All of us at least once engaged in creativity. And if you tried to grasp the essence of such activities? This will help the psychology of creativity.
What is the psychology of creativity? This is a section of psychology that studies the creation by man of something new, previously unknown, and in various spheres of life: in science, art, technology, and also in everyday everyday life.
Unfortunately, so far this direction is only developing and has no clear theoretical base. That is, science exists only in the framework of research, experiments, and observations. Yes, there are some recommendations, but there is no clear answer to the questions about how to develop creative abilities and how to introduce creativity into ordinary life.
In general, the term “creativity” covers not only the activities of the individual, but also the values it creates, which are transferred from the life and destiny of a particular person into society, culture, science and other fields. And creativity is the process that can lead to the creation of a particular product. But this process is multifaceted, complex and often beyond the control of anyone except the creator.
The basis of the psychology of creativity is the relationship between the process of creativity, the product, as well as the "creator". The process must belong to the individual, but the product subsequently belongs to the culture.
The main subjects of the study of the psychology of creativity are the creative and creative thinking of a person, his inner world, the so-called spiritual potential, emotional coloring processes, inspiration, individual psychological personality characteristics, intuition, imagination.
In addition, the direction also covers the impact that a creative team (if it exists), a society as a whole, a situation in the world, trends, as well as factors that stimulate creative activity (such as brain attacks, some drugs, discussions) can have on a person. and so on).
Different scientists put forward different theories. For example, Freud believed that creativity is an unconscious component and motivation. And the motivation is associated with the so-called eros, that is, the desire for life, which is based on sexual attraction. That is, the most creative part of the human mind is the unconscious.
Jung partly agreed with Freud and put the unconscious at the head of creative activity. But he also added that there are two beginnings in man: personal and creative. And the ability, properties, traits, and skills will depend on the interaction of these principles.
Kelly saw creativity as an alternative to banality. He considered man to be a scientist and a researcher who interacts with the world and interprets it, processing information in its own way. That is, all life is nothing more than a creative process.
Allport and Fromm viewed creativity as a person’s lifestyle. Rogers based on the "field of experience", which includes sensations, events, influences, perceptions, which a person selects without himself understanding it. And Maslow called creativity the function of man, including all forms of self-expression.
What activities can be considered creative?
Any activity can be called creative, as a result of which something qualitatively new is created. But there are simply no clear boundaries between creativity and ordinary activities, and this is recognized by many psychologists. Rather, they can be determined, but only subjectively.
In the process of creating something, a person can rely both on his own experience, and on the experience of other people, as well as on some expectations, generally accepted trends. Other people's ideas can be used for inspiration, which is an integral part of the process. And this does not mean that the creator simply “stole” other people's thoughts. He transformed them, changed them by adding something of his own. And this is also creativity.
Varieties of creativity
There are the following types of creativity:
- Scientific creativity is the discovery and interpretation of patterns of development, as well as the phenomena of the real world. The peculiarities of such a variety are logic, reliance on the abstract. The end product is knowledge.
- Technical creativity encompasses the practical or technological transformation of reality. It relies on effective and imaginative thinking. The product are the mechanisms and designs.
- Artistic work is the aesthetic development of the surrounding world and reality, as well as the satisfaction of the aesthetic needs of the individual, that is, the pursuit of beauty. The main is visual and imaginative thinking. A product is an artistic image that is enclosed in some material object, for example, a poem, a sculpture, a picture.
- Co-creation is the perception of works of art, their interpretation.
- Separately allocated children's creativity, which deserves special attention and is a very interesting variety. In fact, all children are engaged in creative work, because even such a usual and everyday activity as a game can already be regarded as a creative process, because in the process a child connects imagination, fantasizes, thinks out something new.
- Pedagogical creativity is a search for something new in the pedagogical sphere with the goal of giving students more, teaching them something special.
Are you a creative person? If yes, then the article will definitely be useful for you.
Thinking and creativity in psychology
Thinking is one of the types of knowledge of the world, but creativity is possible not only in knowledge, but in creation. The possibilities of the human brain are little studied, and only on certain points in human creative activity can we imagine what he is capable of. Therefore, the question arises, what should be the environmental conditions, so that a person can realize his creative abilities to achieve. Maybe great creators are ordinary people, they just use the reserves of their brain in full.
Thinking is a creative process in which the commission of thinking actions leads to the discovery of innovation. The most important concept in the psychology of thinking can be the concept of a problem situation. This lies in the fact that in the personal experience of the subject there is not enough information to resolve this situation and this is accompanied by certain psychological reactions - annoyance, anxiety, surprise, etc. This activates the search activity of a person and directs him to search for ways to solve a problem situation, to search for something unknown that can successfully influence new discoveries in creativity. The same kind of activity may appear when proposing hypotheses. Without this, the everyday thinking of a person is complete. For example, if you need to carry a bulky object through a narrow opening, you can put forward more than one hypothesis.
Types of creativity in psychology
In the book of E.V. Ilyin, “The Psychology of Creativity, Creativity and Giftedness”, you can learn more about all the components of creative art. In particular, the following types of creative activity in psychology are described there:
- Scientific work includes the search for what already exists, but is not available to our consciousness. It is inherent in the study of phenomena and various laws of the development of the world.
- Technical creativity close to scientific creativity and implies a practical change in reality, the creation of discoveries and inventions. In its process, new material values are created for society.
- Artistic creativity consists in creating aesthetic values, images that cause spiritual experiences in a person. It is important to distinguish between the subjective, when you discover something for yourself and the objective - when in the process of creation you create something for society.
- Co-creation - is the level of perception, which allows the viewer or listener to understand the delicate aspect of the work, that is, the subtext that the author wanted to convey to the viewer.
- Pedagogical creativity - the opening of a new field of teaching. It can be both innovations - non-standard methods for solving problems, and innovation - the use of old teaching methods in new conditions. Finding an unexpected pedagogical solution and applying it in specific circumstances is called improvisation and occurs quite often.
Art and creativity fill a person’s life with meaning, and are integral elements of a person’s life. Thanks to him, there are new opportunities for development and cultural trends. In the process of creativity, the author invests his own capabilities and expresses aspects of his personality in it. This gives creativity more value.
2. Psychology of creativity as a scientific direction. The concept of "creativity", "creative activity".
In the development of the psychology of creativity, you can identify 3 ways:
1. description and empirical analysis of existing practice,
2. an abstract analysis of the various levels of the organization of creative activity, the determining facts, which opens up the possibility for creating a fundamental model of creative activity,
3. implementation through the pedagogical experiment of fundamental models of creativity and the formulation of new problems.
To date, the study of creative activity has been limited only to the first path, the task of the present day is to master the second and third.
The subject of the psychology of creativity as a science is the mental structural level of the organization of creative activity or the psychological mechanism for the development of human creative activity.
Creativity is a human activity that creates new material and spiritual values that have social significance.
MethodPsychology of creativity can be divided into 2 categories:
Methods for obtaining source data
Methods of registration and preprocessing.
Methods for obtaining source data can be divided into 2 groups
- methods of traditional psychology of creativity - suggest the fixation of direct creative experience. These include self-observation of the course of their own creativity, the study of biographical data of creators, questionnaires, interviews, experimental methods of traditional psychology, which are used to study the process of creativity, the test method - the study of creative abilities and personal qualities of the creator.
This group of methods allows one to describe the phenomena accessible to direct experience, to evaluate the final result, result, but does not give knowledge, for example, about the essence of the creative process as well as those that are not directly reflected.
- unconventional methods - penetration into the area of directly non-displayable phenomena. These include modeling of creative activity.
Today, the development and replenishment of battery methods for the study of creativity - one of their pressing issues. However, the difficulty lies primarily in the absence of sufficiently strict criteria for determining the distinction between creative and non-creative activities.
The complexity of the structure of creativity prompts researchers to think about the need for a plurality of criteria. But due to the fact that the study of the general nature of creativity goes beyond the framework of psychological knowledge, an integrated approach to the study of creativity is necessary. For example, in unrecognized inventions, the act of creativity from the psychological point is obvious, but from a social point of view it is not. Consequently, apart from the psychological aspects, in analyzing creativity, one should take into account the achievements of such sciences as philosophy, history, sociology, political science, cultural studies, physiology, biology, etc. Those. need to recognize that there are different levels of organization of creative activity. The mental sphere means only the possibility of creativity in a socially significant sphere. The transformation of such a possibility into reality depends on a number of specific conditions of social relations.
As criteria evaluation of creative activity can be taken:
- the breadth of influence of the activities of the creator on various spheres of human activity,
- degree of novelty of ideas, approach, decision,
- originality, etc.
However, these criteria are not convincing, especially when it comes to artistic creativity.
At the same time, today scientists have done a great deal of work on the study of creativity, they have accumulated a wealth of knowledge, the study of which is advisable to begin with a historical insight into the development of the psychology of creativity as a science.
Creative activity is a form of activity of a person or a group, the creation of a qualitatively new one. This may be a new goal, result, ways to achieve the goal. The impetus for creative activity is a problem situation that cannot be resolved in traditional ways. The original product of the activity is the result of the formulation of a non-standard hypothesis. The prerequisites of creative activity are: flexibility of thinking, criticality, the ability to bring together concepts, the integrity of perception, etc.
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1. Psychological foundations of creativity
2. The development of creative activity and creative abilities as a necessity of modern society
The fundamentally new social and socio-economic situation in Russia requires the development in a person of such personal qualities that would help him not only survive in the conditions of a complex modern society, but also become an active subject of social life, able to creatively transform reality using the full range of its capabilities.
The formation of a new public outlook requires an individual:
deeply knowing yourself and owning yourself
actively manifesting his individuality
capable of making decisions and taking responsibility for them,
capable and striving for self-development, in which this task acts as an internal need for the development of physical and spiritual forces,
able to live in harmony with oneself, society, nature,
able to withstand the averaging effect of the surrounding world.
The development of such a person is associated with the process of self-development and creative realization. However, traditional education, whose main goal is the formation of "systematized knowledge and skills," is not capable of creating conditions for the harmonious development of the individual, and is mainly aimed at training impersonal young skilled personnel.
The predominance of the lesson-based forms of study and reproductive teaching methods, the transmission of impersonal, purely objective knowledge and methods of activity leads to the fact that students cannot express themselves in relevant areas of culture and do not develop as creative personalities. In such a situation, the main way a child interacts with the outside world becomes the absorption of information about him, which with a rapid increase in its volume leads to physical and mental overload of students and, as a result, the emergence of various psychosomatic disorders in them. Young people brought up in such conditions are characterized by low culture, rigidity of behavior and thinking, social passivity and irresponsibility, increased anxiety and uncertainty about tomorrow.
In this regard, it is necessary to develop a basic culture of the individual, which involves the search for such methods and means that would allow to overcome the alienation and consumer attitude of the child, to develop his best personal qualities and to use his creative potential.
The purpose of this work is to study the problems of the development of a creative personality in the modern education system.
identify the definition of creativity, creative abilities and creative personality in the psychological, pedagogical and philosophical literature,
to study the process of development of a creative personality in modern society and the education system.
1. Psychological foundations of creativity
Many thinkers and philosophers turned to the study of the phenomenon of creativity. So, the theme of creative vocation to people is transparent in the works of N.A. Berdyaev, who considers the problem of creativity from the point of view of Christian theism and says that creativity creates a special world, likening man to a creator god. Berdyaev defines the goal of creativity as the search for meaning, “the possibility of a breakthrough to meaning through nonsense” [Berdyaev 1993: 53-54]. The concept of creativity in him is closely connected with the idea of inner freedom and the search for the meaning of life. “Dissatisfaction with the finiteness and constraint of this world, striving towards what lies beyond the limits of rational order,” directs a person to creativity, the goal of which is not so much the final result, a creative product, but the “unfolding” of infinite potential of human capabilities.
Stendal also wrote that "a person does not have a more noble occupation that would justify his existence on earth, confirming the high rank of a man, giving him the deepest and most enduring pleasure from early youth to old age than creativity" [Stendal 1989: 151].
В свете психологической науки феномен творчества был подробно рассмотрен и изучен Л.С. Выготским. He defines creative activity as such activity, which creates something new, whether it is created by some “thing of the external world or a known construction of the mind and feeling that lives and is found only in the person himself” [Vygotsky 1997: 15]. In this regard, he identified two main activities:
reproducing or reproductive kind of detail, where a person reproduces the previously created and developed methods of behavior,
combining or creative activity, where a person creates in his imagination something that has not yet existed in the world, his own image, his own picture and realizes it outside.
The human brain is a body combining, creatively processing and creating from the elements of the past experience new positions and new behavior. It is creative activity that makes a person a creature facing the future, creating it and reproducing its present.
Psychology calls the creative activity based on the combining ability of our brain, imagination. A person, before doing anything, represents what needs to be done and how he will do it. Thus, he already creates in advance an image of a material thing, which will be produced in the subsequent practical activity of man. This ability of a person to represent in advance the final result of his work, as well as the process of creating a material thing, sharply distinguishes human activity from the "activity" of animals, sometimes very clever.
The physiological basis of imagination is the formation of new combinations of those temporary connections that have already been formed in the past experience. At the same time, the simple actualization of the existing temporary connections does not yet lead to the creation of a new one. Creating a new one implies a combination that is formed from temporary connections that have not previously entered into a combination with each other. The second signal system, the word, is important. The process of imagination is a joint work of both signaling systems. All visual images are inextricably linked with him. As a rule, the word serves as a source of the appearance of images of imagination, controls the way of their formation, is a means of their retention, consolidation, their change.
A special form of imagination is a dream. It is addressed to the sphere of a more or less distant future and does not imply the immediate achievement of a real result, as well as its complete coincidence with the image of the desired. However, the dream can be a strong motivating factor in creative search.
Active imagination includes artistic, creative, critical, recreating and anticipating. Active imagination is always aimed at solving a creative or personal task. A person operates with fragments, units of specific information in a certain area, their movement in various combinations relative to each other. Stimulation of this process creates objective possibilities for the emergence of original new connections between the conditions fixed in the memory of a person and society. In active imagination, there is little dreaminess and "groundless" fantasy. Active imagination is directed to the future and operates with time as a well-defined category (that is, a person does not lose the sense of reality, does not put himself outside of temporary connections and circumstances). Active imagination is directed more to the outside, a person is engaged mainly in the environment, society, activities, and less internal subjective problems. Finally, active imagination is awakened by the task and directed by it; it is determined by volitional efforts and is amenable to volitional control.
Recreating imagination is one of the types of active imagination in which people construct new images and ideas in accordance with stimulation perceived from outside in the form of verbal messages, diagrams, conventional images, signs, etc.
Despite the fact that the products of recreating imagination are completely new, previously not perceived by man images, this kind of imagination is based on previous experience. KD Ushinsky considered imagination as a new combination of past impressions and past experience, considering that recreating imagination is a product of the impact on the human brain of the material world [Ushinsky 1984: 123].
Anticipatory imagination underlies the very important and necessary ability of a person - to anticipate future events, to anticipate the results of his actions, etc.
Creative imagination is a kind of imagination in which a person independently creates new images and ideas that are of value to other people or society as a whole and which are embodied (“crystallized”) into specific original products of activity. Creative imagination is a necessary component and the basis of all types of human creative activity.
Images of creative imagination are created through various techniques of intellectual operations. In the structure of creative imagination, two types of such intellectual operations are distinguished. The first is the operations through which ideal images are formed, and the second is the operations on the basis of which the finished product is processed.
One of the first psychologists who studied these processes, T. Ribot identified two main operations: dissociation and association. Dissociation is a negative and preparatory operation, during which sensually given experience is fragmented. As a result of this preprocessing of experience, its elements are capable of entering into a new combination. Without prior dissociation, creative imagination is unthinkable. Dissociation is the first stage of creative imagination, the stage of material preparation. The impossibility of dissociation is a significant obstacle to the creative imagination.
Association - the creation of a holistic image of the elements of isolated units of images. The association gives rise to new combinations, new images [Stolyarenko 2005: 196].
Considering the problem of creative abilities in the works on the psychology of creativity, Luk A.N. based on the analysis of psychological literature and their own psychological research, he identified a number of creative abilities, describing their psychological specifics.
Vigilance in search of problems. In the flow of external stimuli, people usually perceive only that which fits into the "coordination grid" of already existing knowledge and ideas, the rest of the information is unconsciously discarded. The perception is influenced by familiar attitudes, assessments, feelings, as well as adherence to generally accepted views and opinions. The ability to see that which does not fit into the framework of what was previously learned is more than just observation. This freshness of sight and “vigilance are not associated with visual acuity or features of the retina, but are the quality of thinking, because a person sees not only with the help of the eye, but mainly with the help of the brain.” [Onion 1978: 6].
The following creative ability, which was determined by Luk A.N. ability to coagulate mental operations. In the process of thinking, a gradual transition from one link in the chain of reasoning to another is needed. Sometimes it is impossible to cover the whole picture with the mind’s eye, the whole argument from the first to the last step of it. But a person has the ability to coagulate a long chain of reasoning and replace them with a single generalizing operation. The process of winding up mental operations is, as A.N. Onions, only a special case of manifestation of the ability to replace several concepts with one, to use more and more capacious in informational terms symbols. The basis of this ability is abstract thinking. Each concept replacing the process of reasoning, which in turn includes any concepts, has an increasingly abstract character. And Bow A.N. says that "using more and more abstract concepts, a person continuously expands his intellectual range." [Onion 1978: 9].
Important at school age, characterized by a large variety of types, methods and content of activity, is the ability to transfer experience. This is a very significant ability to apply the skill acquired in solving one task to the solution of another, i.e. the ability to separate "a specific grain of a problem from that non-specific that can be transferred to other areas. It is, in fact, the ability to develop a synthesis strategy. And the development of a synthesis strategy is a search for analogies, a search for analogies is a necessary condition for transferring a skill or idea."
In Russian psychology, especially in the works of S.L. Rubinstein and B.M. Teplova, an attempt was made to classify the concepts of "ability", "giftedness" and "talent" on a single basis - the success of activities [Rubinstein 1999: 186]. Abilities are considered as individual psychological features that distinguish one person from another, on which the possibility of success depends, and endowments - as a qualitatively unique combination of abilities (individual psychological features), on which the possibility of success also depends [Teplov 1997: 28- 29].
Often, abilities are considered innate, "by nature". However, scientific analysis shows that congenital can only be the makings of, and abilities are the result of the development of the makings.