Gloxinia is an amazing and very beautiful indoor flower that grows with great pleasure, both beginners and professionals, which is nothing strange, because its beautiful little flowers-bells literally amaze with their tumult of helmets and the beauty of flowering.
Gloxinia is a tropical guest in our latitudes, in the XIX century, brought to us from Brazil and conquered the hearts of many gardeners and ordinary lovers.
Gloxinia, or hybriding syngony, as it is called scientific language, got its name in honor of the gardener of Boston University, V. Sinning. It was he who, through long and painstaking work, derived one of the most beautiful ornamental plants.
Gloxinia got its second name, to which we are accustomed to much more, thanks to a specific form, “glocke”, which is translated from German as “bell”.
Gloxinia flower is ideal for growing at home, it is unpretentious and easy to care for a plant that even a beginner grower can easily cope with. If you follow a few simple rules of cultivation, this ornamental plant will often delight you with lush and bright bouquets of flowers.
It is impossible not to fall in love with these multi-colored bells, depending on the variety: their gamma can range from snow white, pale pink and pale blue to rich red or purple. Terry or ordinary, with a contrasting border or intricate specks - there is no end to diversity!
How to grow a beautiful gloxinia? Highlights
If you decide to acquire such a beautiful woman in your own home, you still have to familiarize yourself with the basic conditions of care and cultivation, without which the flower will at least stop blooming and, at most, will die altogether.
First you have to take care of its location in your house, because it is a very light-loving plant, which, however, does not like to be exposed to direct sunlight. Most of all gloxinia "love" western and eastern windows, because in the south there is too much light for them and it has to be shaded, but on the north the sun is not enough, as a result, the flower can stop blooming or often get sick.
As for the temperature regime, gloxinia, as a representative of a warm tropical climate, is very demanding on its changes. In summer, it is necessary to maintain the temperature at 20 ° -22 °, raises up to 25 ° are permissible.
It is important to remember that significant temperature increases, which will deviate greatly from the norm, adversely affect the growth and flowering of gloxinia: the buds that have already blossomed out quickly wilt, and new ones are not tied.
If, at elevated temperatures, air stasis is also formed, then all this can provoke the occurrence of putrefactive and fungal infections.
Since this is a flower with a pronounced seasonality, in winter, gloxinia sheds leaves and stems, even the roots die, the so-called dormant period comes. The temperature at this time should not exceed 15 °. It is also worth noting that this flower does not like sudden temperature jumps, and is also afraid of drafts.
The time of active flowering usually lasts from March to September, sometimes even October. In November, the leaves will begin to turn yellow and fall off, after which the remaining tuber is usually prepared for wintering.
What to do with it in the winter?
In order for the rest period to pass successfully, and the plant next year again pleased you with active flowering, gloxinia needs to be winterized correctly. The simplest method used by most gardeners is to leave the tuber right in the pot in which the flower grew.
Top it can be sprinkled with clean sand, and put the pot closer to the balcony or in the cellar, if there is such an opportunity, it is not left on the window. Another option for advanced gardeners - 2 weeks after the ground part of the flower is completely dried, the tuber is dug and cleaned from the ground.
Then it must be placed in a pot with slightly damp sand (peat or sawdust), and then put in a dark and cool place. During this period, the tuber must be moistened periodically (2 times a month), the main thing is to ensure that it does not dry out and check for the occurrence of diseases.
Somewhere in late January or early February, the tubers are transplanted back into their pot, fertilized and begin to increase watering, with time new sprouts will appear on the surface.
Watering and soil
In winter, as we have already said, gloxinia is rarely watered and little by little, but in summer it requires much more liquid. During the period of active growth and flowering, it must be watered regularly, somewhere 2-3 times a week.
Suited or filtered water of room temperature will be suitable for these purposes, and even better, if it is 2 ° -3 ° higher, it is absorbed by root hairs faster.
Gloxinia can be watered either in the pan or on the edge of the pot, it is not desirable that water droplets fall on the leaves or stalks, this can lead to their rotting. With all this, it is impossible to prevent over-wetting of the flower, after 30 minutes after watering the rest of the liquid must be drained from the pan.
In general, gloxinia is much easier to survive slightly overdrying than a constant excess of moisture, which is fraught for it with the rotting of the root system. This flower is very afraid of all sorts of sprays, it is better not to hold them at all, but to clean the terry leaves with a soft brush.
If it is too hot in the room, it is better to place small bubbles with water or wetted clay, which will evaporate and moisten the air around the flower, around the flowerpot. It is better to select a primer for gloxinia specially prepared, it can be purchased in the form of soil mixture, for example, “Saintpaulia” or “Violet”.
This flower is usually transplanted after a period of rest (February-March), when the first leaflets begin to appear on the surface. Since the root system of gloxinia, to a greater extent, expands in breadth than in length, it is necessary to select for it squat, but wide pots. The tuber is removed from the old soil, cleaned of old roots and soil, washed with clean water, and then left to dry for a day.
After that, the flower is planted in the prepared soil, while the tuber should be slightly visible on the surface, the soil is moistened and covered with a film. Planted flowers put on a bright place, every day open for ventilation for half an hour, 2 times a day, and after the appearance of new leaves, completely remove the film.
Prerequisites and time
The rest period of Gloxinia is January and the beginning of February. Therefore, the most The best time to plant or transplant a plant is the end of February., at this time, tubers are usually awakened. However, it is worth paying attention to some details if you intend to plant it during this period. Since he does not always wake up in February, sometimes this process can be delayed until May.
A distinctive sign of awakening - the buds are formed on the tuber. Also, if the awakening process does not start for a long time, you can wake him up by an artificial method.
Things are easier with planting seeds, since they can be planted at any time, but it is much more difficult to grow a strong plant from them. But, when growing seeds at home, you can create unusual hybrids or enjoy the view of rare varietal specimens.
Although seeds can be planted at any time, it is necessary to take into account the temperature, humidity and illumination of the environment in which the cultivation takes place. therefore when landing in the autumn-winter time, it is worth thinking about additional lighting, since the light day of this plant is 12-14 hours, and the temperature is 20-24 ° C.
In order for your gloxinia to bloom all year round, you can arrange a shelving for them or a warm shelf by organizing lighting for 14 hours a day. Why gloxinia does not bloom and how to make her release the buds, learn from our article.
Preparation: primer and pot
Gloxinia is not very demanding on the composition of the substrate, so there should be no problems with the choice. It is better to give preference to a light soil with a sufficient amount of nutrients that will pass moisture and air well. Peat-based substrates are excellent. or the soil that is used for planting violets.
Also, you can independently prepare the soil by mixing 1 part of the soil, taken from under any tree (except oak), peat (with a low degree of acidity) and 0.5 parts of sand, you can add manure or humus. Before planting, the soil should be disinfected with boiling water or a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
When using too dense soil there is a risk of plant rotting., as it can provoke moisture retention in the soil and lack of air.
The choice of a pot depends on the size of the tuber:
- The diameter of the pot should be 4-6 cm wider than the tuber itself.
- The height should be calculated on 3-4 cm of the drainage layer, the soil with a completely covered tuber.
- A mandatory factor is the presence of drainage holes to prevent stagnant water.
- You can choose the material to your taste, there are no restrictions here.
- The color of the pot is preferably light so that gloxinia does not overheat in the sun.
It is better to start planting small tubers in not too wide vessels.so that the flower does not begin to build up the root system, since it will postpone the flowering of gloxinia at a later date. However, it is not necessary to overdo it; a vessel that is too tight (less than 9 cm) will not be beneficial to the plant. It can begin to wither and shed the leaves, and the soil will constantly dry out.
How to plant?
Now consider the question of how to properly plant the tuber of such a room flower as gloxinia. As mentioned above, it is important not to miss the awakening of the tuber, which begins with the end of February. His sign - the emergence of new shoots. Step-by-step instructions will help you understand how to plant tubers.
- As much as possible to clear a tuber from the old dried-up roots, leaving threads of the largest. Then new ones will grow from them.
- Determine where the tuber is the bottom and the top, so as not to plant it upside down (a small depression is in the place where the future sprouts appear - this is the top, on the opposite side there is a bulge - bottom, this side should be planted in the soil).
- Check the tuber for damage, rot, for this it can be washed. If damage is present, carefully cut them out and treat these places with charcoal or treat with a mixture of fungicide and “Kornevina”, leaving the tuber to dry for a day. This operation will help heal damage.
- Preparing a place. At the bottom of the pot lay drainage of foam 1-3 cm and poured on top of the prepared soil.
- Make a recess in the ground and put the tuber there.
- We fall asleep by 2/3, leaving the top of the tuber on the surface so that the soil does not get on the shoots.
- Water the soil around the tuber. Make sure that the water does not fall on the top of the tuber, where there is a concavity.
- After some time, when the tuber sprouts grow, it can be sprinkled with fresh substrate.
The normal rest period of gloxinia is 3-4 months. (about the features of wintering Gloxinia can be found here). However, some plants need more time to start a new growing season.
How to wake a tuber if it shows no signs of activity for a long time?
- The washed, inspected and dried tuber is put in a tight-fitting bag and a slightly moist peat substrate is added.
- A closed bag is kept warm (under diffused sunlight or phytolamp). It is important to remember about the light and temperature necessary for the normal development of the plant (see above).
- After about 14 days, drops appear on the inner surface of the film, and on the tubers there are kidneys ready to grow. This indicates that it is ready for planting.
We offer to watch a video about planting gloxinia tubers:
How to plant seeds?
- Seeds are planted on the surface of wet and loose soil. Deepen them in the ground is not necessary. There is no need to choose any particular substrate. You can use peat tablets.
- The soil must be sterilized.
- The capacity is preferably shallow, and the soil layer is up to 3 cm, since the seedlings swoop in the process of growth.
- After the seeds are evenly distributed over the ground, they are sprayed from a spray bottle and the container is tightly covered with a film so that moisture does not evaporate and placed in a warm, bright place.
Already after 7-10 days, small shoots start to be seen on the ground surface. Further actions are regular watering and, if necessary, picks.
Read more about how to grow gloxinia at home from seed, read here.
We offer you to watch a video about growing a flower with seeds:
How to care after transplant?
For proper care after transplanting the plants, the following recommendations should be taken into account:
- Gloxinia is a plant of a long daylight, therefore, to obtain a strong, abundantly flowering plant, it is necessary to provide good lighting in diffused light. But do not expose it to direct sunlight, the flower may overheat.
- During the germination of the tuber, the air temperature should be slightly above 25 degrees, to accelerate the growth of young shoots. But do not reach 28, as the plant ceases to grow.
- Need increased humidity.
- Produce watering need warm water. Be sure to monitor the uniformity of irrigation so that all parts of the root receive their portion of moisture.
- The room where gloxinia grows should be regularly aired so that fungal diseases do not form. But you can not allow strong drafts. About diseases and pests of Gloxinia, as well as methods of dealing with them, read here.
- When the flower is rooted (15-20 days), you can make feeding. Before flowering, it is better to use those that contain nitrogen.
To learn how to properly transplant and grow Gloxinia, read here, and from this article you will learn how to properly water and feed the plant.
Video instructions for the care of gloxinia:
Meet the flower
Gloxinia, also known as Siningia, belongs to the family of Gesnerian. Homeland cultivated varieties grown everywhere - the Andes, the upper reaches of the Amazon. Here they grow on rocky slopes, sometimes on very steep, clinging to them by their roots.
What is interesting flower gloxinia? Caring for him presupposes a dormant period, when only the tuber overwinters. This is due to the climate of the habitats of Gesneria. Wet and warm in summer, dry and moderately cool in winter.Video about growing and caring for gloxinia
There were cases when people bought young plants of Xingagia. Those bloomed beautifully, pleasing the owners with their appearance, but they died off in the autumn, preparing for a dry wintering, as it should be. However, the owners of exotic flowers due to the lack of information about the physiology of Gesnerian, believed that the plant died. And the remnants of the roots - the tubers were thrown away. What was disappointing when it turned out that it was only hibernation. In order to prevent such errors, we will carefully study the home agrotechnica of Gloxinia.
Create all the conditions
It is best to grow it on windows facing west or south-west. For northern windows sometimes additional lighting is required, for example, fluorescent lamps of soft light, especially in winter. For the southern need a slight darkening. Frosted glass works best here.
You can also apply to the windows tinting film, which is used by motorists. Just pick one that transmits light, just a little scatters, and does not suit the twilight in the room. The fact is that wild relatives of Gloxinia love sparse tropical forests, preferring to avoid both open space, where everything is fried under the southern sun, and the shadow of Amazonian Selva.
Our blooming tuber loves moderation in everything. So watering can not be organized according to the principle: there is not much water. Watering should be based on temperature conditions. In the summer, when the weather is hot and dry, water more often and more abundantly. In winter, watering significantly reduce. It is also intended not only to maintain soil hydrobalance, but also to comply with natural conditions. Where cultural gloxinia come from, there is much more rainfall in the hot summer than during the pronounced rest period in winter. Again, when watering flowers, see that the next watering is done when the top layer of soil in the pot dries out a bit. The plant can tolerate relative aridity, for this it has a reserve of moisture in the tuber. But waterlogging is fraught with the development of the putrefactive processes of the tuber and the lower part of the stem.
On the photo Gloxinia
Water warmer than the ambient temperature. Это обеспечивает лучшее её всасывание капиллярами корней. Также следите, чтобы вода была низкой жёсткости. Ph её предпочтителен нейтральный. Если используете водопроводную, то необходимо отстаивать её некоторое время.
Требовательна глоксиния также к влажности помещений. Особенно летом. Каждую неделю опрыскивайте её из пульверизатора.
Всё о грунте
The classic soil composition recommended for syngia is as follows:
- 2 pieces of leaf humus,
- 2 h of meadow chernozem,
- 1 part peat,
- 1 h. Of gray river sand.
On a photo soil for gloxinia
This composition provides lightness and nutritional value of the soil. Do not forget to sterilize the soil before planting our tubers there. Sand needs to be ignited by sprinkling a small layer on a sheet in the oven. Soil can be steamed. To do this, pour it into an enamelled bucket, pour it with a liter of water, close the lid, set on slow fire. Thus, almost all of the possible pathogenic microflora that we brought from the fields and forests perishes.
However, with such a hard heat treatment, most of the useful soil microflora also die. Substrate practically becomes lifeless, why fertilizers will be absorbed a little. For these purposes, the soil is enriched with mixtures consisting of effective microorganisms. These drugs in the set can be bought at flower shops or ordered. Such organisms colonize your substrate, thus recreating the natural microflora, but without harmful microbes. This method is costly in time and effort, but extremely effective.
An interesting idea to mix soil with hydroponics. It is very convenient for maintaining a stable soil moisture, helps its greater aeration, assimilation of nutrients. Hydrogel works on the sponge principle. During watering, it absorbs moisture, swelling. And then, as the surrounding soil dries, it gradually gives up the absorbed. Thus, the roots do not suffer from stressful conditions caused either by strong moisture, or by excessive drying. Hydrogel is better to use German, French or Russian. Sold in the form of a dry concentrate, which is a small granules. Take it in large volumes, it is profitable.
One kilogram of dry hydrogel can absorb 300 liters of water.
Dilute it with water, wait a few hours, when well soaked. You can immediately pour liquid fertilizer complexes. You will get jelly-like small pieces. We mix them with the soil at the rate of one to two, not more. Everything, our modern substrate is ready. Now you can not be afraid that you forget to water the plants on time, as the soil will contain an additional source of moisture. Drying with insufficient moisture, the hydrogel is compressed to its original size. But then it is immediately restored, absorbing moisture at its new arrival.
On the photo is Gloxinia flower.
How to care for gloxinia in autumn and winter
Let's start from the end, that is, from preparing for the winter, because this is the most crucial moment in the care of our ward.
The monsoon nature of the growing conditions suggests that the plant requires a period of rest each year. It sheds leaves in the fall, most of the roots die off. Only the tuber remains, due to which gloxinia is experiencing a winter lull.
Care in the fall for gloxinia after active growing season is the following:
- Gradually reduce watering to zero. If you are using a hydrogel in the substrate, you can stop watering right away. The remaining moisture will be absorbed from hydroponics by roots until it is completely dry out of stock.
- We stop feeding at the same time when watering - from mid-September.
- Do not use hydroponics - reduce watering gradually, you still do not have a cactus.
- Wintering plants are either not taken out of the pot, or stored in the lower vegetable compartment of the refrigerator.
The first option is easier, but not in any apartments possible. Best of all, cool dark storage rooms or warmed cellars, which remain relatively cool in winter, are suitable. Optimum conditions for wintering: coolness 5-15 ° C, light humidity, darkness.
On the photo Gloxinia on the windowsill
Room conditions dictate the following gloxinia care actions:
- From the middle of September we reduce watering, we eliminate the feeding,
- After drying the leaves cut off with a sharp knife, leave about a centimeter from the ground,
- Two weeks later, remove from the soil, cleaned of lumps of soil, remnants of the roots. We put in a bag with slightly wet sand,
- All this, not tightly closing, put on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator,
- From time to time we get a bag of tubers, check if there is any breeding, we moisten as necessary. Keep this way until spring.
- Found rotting processes, carefully cut to a healthy tissue. The cut must be sanitized, preferably pounded with charcoal. We give a little dry, and then again we send to spend the winter.
- Our tubers awaken in spring from the end of February to the middle of April.
Departure after waking from winter sleep
So, the beginning of the growing season. When shoots appear, we extract, clean the sand, wash the tubers under running water. You can make them a short-term bath of a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Especially if there was a rotting or rotting in the winter or you are planting a purchased tuber for the first time, then such a pickle is obligatory. Use preparations containing fludioxonil.
Prepare the above described substrate. Pour clay, soil. Fill half the pot. Put in the center of the tuber. We fall asleep so that the place where the sprouts came from looked out above the surface. This will prevent rotting. Subsequently, we sprinkle the earth so that the tuber completely disappears under the ground.
We water often, but moderately. After two or three weeks from landing we start feeding. Gloxinia differs little from other colors in preferences for fertilizers. Responds well to growth in nitrogen compounds.
- Before flowering, we give mostly nitrogen, alternating with small doses of potash and phosphorus compounds.
- Shortly before and during flowering, we increase the dose of phosphate, reducing nitrogen. Phosphorus promotes good development of peduncles.
- After the first flowering we focus on potash fertilizers. They help the tubers to mature better, stock up on nutrients.
In addition to the main we give complex trace elements. It is better to fertilize more often, using a weaker concentration of dressings. Somewhere twice a month. Do not water dry soil. This can cause root burns. So we fertilize after watering.
We monitor the temperature regime. In the summer, Gloxinia loves heat, But it does not tolerate heat and stuffiness. Likes airing, but is intolerant to drafts. The most optimal temperature for spring-summer growth of blue xing +25 degrees.
Often in the summer the flat air is too dry for flowers. It can also depress flowers. Spray them in the evening or when the sun goes to the other side of the house. We use warm, about forty degrees, water. It is desirable that the spray sprayed moisture, like fog, and not poured small streams.
If you follow these rules, blueings will delight you with a healthy green leaf color, lush flowers. However, sometimes it happens that the leaves begin to turn pale, turn yellow. This chlorosis is a lack of chlorophil. The reasons for it may be different. It may be caused by insufficient intake of trace elements to the roots or have an infectious cause. We get rid of it by spraying and watering the plant with a two-percent solution of ferrous sulfate. Much less often plants are affected by fungal diseases, parasites. They are easy to cure with fungicides and insecticides. It is worth noting that the prophylactic treatment of the substrate by sterilization and tuber soaking in potassium permanganate virtually negates the possibility of such infection.
On the photo gloxinia on the window
Follow the above guidelines and soon your gloxinia shrub will bloom.
The main decorative value are flowers. From the beginning of growth, green shoots have developed from overwintered tubers to mid-May, and the flower stalk is laid. Usually bloom long, long. But it happens that by the end of June, Gloxinia had faded. What to do to make the plant re-bloom. Indeed, until the rest period is even more than three months.
After the flowers wither, we prune the stem slightly above the first pair of leaves. We give additional feeding, increasing the dose of nitrogen fertilizers. This is to stimulate the growth of new flower stalk. After some time, several small shoots begin to grow from the place of the cut. We leave a couple of the most vigorous. Soon after, they disband their buds. The period of occurrence of the second flowering is shorter than that of the first. But the flowers are smaller, less bright.Video about gloxinia care
It often happens that after the first flowering lateral sprouts form near the ground. Then we completely cut off the old stem, let the most powerful grow from the stepchildren. It will bloom very soon.
And there are varieties of gloxinia that bloom twice without any pruning. As well as those who are not capable of re-flowering at all, no matter how you encourage them to do so. And care for gloxinia after flowering is timely watering, spraying, continuing dressing, but excluding nitrogen fertilizers. Now she is accumulating strength for winter sleep.
To grow a strong and healthy gloxinia, you need to put a lot of effort, but the result is worth it. Do not forget to pay due attention to the plant.so that this southern flower could please the eyes of others and yours for a very long time. These recommendations and a step-by-step guide will help you plant and care for the plant properly, and Gloxinia will surely give you a lot of lush flowers.
Features of culture
The plant owes its unusual name to Benjamin Peter Gloxin, a German scientist who devoted his life to biology. Another name for the flower is synningia.
In some varieties of gloxinia, the flowers inside are covered with bright specks, while others may be decorated with frills contrasting in coloring along the edge. Flowers can be smooth or velvety, which also depends on the variety.
Growing gloxinia in the greenhouse
Gloxinia can be grown at home from seed, which will require effort and considerable time-consuming. Despite the fact that this ornamental plant is very whimsical to the conditions of detention, it is very popular. Flower for many years will retain its attractive appearance, delight with abundant flowering and fresh velvety leaves, provided the right care.
Methods of breeding gloxinia
Gloxinia can be grown at home using one of several methods of reproduction of this plant, the most common are the following:
- breeding using a leaf separated from an adult plant
- division of tubers,
- sowing seeds.
Important! Tubers for cultivation Gloxinia lovers of indoor plants are rarely used, considering this method ineffective. Parts of tubers need to be seated in the ground, where they can not settle down for a long time.
The easiest way to quickly grow a new Gloxinia bush is to root a leaf that has been cut from an already growing bush. It is necessary to take a healthy leaf with a petiole, the length of which exceeds 2 cm, and place in a container with water. When the roots begin to grow, it is necessary to transplant the leaf into the ground. Large leaves can be divided into parts. Parts of the leaf should also be placed in water until the roots form.
Reproduction gloxinium leaf fragments
Reproduction gloxinia leaves
Dilution of gloxinia by seeds is not an easy way. Plant seed is small and difficult to germinate. It is very difficult to take care of the sprouts, they grow slowly. Seed propagation is mainly used to produce new gloxinia varieties. In this article we will provide step-by-step instructions for growing plants at home in this way.
Gloxinia - seed multiplication
Gloxinia Brocade blue F1
Collection and terms of sowing gloxinia seeds
In order for the propagation of gloxinia by seeds to become possible, it is required to produce their competent collection. First, the plants are pollinated with a piece of cotton that needs to touch every pestle of all the colors of gloxinia that are in the house. After some time after the petals are circled, it will be possible to notice the resulting seed boxes in the center of the flowers. After about a week, these boxes will begin to open.
Collecting gloxinia seeds
Burst bolls must be cut. To collect the seeds, lower the opened box into a glass, into which mature brown seeds will be poured. Before sowing, these seeds do not require any treatment. For growing gloxinia at home, you can use purchased seeds.
Gloxinia seeds in granules (coated)
Important! Gloxinia seeds are best planted in late winter. If the planting is done in the fall, then the seedlings will need to organize the lighting and maintain the required temperature in the room where it will grow. If this is not done, the plants will stretch.
Proper care for gloxinia growing at home includes regular watering and fertilizer. When there is a rapid growth of plants, the soil should be irrigated quite often, preventing it from drying out. It should not allow the formation of excess moisture on the roots to avoid their rotting.
Important! To determine the moment when it is necessary to water the plant again, it is possible by the dried surface layer of the soil.
Water used for irrigation should be pre-filtered. Its temperature should exceed room temperature by about 2 degrees in order to reduce the likelihood of tubers rotting. The latter absorbs warm water more easily.
When watering it is not recommended to allow water to enter the flowers and leaves of the plant. To avoid this, you can pour moisture into the pan. When the soil absorbs enough water, its surplus should be removed from the pan. In the period of rapid flowering gloxinia needs more active irrigation.
Watering scheme through the pan
The fact that gloxinia is carried out competent care, says a large number of buds during the flowering period. Their number can reach 20 in one bush. A lot of this will contribute to the timely application of fertilizers.
During the growing season it is recommended to feed the plant 3 times a month. To do this, acquire fertilizers intended for indoor plants. After about August 15, gloxinia begin to sink into the resting stage. At this time, the plant needs supplements containing potassium and phosphorus, but not including nitrogen. After the completion of rapid growth is not required to fertilize Gloxinia.
Complex flower dressing
Important! It is possible to determine that the plant's need for nutrients is not satisfied, it is possible by its external state. Gloxinia growth slows down, foliage turns pale, flowers become smaller, flowering time decreases.
But an overdose of fertilizers can be harmful. Therefore, you should carefully consider the recommendations indicated on the packaging of the drug, according to the number and frequency of application of top dressing.
The plant needs to provide access to a light source of sufficient intensity. In this case, it is undesirable to hit the leaves and flowers of direct sunlight. This can lead to burns on the sheets and, further, to the death of gloxinia. Plants feel best on window sills facing west or east. If the plant lives on a window sill facing south, it needs shading. Gloxinia needs a long light day of at least 12 hours. With a lack of natural light, it is necessary to provide additional lighting with fitolampy.
Deviation from at least one of these principles of care for gloxinia can lead to inhibition of its growth and loss of an attractive appearance. A healthy plant has a small stem and dark green leaves.
Important! The lack of lighting is determined by the pale color of the plant parts and their stretching, and the excess by the yellowed folded leaves along the edges and the shortened stalks of the flowers.
The plant does not tolerate changes in temperature and drafts. Airing is not necessary. The air around the gloxinia should be sufficiently humidified. To maintain the necessary humidity can be placed around a container with water. Moisture on the leaves and flowers can not be allowed, so irrigation of the spray gun is excluded.
Gloxinia does not tolerate drafts and temperature extremes
During the growing season it is recommended to keep the temperature in the room where gloxinia is kept at the level of + 18 ° C. Overheating of the plant can be determined by rising leaves, and freezing, on the contrary, by lowering. This also indicates insufficient watering. In the resting phase, gloxinia feels good at a temperature of about + 10 ° C.
Several varieties of gloxinia
Important points of gloxinia care
Summing up, we present the basic rules that must be followed in order to get beautiful gloxinia from seeds at home.
- Gloxinia prefer spacious windowsills with sufficiently bright light. But direct sunlight must be excluded.
- Water the plant is required in a timely manner, preventing stagnant moisture at the roots.
- To maintain an attractive look of gloxinia, it is recommended to remove yellow sheets and withered flowers from it.
Yellow leaves need to be removed.
Types and varieties
Gloxinia is a tropical perennial herb. В диком виде цветок произрастает в Мексике и Южной Америке, откуда европейские колонизаторы привезли её в Старый Свет во второй половине XIX века. Особенность её корневой системы — наличие ярко выраженного клубня, который в период зимовки можно даже выкапывать и хранить в прохладе до весны, словно картофель.The leaves growing from the root in the form of a rosette are soft, fleshy, covered with small hairs. The stem is short but thick. Gloxinia flowers vary depending on the variety.
The most common types of gloxinia:
- Royal (purple flowers),
- Avante (white petals),
- Tigrin Red (bright red),
- Hollywood (dark purple),
- Yesenia (pink velvet flowers),
- Kaiser Wilhelm (black and purple flowers with white border),
- Blanche de Meru (flowers elongated pink)
- Shahane (domestic variety with bright purple small flowers),
- Anfisa (pink petals with white spots).
Requirements for soil and pot
Plant a flower in the soil, composed of 1 part turf land, 1 part leaf humus, 1 part simple garden soil and 1 part sand, preferably coarse-grained river. If it is not possible to provide such a variety of substrates, then the soil taken from the meadow, from under the linden or birch, as well as the purchase composition, which is better to dilute with ordinary earth in the ratio of one to one, will do. Sometimes adding a small amount of sawdust or perlite to the mixture is justified. The decision on making baking powder is made on the basis of the consistency of the obtained soil. It should be light, breathable and crumbly.
An important condition is to ensure good drainage. In the bottom of the pot must be a hole. At 15-25% of the height of the pot should be filled with pebbles, rubble, fragments of pottery, or at least small stones.
Ideally, the water should wet the soil well, be easily absorbed and easily flow out of the drainage hole.
Watering, fertilizing and fertilizer
In terms of fertilizers, gloxinia is not too demanding. Theoretically, it can not be fertilized at all, but then it is unlikely to please the owners with abundant flowering. During the spring and summer, it is possible from time to time, but not more than twice a month, to apply universal complex fertilizers for indoor plants. Feeding should be stopped in mid-August, which is associated with the approaching cold season.
As for watering, it is important to respect the measure. Young plants, the root system of which has not yet fully covered the earthen room, are prone to root rot and fungal diseases. However, even adult specimens often suffer from the Gulf. The best way to avoid this is to lay a drainage on the bottom of the pot and correctly make an earthen mixture, which will be discussed further. If possible, it is better to water the flower with warm water.
Optimal conditions of detention
Another feature of gloxinia: unlike many other indoor plants, it does not need spraying, although moist air loves and grows somewhat faster if there are many sources of moisture evaporation around it. Unfortunately, the benefits of a few pots of water are almost imperceptible. It is better to put Gloxinia on the window sill, where other indoor plants are already placed: green leaves emit moisture well. If desired, you can add moss in some large pots.
Gloxinia prefers light not diffuse, but rather intense and long-lasting. A great option is to put the pot on the south, east or west window for a very thin or mesh curtain. Long-term exposure to direct sunlight, especially when coupled with careless watering, can leave sunburn on the leaves. For this reason, try to water under the root, rather than sprinkling.
Do not place the plant where drafts are possible. When supercooling leaves become lowered, as if sluggish. If at the same time they lose their saturated green color, then this may indicate either overcooling of the root system or processes of decay that began in the soil.
If buds do not bloom, the cause may be drafts and cold water.
If it is possible, then it is better to keep gloxinia in the winter months in a cool, bright room with a temperature of + 10 ... +17 degrees. This will allow the tuber to rest, gain strength and "shoot" in the spring, which increases the chances of abundant and beautiful flowering. Just do not be afraid of falling leaves when moving the plant in the cool: with the retreat of winter from the tuber will grow new shoots.
Trimming and transplanting
Contrary to erroneous statements, it is not necessary to cut off almost all the leaves - this simply makes no sense. It is argued that after the radical trimming of the tuber, the stepchildren begin to grow, which must continue to bloom profusely. This is not quite true. Pasynki, of course, will grow, but you can do without these victims. But excessive leaf removal is fraught with the rotting of the roots, which will have nothing to feed. By the way, towards the end of summer it is often possible to achieve the second wave of flowering, which, however, is not as intense as the first.
When transplanting the size of the dishes are selected under the volume of the root system. Freshly rooted leaves are planted in the smallest pots. Older plants are selected capacity, the volume of which is equal to or slightly more than the volume occupied by straightened roots. Intensively growing specimens roll over into a slightly larger container each year at the beginning of the growing season.
Remember: too large pot is a risk factor in terms of flooding and root decay!
Gloxinia bloomed, what to do next?
Blossoms from March to August. Gloxinia flower holds about a month, after which the shriveled pedicel can be safely cut. When gloxinia disappeared, not everyone knows what to do next. The first thing you need to do when flowering is over is to remove the remains of flowers, weak and too “fat” leaves. The latter, by the way, can be used for breeding.
What to do if mistakes are made in the care of gloxinia? With progressive signs of baying and rotting of the roots, the flower needs to be transplanted. It is necessary to get it out of the pot, clean it from the ground, remove rotten roots and leaves that are too weak and plant in a new light soil. "Resuscitation" soil composition should contain more coarse sand and baking powder than the standard. After that, the plant is watered moderately, tightly covered with a transparent plastic bag and stored in partial shade until it grows. Air mini-greenhouse can be 1-2 times a week. With a favorable outcome, it can be gradually removed.
How to calculate rotten roots? They are diagnosed on several grounds, and let's start with the most obvious. If the spine easily detaches from the taproot, then it is 100% rotted. If it does not come off completely, but as if it exfoliates, then this is also a sure sign of his death. This root is cut either to the healthy part, or to the branch point. Less obvious signs are black or dark brown root color and putrid odor. Healthy portions are light brown or even white. In advanced cases, the root system is so rotten that nothing is left of it. The only course of action in this case is to take the preserved leaves and try to root them.
Reproduction Gloxinia leaf
For this purpose, a large ripe leaf is cut from the plant. The scape is recommended to be shortened to a length of 1.5-2 cm in order to avoid its rotting. After that, the sheet is planted in wet coarse sand and placed in a sealed mini-greenhouse. Instead of coarse sand can be used and small career, but it is slightly less preferred. In this form, it takes about 1 month for a leaf to take small roots. When they reach a length of 1-2 cm, you can move the plant to a small pot with soil. At first, it is still necessary to keep the sheet under cover, only now it is not airtight, but with a small hole. As the sheet becomes accustomed to dry room air, the gap can be increased, and after 2 weeks the film can be removed. Approximately by this time a rosette of small leaves should shoot from the base of the stem. This means that the reproduction of gloxinia was successful! In the future, it is important to ensure that you do not flood the young plant, which at this age is particularly sensitive to overmoistening.
Gloxinia can be grown from seeds, but it is important to know that they germinate for a very long time: from 4 to 9 months. Small shoots develop slowly. To achieve success in this matter, it is recommended to plant the seeds in a light sandy soil and hermetically closed with plastic wrap. It should be removed gradually, as soon as most of the seeds come up.
This method is the most difficult and risky, since there is a danger of rotting a tuber after its cutting. It is recommended to divide dormant large tubers without rot and damage. It is better to cut them in no more than two pieces. Places cuts sprinkled with coal.
You can propagate gloxinia and stem cuttings, only this method is complicated by the fact that their length is very small. Therefore, it is rarely resorted to. The technology is the same as when rooting leaves: the stalk is placed in coarse-grained wet sand and tightly covered with a mini-wig. The appearance of the first roots can be expected in a month.
Pests, diseases and treatments
Gloxinia is rarely affected by pests. Sometimes it is attacked by a red spider mite. These insects look like small red dots on the surface of a leaf plate. They should never be allowed to breed! First, you can try to bring the tick to Fitoverm, but if it turns out to be too much, you will have to resort to more powerful tools: Omayt, Oberon, Sunmite.
Of the diseases, gloxinia often suffers from root rot. It is treated by replacing the earthen coma and watering the plant with a weak solution of Fitosporin.
In general, the cultivation of gloxinia on the windowsill does not cause much trouble. This is an excellent ornamental plant with beautiful flowers, which, with proper care, have a more saturated color. Gloxinia is always happy to pay for a good attitude towards itself with abundant and lush blooms.
Growing Gloxinia from Leaf
To grow gloxinia from a leaf, you need to take one large leaf of the plant and cut it into several pieces. It is necessary to cut through so that on each piece there is a streak from the leaf, from this part new roots will be formed. Small leaves are not necessary to cut.
Properly prepared soil allows you to quickly and reliably take root prepared for planting leaves. Optimal composition of soil mixture for gloxinia next: in equal proportions sand, peat and hardwood mixture are taken, the main condition is necessarily loose earth. Before planting, sanitize the soil and spill it with fertilizers, this will help the plant to get stronger in new conditions. Do not abuse microelements, their excess is also harmful, as well as a lack. The soil is packaged in prepared containers, cups, small boxes or containers with a flat bottom. It all depends on your preferences.
Growing Gloxinia from a leaf means following the correct technology when planting:
- Prepared sheets for rooting should be placed with an edge on the ground and slightly buried with the end where the sheet veined leaf is located. Well-irrigated soil will hold these sheets. We cover the container with the landings with a film on top and remove them to a warm, bright place. The temperature is maintained at plus 25 ° C. Once a few days, arrange for a few minutes of airing and make sure that the ground is moist,
- After 15-20 days, planted leaves will begin to form roots. Even a week or two later, the rooted sheets form a lot of babies. After they grow up a little, they can be seated. In order to prevent watering sprouts with a solution of manganese, only weak, so as not to burn the young shoots.
There is another method, how to grow gloxinia from a leaf. In a small container, such as plastic cups, warm disinfected water is poured. The leaves fall into the container so that the cutting is in water, the sheet itself is not necessary to immerse in the liquid. Cover the cups with gloxinia film, and also leave in a warm place. After a couple of weeks, the first roots will begin to appear. Now sheets gloxinium can be planted in the ground.
In order for the plants to take root well, it is recommended to plant them in a hydrogel in the first stages of cultivation. Thus, many gardeners avoid black leg disease. Soak it in liquid with the addition of the necessary fertilizers and trace elements. The hydrogel is sterile. Grown up gloxinia freely removed, while the root system remains intact, and transplanted.
Five strict "NOT" in the care of gloxinia
Gloxinia - care and cultivation at any stage can always be accompanied by certain difficulties. Reproduction, rooting of sheets and cuttings of gloxinia, top dressing, temperature and light modes, - errors may occur at any of these stages. Gloxinia is a flower that is not very demanding to care, but should always be supervised.
Wrong steps when growing gloxinia:
1. DO NOT overfeed gloxinia fertilizers and dressings. Excessive nitrogen in the soil causes root rot, color buds are tied in small quantities. The high content of phosphorus in the soil leads to aging of the leaves and the fall of the buds. Pallor and yellowness of the lower leaves, a change in the color of the flowers indicates an excess of potassium. Remember, you can only feed healthy gloxinia,
2. DO NOT place plants on drafts. The flower will react to this immediately, the buds and flowers will wither, the leaves will start to turn yellow,
3. DO NOT overmoist priming. With excessive watering possible rotting tubers. In this case, remove the tuber, remove the affected areas on it and disinfect. Only after this transplant in a new substrate,
4. DO NOT allow direct sunlight on the flower, the plant may burn,
5. DO NOT allow the appearance of pests and the spread of disease on the flower. So you can lose not only the flower and tuber, but above all the rare varieties of gloxinia. Prevention will be a great solution in the fight for the beauty of flowers.
Difficulties in growing gloxinia
Many wonder how to grow gloxinia? You already know about cultivating gloxinia from a leaf, now let's move on to the common problems and difficulties that many flower growers face:
- A raid of yellow or white indicates watering of the plant with hard water. Water the flowers only with settled or filtered liquid,
- With a lack of potassium, the leaves of the plants begin to turn yellow and dry around the edges, it can also speak about a lack of iron,
- If gloxinia stopped growing and faded, it means that there is a shortage of nitrogen in the earth,
- Too much light and heat cause the plants to shrivel and small flower stalks,
- Fluffy bloom of a gray tint was noticed on the leaves, which means powdery mildew affects gloxinia,
Tip! Gloxinia do not like waterlogging and irregular watering: the soil should be slightly moistened. Gloxinia needs diffused sunlight, not a direct hit of rays. Feed the plant Avvah.
- If gloxinia flowers do not open for a long time, the plant was in a draft or is still there,
- Dark spots on the leaves may indicate excessive fertilizing and watering,
- The plant grows too slowly, the leaves become reddish, hence the lack of phosphorus.
Proper care and watering, as well as favorable growing conditions, will affect the plants immediately. Gloxinia will delight with its lush flowering for a very long time. How to grow gloxinia, you now know dear readers. I wish you success!
Lighting and temperature content
Gloxinia is a very light-loving and heat-loving plant. When growing seedlings, you can additionally use artificial lighting, but an adult plant, so that the socket is compact, and the flowers are large, you need to grow on well-lit window sills or balconies.
Direct sunlight can cause leaf burns, so gloxinia should be shaded on southern and eastern windows. The optimum temperature during the growing season is 18–22 ° C, with tuber germination the temperature up to 25 ° C is needed. When the air temperature is above 28 ° C, overheating of the root system may occur, and the plant will feel bad: the leaves will wilt, the buds will no longer open. Gloxinia leaves can curl, which indicates unfavorable conditions of detention, in this case, you need to either increase the temperature of the air, or make the air more humid, and also need to check the feeding.
Watering and feeding the soil
Gloxinia has very juicy leaves and large flowers, so the soil dries quickly. It is necessary to water often, but not to allow an overabundance of moisture. In September, when the plant is prepared for the rest period, watering is reduced. If the watering is normal, the plant looks healthy, and for some reason, the buds dry at the Gloxinia, the reason for this is dry air. For good flowering gloxinia need high humidity, so often need to spray around the plants, but that water does not fall on the leaves and flowers. You can also put a pot with gloxinia in a container filled with wet pebbles or expanded clay.
Gloxinia love to feed. В период вегетации и цветения, примерно с апреля по август, их нужно подкармливать раз в неделю, но чтобы не обжечь корневую систему, подкармливать можно чаще более слабым раствором и только на увлажненную почву. В качестве удобрения для глоксинии можно использовать удобрения для цветущих растений, содержащие больше калия и фосфора, чем азота.
Уход за цветком в период зимнего покоя
Let's talk about what to do with the gloxinia in the fall. Usually, in the fall, gloxinia leaves dry up - the plant enters the period of winter dormancy, but it happens that they remain green. In any case, in order to preserve gloxinia in winter, all leaves must be removed, a stump of 1-2 cm in height can be left; in the pot with a tuber, it is necessary to carefully remove the top layer of soil so that the tuber is visible. In a pot with a gloxinia tuber, it is necessary to slightly moisten the soil, wrap it in cellophane film and put it in a cool and dimly colored place (somewhere on the floor, under the bed, in a closet or in the bathroom).
Once every 2-3 weeks it is necessary to open the film and moisten the soil with 1-2 teaspoons of water so that the tuber does not lose moisture and does not wrinkle, but it is impossible to re-moisten to avoid rotting. The only exceptions are plants of the first year of life, in which the tuber is less than 2 cm. Such gloxinia should be left to grow all winter so that they have a tuber that has grown, and they bloom the following year.
Exit the plant from rest
Starting in January, you need to view the tubers for the presence of sprouts. When they appear, you need to get a tuber from the ground and transplant it into a new one. If you missed the moment of tuber sprouting, and the sprout is already stretched, then it is better to cut it off and wait for a new one, otherwise the bush will not be compact. Consider how to transplant gloxinia at home.
Planting and transplanting
When the tuber wakes up, you need to pull it out of the ground, gently clean and remove all thin and dry roots, rinse with water so that the surface of the tuber is visible, inspect the tuber for the presence of damaged areas and remove them with a knife. Place the cut can sprinkle with charcoal and allow to dry for a day. If the tuber is sluggish, you can hold it for 2-3 days wrapped in a damp cloth or in moist vermiculite, so it can restore elasticity. Before planting, the tubers can be treated with a solution of a fungicide to prevent fungal diseases or the appearance of rot.
It is necessary to plant a tuber so that its upper part with sprouts and buds is on the surface. As the sprouts grow, the ground should be poured onto the tuber so that it does not spoil. An adult plant must have 1-2 cm of soil over a tuber. During the growing season, another transplant is possible if the plant has faded, and is not going to die off for the winter. Then gloxinia can be cut to the first pair of sheets and transplanted into a new soil. From the buds in the leaf axils, new leaves or shoots will develop.
Watering and humidity
After planting, a pot of tubers should be covered with a film to maintain moisture. In this case, it is rarely necessary to water the tuber, so that the soil is slightly moist, it is allowed to dry the upper layer. It is necessary to open a film for airing daily. When the sprout forms the first pair of leaves, you can cover the pot only for the night, and after 3-5 days completely remove the film. Novice flower growers are often interested when gloxinia from tuber blooms. When planting tubers gloxinia blooms in 3-4 months.
In order to grow a beautiful gloxinia shrub with strong flowers, the soil for planting a gloxinia tuber must be nutritious, well-fertilized, but not heavy and breathable. Well suited on the basis of peat. For better permeability, sand and vermiculite can be added to the finished commercial substrate. The transplanted tuber is not fed within 1-2 months.
Planting flowers sheet plate
For the reproduction of gloxinium leaves, you can use any leaves, but when the leaves are taken for reproduction during the budding period, you can expect gloxinia grown from the leaf to begin to bloom at the beginning of autumn. The stalk for planting is left 2-3 cm long, we deepen it into a light, moist soil and put it in a greenhouse until germs appear. If the sheet is large or has some damage, you can cut the top of the sheet with a sharp knife or blade. Slice sprinkled with charcoal.
A cut off leaf tip can also be planted by cutting it with a cone from the central vein or freeing the central vein, as if forming a petiole. If the variety is very valuable, you can even plant a piece of leaf with vein, because the nodules form on the leaf veins.
When the sprout appears a little older, you need to get a leaf from the soil and separate the tuber with the germ from the leaf. A tuber with a sprout is planted shallowly in the ground. The parent sheet can also be planted again. If the leaf rots, then you need to check the soil, most often it has a formed nodule.
It happens that a leaf is cut in half, a tuber is formed on the top of the central vein - wait until the sprout grows, and separate the tuber with a piece of vein. Plant tubers with sprouts shallowly in the ground, if the tubers are very small, you can simply put them on the ground. Potted tubers are placed in a hothouse until they grow up. If several shoots form on a tuber, then you need to leave the strongest one. The rest carefully cut and plant cuttings.
Talk about how to grow gloxinia from seeds. Seeds are sown from November to February. For sowing seeds, you need to take light soil, fill the container to half and moisten moderately. Seeds are best sown in shallow containers.
Gloxinia seeds are very small. For easy sowing, seeds bought in a store can be poured onto a sheet of paper, take a toothpick and, wetted with water, take seeds one by one and put them on the ground. If you want to plant a lot of seeds, then they can be mixed with dry sand and evenly sown on the ground surface. You do not need to cover the seeds with earth, you can sprinkle a little with water. Then the pot is also placed in the greenhouse.
When the seedlings will have two pairs of leaves, they need to dive. For transplantation, you can use the same capacity as for planting, but the ground should be different. When nearby plants grow together with leaves, they need to be transplanted again. During the period of growth sprouts dive 3-4 times.
Reproduction gloxinia tubers
Gloxinia can multiply by dividing the tuber. The tuber is taken big. If kidneys are noticeable on it, then it can be divided without waiting for the sprouts, so that each piece has a kidney. You can wait for sprouts and, having dug a tuber, divide it so that the sprouts are in different parts. Before dividing the tuber can be treated with a solution of fungicide. The division is made with a sharp sterile knife; after the procedure, parts of the tuber can also be treated with fungicide and sprinkled with charcoal. Next, plant in the ground, as well as whole tubers. It is believed that the processing of parts of the tuber during division is not needed. In this case, you need to leave them for a day in the open, so that they are weathered, and then you can land in the usual way.
Cultivation gloxinia planting peduncle
Gloxinia can be propagated even with a peduncle. At the same time, the survival rate is much less than when reproduced by leaves, but it is worth a try. To do this, the flowering peduncle is taken, the stem is cut to a length of 2-3 cm. The peduncle dives into the moistened soil and is placed in the greenhouse. To monitor the emergence of germs should be as in the case of the leaves.
Possible problems in growing gloxinia
Now consider gloxinia diseases and their treatment. Gloxinia can be affected by various types of parasites, so you need to monitor the condition of the plant and process it with the appropriate preparations in time. When temperature drops, excessive watering, dampness can develop fungal diseases, then the stem and leaves become soft, covered with watery spots. In this case, you need to remove all damaged parts of the plant and treat it and the ground with special solutions, such as Fitosporin, Trichodermin.
In gloxinia, tuber can rot, leaves become sluggish and do not recover after watering. Then you need to cut the plant, get a tuber, remove all injuries, treat with the Maxim solution and dry well. Then it can be planted, but watered carefully. Cut vegetative part can be used for reproduction.