Pepper is the annual herb of the family Solanaceae, as well as its fruits. It is necessary to distinguish this crop from black pepper, the latter belongs to the Pepper family. The homeland of pepper is South and Central America, wild species of this plant still grow in its tropical areas.
Pepper is considered one of the most ancient vegetables, it began to be cultivated for several tens of centuries BC. After European mariners in the XV century. hit the Central America, the pepper became known in Europe.
The first fruits of pepper appeared in Europe thanks to the expedition of Columbus. And as a vegetable crop, he began to grow several years later. After Europe, pepper got to Turkey, from there to Bulgaria, then Moldova, Ukraine and southern regions of Russia.
❧ In the pepper there are no enzymes that destroy the vitamins during canning. Therefore, in winter, a canned home priest will bring almost as much benefit as fresh vegetables in summer.
At first, this vegetable was a real rarity, it was grown primarily as a medicinal plant with a high content of vitamins in the fruit. Then the taste of pepper was appreciated, they began to carry out selection work with it. As a result, this vegetable was able to grow in more severe conditions than in its homeland, its fruits became larger and tastier. Also managed to increase the yield of pepper. Currently, pepper is very popular, so the selection work continues to this day.
Varieties of pepper are divided into sweet and sharp, or bitter.
Useful properties of pepper
Some varieties of sweet pepper contain more vitamin C than lemon or currant. In addition, pepper is rich in vitamins P, B, E, phosphorus, magnesium, fiber, iron, potassium, essential oils. The alkaloid capsaicin, which has a beneficial effect on the functioning of the circulatory system, helps with colds and respiratory diseases, gives hotness to hot pepper. There is very little capsaicin in sweet pepper, some varieties are completely devoid of it, so if there are no contraindications, sweet pepper can be used together with spicy.
Also called bell pepper. It is one of the most valuable vegetable crops. No vegetable contains as much vitamin C as sweet peppers. The content of vitamin A pepper can be compared with carrots. It is also rich in rutin, sugars, B vitamins and essential oils.
Seeds of sweet pepper are recommended to be sown on seedlings not earlier than mid-March. After 60 days, it can be transplanted into the ground. When landing under cover, this will be the second half of May, without shelter - the beginning of June.
Sweet and bitter pepper should not be planted next to, otherwise the fruits of sweet pepper will be burning.
The benefits and harm of sweet pepper
Sweet pepper is the fruit of annual herbaceous plants of the family of the nightshade. Pepper is a false hollow berries. Pepper fruits come in different colors: red, green, orange. The shape and size of the pepper is also different.
Sweet pepper came to us from America. In its homeland, it is found in the wild. Peppers are bred on continents with a temperate, subtropical and tropical climate.
On the photo are the fruits of sweet pepper.
Sweet pepper is useful for people who are prone to depression, have diabetes and have memory complaints, as this vegetable contains carotene, as well as vitamins C, B1, B2, B9, P, PP. By the way, the amount of vitamin C in sweet pepper is more than in lemon and currants.
Pepper is rich in mineral salts of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, fluorine, zinc, manganese, sodium. Thus, the pepper becomes a godsend for people who have bleeding gums, vascular fragility. And pepper helps to improve digestion, soothes cough, strengthens nerves.
In contrast to the bitter, sweet pepper contains capsaicin in small quantities, so sweet pepper can be consumed in large volumes and not be afraid for your stomach.
Sweet peppers can provide protection against cancer due to compounds that do not allow carcinogens to pass into the cells.
Pepper is useful to eat with fatty foods, as paprika helps burn calories and speeds up the metabolism.
However, with all its positive qualities, it is strictly forbidden to use pepper in case of stenocardia, hypertension, gastric ulcer, gastritis, acute and chronic kidney and liver diseases, insomnia, epilepsy. Also, sweet pepper is one of the first places in the list of products with a high content of pesticides.
Features of sweet pepper planting
Having listed all advantages of sweet pepper, it becomes absolutely obvious ˗ you have to have this vegetable in your garden! However, before planting pepper, you need to familiarize yourself with some of the nuances of planting it.
Let's start with the seeds. They are sorted, immersed in salted water, and mixed. Seeds that have surfaced are removed because they are of poor quality and are not suitable for planting. The graded seeds are washed in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection. After that, the seeds are washed again in order to enrich them with minerals. Special mixtures of such fertilizers are sold in specialized stores.
In the photo seeds of pepper
In these mixtures, seeds are soaked for a day. Next, the seeds must be bubbling ˗ procedure immersion in water, blowing with oxygen. This treatment should take 2 days. The seeds treated in this way should be put on a wet gauze and placed in a warm place (temperature approximately + 30 ° С). When the seeds begin to peel, they, finally, can and should be put into the soil 1.5 cm deep.
Photo planting pepper seeds
Pepper pick is different from other vegetables. Experienced gardeners are advised to transplant plants in pairs. This is conducive to improved yields because peppers are cross-pollinated crops.
On the photo the process of picking (transplanting) seedlings of pepper
Photo of the sweet pepper plant after picking
It must be remembered that seedlings need strong lighting. Before planting peppers in open ground sprouts need to harden under the sun, otherwise the seedlings can burn. Thus, seedlings need sunbathing, starting from one hour and gradually increasing for the whole day. At night, seedlings need to be brought into the house.
In the photo, grown pepper seedlings
Planting peppers in open ground occurs in early June. Favorable soil for sweet pepper will be the land where they used to grow radishes, cabbage, turnips and radishes. If a tomato was previously grown in the ground, then it is better not to plant pepper in this place. Sandy – clay soils have become the most beneficial for growing sweet peppers because of their high humus content.
Photo planting seedlings of sweet pepper in open ground
When planting pepper in open ground, you need to keep a distance of 40 cm between the sprouts. For each seed set support, tying it to the stem at the height of the fork.
Pepper in open ground is very fastidious culture. But the fruits of this pepper are juicy, with a rich taste and a lot of vitamins, and the bright colors will turn an ordinary dish into a masterpiece of culinary art.
The best varieties of sweet pepper
In order to choose the best varieties of pepper, you need to decide on the purpose of the fruit. Another support, of course, will be your taste. If you plan to use mostly fresh peppers, then the best varieties will be peppers with large fruits. In this case, fit: "California miracle", "Gift of Moldova" and "Winnie Pooh." These varieties need special care.
In the photo pepper varieties California miracle
If the pepper goes to be preserved, then the best varieties will be “Merchant” and “Topolyn”. The fruits of this variety of sweet pepper are smaller and less whimsical when grown.
Photo varieties Topolyn
Photo of the sweet pepper variety Merchant
In the photo pepper varieties Aristotle
Photo of Siesta Sweet Pepper
In the photo is a medium-early hybrid of sweet pepper Hercules F1 for outdoor cultivation
Many gardeners call sweet pepper "the king of vegetables" - and for good reason, because sweet pepper is rich in vitamins and minerals, an indispensable product on the kitchen table and, like all monarchs, whimsical. And yet it is necessary to have a sweet pepper in your garden. Good luck in growing and large yields!
Features of growing
Sweet (vegetable, Bulgarian) pepper is an annual plant, during one growing season it goes through the whole development cycle - from sowing to seed ripening.
Such phenological phases are distinguished: seed germination, the formation of true leaves, budding, flowering, technical, and then biological ripeness of fruits.
At the beginning of the growing season, plants grow slowly. Moreover, the aboveground part develops much more intensively than the root system. The first true leaf appears after 5–7, the buds after 50–60 days after germination.
The laying of flower buds begins when a fourth true leaf appears on a plant. Flowers, as a rule, are located at the base of a fork of branching shoots. The greatest number of flowers, of which commodity fruits are formed, is up to the fourth tier of branches.
Over the entire vegetation period, from 30 to 100 flowers are formed on a single plant, about 20% of which are fertilized.
Sweet pepper is a plant of southern latitudes, this explains its high demands on heat. The seeds begin to germinate at a temperature not lower than +13 ° C, but in this case, the seedlings appear only on the 18-25th day after sowing, and sometimes later.
At a temperature of +25 ° C and above, friendly shoots appear after 7–9 days. Pepper grows best and develops at an air temperature of + 25–27 ° C.
Adult plants can also bear fruit at a temperature of + 15–18 ° C, but further cooling will have a negative effect on flowering. At + 10–13 ° C, the growth processes stop, the metabolism is disturbed and often the plants die.
Sweet pepper plants are extremely sensitive to negative temperatures. They die when the frosts are –0.3. - 0.5 ° C. Sweet pepper is very poorly tolerated and excessively hot weather. At temperatures above +35 ° C, the plants are oppressed, the buds and flowers fall.
As a native of the tropics, sweet pepper makes very high demands on soil moisture and air. Insufficient content of water vapor in the air (humidity), especially in hot weather, causes excessive inhibition of plants and even abscission of flowers and young ovaries.
The sweet pepper root system needs a lot of water, which is spent on transpiration and crop formation. The critical period for moisture supply is long (1.5–2 months) - from the beginning of the appearance of the first buds to the setting of fruits.
Peppers react negatively both to the drying of the soil (they suffer from an excessive increase in the concentration of salts in the soil solution) and to its waterlogging (they experience a lack of oxygen in the soil).
Sweet peppers are very demanding on soil fertility. High yields are obtained only on humus-rich, well-structured soils. Heavy clayy, cold soils with a high level of groundwater are unsuitable for growing sweet pepper. Unfavorable to him and increased acidity. The optimum is the reaction of the soil solution in the range of pH 6-6.6.
Bell peppers react very quickly to fertilizer. Prior to the start of fruit formation, they need higher doses of nitrogen fertilizers, accelerating the development and formation of vegetative organs, as well as the root system.
The greatest demands on phosphorus are manifested during the formation and ripening of fruits. In the case of phosphorus deficiency, the lower leaves die off. Throughout its life, pepper needs potassium, calcium and magnesium.
Sweet pepper responds well to the introduction of trace elements into the soil - boron, manganese, zinc, iodine, molybdenum, etc. However, it must be remembered that an excess of mineral nutrients in the soil adversely affects the size and quality of the crop, the timing of its receipt and the activity of all processes plant life.
Excess nitrogen activates the growth of the vegetative mass to the detriment of fruit bearing. And an excessive amount of phosphate and potash fertilizers, on the contrary, inhibits the growth of leaves in young plants and leads to a significant decrease in yield.
Sweet peppers are light-requiring. For normal development, they need a short (12-14 hour) day. Up to 20–30 days old, plants benefit from a long day, it accelerates their growth. A short day accelerates the development of adult plants, causing their earlier flowering and the formation of fruits.
In most varieties, when shading, yellowing of leaves, budding and ovary are observed. Branches become fragile and very fragile. Moreover, late-ripening varieties react more strongly to a shorter day than early-ripening ones.
Our growing technique
Success in growing sweet peppers ensures quality seedlings. Like most lovers, we grow it according to the most primitive technology - on the windowsill:
1. Cooking soil mix - It must be nutritious, with a good physical structure. We prepare a soil mixture from humus, sod land and coarse sand (3: 3: 1). On the mixture bucket add a glass of wood ash.
2. Seeds for sowing use only fresh, last year's harvest. Be sure to process them for 20 minutes in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) at a temperature of + 20–22 ° C, then rinse thoroughly with running water and dry to flowability.
3. Seeds are sown seedlings in late February and germinate them at a temperature not lower than +25 ° C. Usually sprouts appear on the 12–14th day. After the mass emergence of shoots, temporarily (for 5–7 days) we transfer them to a well-lit, but cooler place (temperature + 17–18 ° C) so that the seedlings do not stretch out.
4. Watering seedlings as needed, only with warm water, preventing the soil from drying out and over-wetting, we feed it with humisol twice.
5. Picking We practice growing seedlings without picking and picking. The first option is preferable, since the restorative capacity of the root system in pepper is weakly expressed, and the seedlings with injured roots do not take root well during the picking, lagging behind in growth.
6. In open ground The seedlings are planted in late May - early June, when the threat of recurrent frosts is over. Planting pattern - 60 × 30 cm, for tall varieties - 70 × 30 cm.
7. When planting seedlings in each well put 1-2 tbsp. spoon Nitrofoski, carefully mixing it with the soil.
8. Pour warm water (heated in the sun), then the seedlings take root well and painlessly.
During the growing season, pepper should be watered regularly and evenly. Water should always be warm. If cold water is used for irrigation (below +15 ° C) in hot weather, when the temperature of the air and soil is more than +30 ° C, there is a strong wilting of the plants.
Naturally, it is best to apply drip irrigation for irrigation with simultaneous fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. But for many (and for us as well) this is still an impossible dream. Therefore, planting sweet pepper mulch. A layer of mulch well protects the soil from draining, overheating during the day and overcooling at night.
According to our observations, temperature variations on the soil surface in summer in sunny weather under pepper range from +50 ° C during the day to +15 ° C in the early morning. What margin of safety should a plant have to withstand such stress? And thanks to the 5–8 cm layer of mulch, this drop is insignificant — from +10 to 15 ° C.
We highly recommend anyone who grows sweet peppers and other vegetables to actively introduce mulching. As organic mulch you can use:
- cut weeds (naturally, without seeds!)
- post-harvest residues
- mowed and dried grass
- sunflower husk, millet, buckwheat
- sawdust, bark, fallen leaves
- compost, peat and other materials.
The layer of mulch should be at least 5-8 cm, and it should be updated once a month.
Mulch - protective mantle of the soil. Under it lives a lot of beneficial microorganisms, worms, beetles, which are crushed and turned into organic humus materials. In addition, the mulch performs another function - does not allow germination of weed seeds.
In areas with strong wind and water erosion, mulch is fine protects the soil from destruction. And concerns about the fact that it becomes a source of accumulation and spread of diseases, pests, are clearly exaggerated.
The development of most diseases and the multiplication of pests depend mainly on the favorable combination of temperature and moisture. Even if your garden is completely cleared of last year’s plant residues, in the year of epiphytotics (for example, late blight) the wind will surely bring this controversy, as well as other diseases from neighbors.
Useful tips and tricks
1. Not earlier than 4 years return sweet pepper to its original place. Иначе не избежать выпадения растений от болезней увядания. Особенно это касается новых сортов, устойчивость которых к этому заболеванию вам неизвестна.
2. Не спешите высаживать новый сорт на всей отведенной под перец площади, рискуете остаться без урожая. Для начала достаточно посадить 3–5 кустов, чтобы убедиться, что новоселу подходит почва на вашем участке. Indeed, often the technology of cultivation does not give the desired result only because of the inappropriate reaction of the soil.
3. Most trouble when growing sweet pepper is associated with the root system of the plant. It is quite branched, but the bulk of the roots is concentrated in the arable layer of soil (15 to 30 cm) and only a few roots penetrate to a depth of 70–80 cm. Even a short-term drying of the soil in the root zone can have negative consequences for plants.
4. If flowers and ovaries fall, the reasons can be different: extreme low or very high air temperature, lack of light, moisture, etc. For example, at low air temperature (+ 8–10 ° C) and soil in the initial vegetation period, plant growth stops and this causes the buds to fall . In the summer period, when the air temperature for several days stays at + 30–35 ° C and higher, there is also a massive abscission of buds, flowers and ovaries. Why is this happening?
In the heat, the water supply in the soil decreases sharply, and its evaporation from the leaves increases, and the outflow of water and nutrients from the generative organs (flowers, ovaries) to the growth points and leaves begins. As a result, the flow of water to the flowers is limited and they fall off.
Falling of flowers and ovaries can also cause strong shading of plants, which is especially dangerous when cool weather sets in. The same is observed with irregular or uneven watering.
5. Low yield of sweet pepper may be low due to late harvesting. Pepper bloom remontant, continuously continues until frost. With the formation of fruits, the appearance of new flowers slows down, after removal - it again increases. Therefore, it is very important to systematically remove the fruits that have reached technical ripeness.
6. Reception of high-quality seeds. Sweet pepper is an optional self-pollinator, that is, it can be pollinated with both its own and foreign pollen. Sweet varieties pereopylennyh with bitter, give the first generation of bitter fruit. This, of course, impairs the commercial quality of the fruit, but does not have such unpleasant consequences as, say, when growing peppers for seeds.
In order to obtain pure-quality seeds, the spatial isolation of different varieties of vegetable and spicy pepper must be at least 300 m.
About the "royal" flower of sweet pepper
By the way, there are techniques with which you can increase the productivity of plants. Take a close look at them carefully. The main stem of the pepper ends with a generative kidney, and in the axils of the upper leaves, second-order shoots begin to develop, forming a fork-like branching.
In the first fork of the main stem, a “corona” or “royal” flower is always revealed. If it is removed and the fetus is not allowed to form, the plant will branch better, therefore, its productivity will be higher.
You can also pinch the main stem over the 5-8th leaf (before budding). This activates the growth of lateral shoots, on which, as a rule, many closely ripening fruits are formed.
After pinching, the crop is increased by at least 30%. In addition, a sprawling bush pritenyu soil and lower parts of the stem, it weakens their overheating and reduces wilting plants, and most importantly - protects the fruit from sunburn.
Growing success To a large extent depends on the correct choice of variety. Today, the assortment of bell pepper is very large. There is a pattern that must be considered when choosing a grade:
- the larger the fruit, the smaller they are on the plant,
- the larger the plants, the more they shade, and the more flowers fall off.
After a decade of testing various varieties of sweet peppers, they settled on varieties: the Gift of Moldova, Coupon, Druzhok, Swallow, Poltava, which have classic cone-shaped fruits. As a rule, we plant several dozens of plants of the California miracle, the Orange miracle with large cubic fruits, as well as Aubria (rotunda cultivar). With fair and proper care, they all give a wonderful harvest. You only need to look after your pets well and respond to help signals in time.
Cultivation of sweet pepper
Briefly and concisely: the preparation and planting of seedlings of sweet pepper, diving, planting in the ground, the conditions for growing sweet pepper - the requirements for the soil, temperature, etc., the formation of a bush, fertilizers and preparations to stimulate growth, fighting pests and diseases of sweet pepper.
Cultivation of sweet pepper, the culture is quite whimsical, has many nuances and subtleties. What should a novice summer resident know, what is important to remember for an experienced farmer?
- Chilli pepper belongs to the family of nightshade, its varieties and hybrids - to the species Capsicum annuum.
- A perennial plant, grown as an annual crop.
- The content of the alkaloid capsaicin, the substance responsible for the pleasant bitterness of the fruit, distinguish between sweet (spicy) varieties of pepper and sharp (bitter).
- The vegetation period is 120-170 days, depending on the variety, the optimum temperature is 19-27 ° C.
- Cultivation of sweet pepper is practiced by the seedling method both in open ground and in closed conditions - in greenhouses and hotbeds. In the southern regions it is possible to grow from seed, in the north - by the seedling method only in protected ground.
Preparing seedlings of sweet pepper
- The seeds obtained last season are suitable for planting due to low keeping quality of seed material. It is advisable to plant peppers for seedlings at the end of March - in the first decade of April. The optimum temperature of germination is 17-22 ° C, the minimum is 16-19 ° C.
- Substrate requirement: light and enriched, optimal composition - humus, sod soil, sand or peat in equal parts, adding wood ash at the rate of 1 cup per ready-mixed bucket is useful. Before the emergence of seedlings, crops are covered with a film or glass, which is lifted daily or dried to eliminate condensate.
- Preliminary preparation of seeds includes calibration in water (selection of small, empty seeds), dressing in a 2% solution of potassium permanganate for 15-20 minutes, soaking of seeds. Purchased seed in the calibration and processing often does not need, but the annotation on the packaging need to be studied.
- Planting is carried out to a depth of 1-2 cm by the continuous method, at the rate of 3-5 g per 1 sq. M with a soil layer thickness of 12-15 cm.
- Thermal regime depends on the age of the seedlings. Before the appearance of the first shoots, the air temperature is 25-30 ° C, the soil is 13-16 ° C, after germination within 5-7 days, 13-15 ° C, after picking, it is maintained at 20-25 ° C during the day and 12-15 ° C at night .
- A dive is made in 20-30 days after sprouting: the central root process is shortened by 1-1.5 cm, then the plants are planted in cassettes or cups. This is done for more growth processes of the roots.
Cultivation without diving, in a cassette way, when 1-2 seeds are placed in each cell, has its advantages: there is no growth delay and stress accompanying the transplant, and its drawbacks are lower root capacity. However, this drawback pays for itself ahead of growth and development in comparison with dive saplings.
- Watering seedlings as they dry out, after an average of 1-2 days, overmoistening the soil is unacceptable. It is advisable to weekly double-feed calcium nitrate at the rate of 1 g / 1 liter of water or other complex fertilizer. Without a pick, pepper seedlings are grown for up to 50 days, with a dive - 60-70 days.
Landing in the ground sweet pepper
Planted in open ground plants can be after after the appearance of 5-7 true leaves. For better rooting and smoothing of stress for 2-3 days before planting, the seedlings are “hardened” by reducing the air temperature to 10-15 ° С for 5-7 hours, then for a day, for 3 days they apply complex fertilizer. When transplanting, foliar feeding with potassium humate, biostimulants, especially sensitive varieties and hybrids with Epin, Megafon, Mars, etc. is useful.
Light loam, sandy soil - the best option for sweet pepper. It is important to arrange the beds in a well-lit, well-heated area, preferably on a southern slope, inaccessible to cold winds.
Plants are planted in plentifully watered holes 7-8 cm deep. Planting depth - deepening the root collar no deeper than 1-2 cm in order to avoid diseases, rotting. The minimum area for one seedling is 50x35 cm, 4-5 plants per 1 sq. M. Effective planting pattern: aisle 50-60 cm, 40-50 cm in a row, with drip irrigation 70-90 cm for row-spacing and 40-50 cm in a row.
In the southern regions, where the “seedless” cultivation of sweet pepper is practiced, seeds are sown when the soil warms up to 15–18 ° C. With a height of seedlings of 15-17 cm, the point of growth, the tip, is pinned to grow side shoots.
Sweet Pepper Care
- Culture is extremely sensitive to irrigation. Drying is unacceptable, as is excessive moisture, leading to a lack of oxygen, slowing the ripening of fruits. With an excess of moisture, the tops of the seedlings darken, wilting is noted. The lack of moisture can be determined by the fall of the leaves, the ovary, the development of apical rot, also associated with a lack of calcium, incomplete ripening of the fruits of sweet pepper.
The first watering is done in 7-10 days after planting, then the rate of single irrigation is 3-5 liters per plant.
- Responsive to the density of the soil: after each irrigation it is necessary to loosen to a depth of 7-8 cm.
It is important to maintain the temperature: 20-25 ° C is considered optimal, frost is destructive: with a noticeable decrease in temperature, the beds are covered with a film, light agrofiber.
- The formation of a bush plays an important role. Removal of stepsons, unproductive shoots, lower leaves is necessary to reduce the load. It is believed that it is necessary to remove the first main bud to stimulate the growth of green mass and increase productivity.
In tall varieties, two or three stems can be formed, which are formed from the upper stepsons, which in this case should not be cut off by pinching the shoots above the second and third leaves.
- Root top dressing and foliar, per leaf, begin after 2 weeks of growth in open ground. Pepper is demanding of the high content of magnesium and potassium in the soil, to the lack of which it reacts with the apical rot of the fruit. Therefore, the "traditional" top dressing is calcium nitrate, a potassium-phosphorus complex.
From the "good old" - sodium humate, nitroammofoska, wood ash. Modern technology of growing peppers involves a combination of food: fertilizer with a frequency of 10-12 days with complex preparations of Kemira, Master, Growth concentrate, Urea, enrichment of soil with organic matter - manure, bird droppings. The biostimulants Epin, Radifarm, etc. give good results.
- Weeding, destruction of weeds, loosening between rows - basic care is not very different from other crops. It is worth mentioning that stunted varieties do not need support, tall ones are tied up to pegs or a trellis like tomatoes, curling beans.
Diseases and pests of sweet pepper
The main pests are the scoops, larvae of the May beetle, the Colorado potato beetle, aphids, whitefly, thrips.
Common diseases of sweet pepper - verticillary wilt, rot, including apical, bacteriosis, viral diseases, alternariosis.
In addition to organic preparations of copper, sulfur - copper sulfate, Bordeaux fluids and others, modern fungicides, microbiological preparations are effective as control measures: Actofit, Actellic against pests, Trichodermin against fungal diseases, complex preparations Gaupsin, Fitosporin and others.
Fruits of sweet pepper are harvested both in technical (with possible subsequent ripening) and biological (final) ripeness, cut off with the stem. For storage in refrigerators used packing boxes, polyethylene perforated bags. At a temperature of 0 + 2 ° С, pepper can be stored for 20-25 days.
Let's hope that my advice will be useful to anyone who is interested in the cultivation of sweet pepper, irreplaceable culture and bed garden decoration. If I missed something, please leave any additions or comments in the comments.