avoiding direct sunlight. The plant is regularly watered and sprayed.
Date palm care
In order for the plant to be happy for a long time with its kind of happy plant growing, you need to know how to properly take care of date palm in the home. Cache pot with a palm must be periodically rotated. Otherwise, the light will be distributed unevenly. It is important to water the plant regularly. Re-moisten the soil is not worth it. In the warm season, when there is an active growth of the plant, watering is supplemented with a special top dressing, which can be easily purchased in the store. This should be done once a week. Зимой подкармливать пальму достаточно не чаще раза в месяц. Если на растении появились пятна коричневого цвета, значит, почва сильно переувлажнена. Если листья становятся желтыми, значит влаги недостаточно. Не стоит забывать про опрыскивание водой из распылителя.
Although dates and loves good lighting, burns can not be allowed at the plant. The presence of pale leaves suggests that the palm should be removed from direct sunlight.
Of the main diseases that the plant is prone to, there are two: pink rot and spotting. The main pests parasitizing on a palm tree are spider mites and scale insects.
To combat bugs and other pests, the stem and leaves are wiped with a sponge moistened with a solution of soap, or the plant is sprayed with infusion of garlic. To cut the palm branches is not worth it, since its growth occurs at the top of the trunk. The first 5 years, date is transplanted once a year. Then once every three years. To understand that it is time to replant the plant is not difficult: the root system completely fills the pot.
When the palm tree is transplanted, a part of the roots is carefully cut. The date has a very long root system, therefore, the pot should be chosen high and roomy.
With proper care, after a few years, the palm tree will grow and turn any dwelling into a real cozy oasis. The main thing is to choose a place where it will be spacious and not crowded.
Before you start planting a date at home, we recommend watching the following video: