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Stroke: what can not be done after a stroke, and how to recover in the shortest possible time?

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Despite the new experience and advanced technology, the problem of atherosclerosis and its complications throughout the world and in our country remains undoubtedly one of the most pressing. One of the most frequent and dangerous diseases leading to death and disability is an acute violation of cerebral circulation (stroke). Every year in the Russian Federation more than 500,000 cases of acute cerebrovascular accident are recorded. In the framework of the program of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation to reduce morbidity and mortality from non-infectious (including cardiovascular) diseases, projects, centers and departments are created that specialize in assisting patients with cerebral circulation disorders.

On the basis of Vsevolozhsk KMB, within the framework of the primary vascular center, a neurological department for stroke patients has been functioning for several years. Thousands of patients received timely and effective assistance. However, today the main task is to identify patients with risk factors, correct treatment and prevent a threatening situation, and this requires additional measures to ensure the awareness of people, to increase their responsibility for their health. The need for therapeutic and preventive measures and their effectiveness is beyond question. One of the forms of this work is “School of stroke”. The school offers patients thematic group classes of the lecture type, as well as individual consultations of relevant specialists, who will help not only better understand the cause and manifestations of the atherosclerotic process, but also reduce the intensity of exposure to risk factors and significantly reduce the risk of acute cardiovascular conditions.

We talked with the head of the regional angio-neurological center, an angiosurgeon of the highest category, a candidate of medical sciences, Alexey Viktorovich Solovyov:

ACUTE DISTURBANCE OF BRAIN CIRCULATION. IS IT POSSIBLE TO AVOID A STROKE?

What is a stroke and how important is this pathology today for the residents of our country?

A.V. Solovyov: Acute cerebrovascular accident (stroke) is one of the most frequent causes of death and disability of Russian citizens. In our country, there are about half a million cases of acute cerebrovascular accident per year. KMB Vsevolozhsk annually assists more than a thousand patients with impaired cerebral circulation. As a result of this disease, a person may die or remain a severely disabled person, who is unable to communicate normally with his family and friends and self-serve. Unfortunately, this disease affects people at any age and has no harbingers.

So, a person does not have the opportunity to avoid a stroke?

A.V. Solovyov: This is not quite true. Of course, it’s impossible to guarantee that a stroke will never happen. There are quite a number of reasons that can lead to impaired cerebral circulation. Every adult knows about most of these causes: high blood pressure, diabetes, heart rhythm disturbances, "high cholesterol" in the blood. Very few people are aware of the high risk of stroke associated with atherosclerotic plaques in blood vessels that feed the brain. If, with the help of a doctor, a patient correctly changes and reduces the impact of harmful factors, it is possible to expect a significant reduction in the risk of stroke.

How to be a patient who wants to know how high the risk of stroke is, and what should he do to reduce this risk? Unfortunately, the doctor in the clinic does not always have the opportunity to spend 30-40 minutes on a detailed explanation to the patient.

A.V. Solovyov: Of course, the success of stroke prevention, like many other diseases, lies in the patient’s awareness of the problem as a whole and, of course, in relation to itself. In order to increase the awareness of patients, the most effective is the format of schools. “School of stroke” is an opportunity for patients in a lecture format to hear about what a stroke is, how to reduce the risk of its development, what are its first manifestations, how to give first aid before the ambulance team arrives, how to help a person who has had a stroke as quickly as possible and fully restore lost skills.

What determines the outcome of a stroke?

A.V. Solovyov: The outcome of a stroke mainly depends on two factors: size, localization of the lesion in the brain, where nerve cells have suffered, and, of course, the fastest possible start of examination and therapeutic measures.

How can doctors affect the severity of a stroke?

A.V. Solovyov: Today, doctors have many opportunities to stop the development of stroke and prevent repeated violations of cerebral circulation. Modern technologies allow, in addition to conducting medicinal improvements in the blood supply to nerve cells, to complete the removal of a blood clot or atherosclerotic plaque that has blocked the vessel lumen, and to restore normal blood circulation in the brain. Good interaction between the doctor and the patient will significantly reduce the number of first-time and re-developed strokes, as well as significantly reduce the degree of disability as a result of a cerebral disaster.

Are there any statistics confirming the effectiveness of measures to prevent stroke?

A.V. Solovyov: Of course have. Discuss these data and numbers can be very long and interesting. I will give only the most revealing results of observations. The risk of stroke in a person with a significant narrowing of the carotid artery in the absence of specific (including surgical) treatment ranges from 5% to 12%. Timely removal of atherosclerotic plaque reduces the number of violations of cerebral circulation by almost 3 times. Timely and correct treatment of high blood pressure with the stabilization of its numbers at a level not higher than 140/90 mm Hg. Art. allows you to save another 28-34% of death and disability. Finally, the third global and important component is the timely study of the “cholesterol level” in the blood of patients at risk. Many of our patients and some colleagues believe that the treatment of high cholesterol is not difficult at all, that you just need to give a person special pills from the group of statins. I want to assure you that this is not at all the case. And the treatment of these disorders requires great skill and art. As a result of the timely treatment of the patient to competent doctors, compliance with all his appointments, it is possible to reduce the risk of stroke and heart attack by more than 30%.

Is it true that to perform an operation to remove an atherosclerotic plaque from the carotid artery, it is necessary to “drill a hole in the skull”?

A.V. Solovyov: Of course not. The area where the plaque removal operation is performed is the neck. Many women are very worried about the aesthetic appearance of the seam, but this is not a question to worry about. The neat cosmetic seam is almost invisible, I have never heard the words of discontent with the appearance of the postoperative suture.

Tell me please, do people of working age after surgery need to register a disability group or can they return to their professional duties?

A.V. Solovyov: An experienced surgeon does not exceed 2-3% of unpredictable complications during such an operation. The vast majority of interventions end either by improving the patient's well-being, or, without affecting one’s well-being, simply significantly reduce the risk of stroke. Both the first and second situations are absolutely favorable for the continuation of any work activity.

Dear residents of Vsevolozhsk and Vsevolozhsk district!

We invite you to attend classes at the school for patients "LIFE WITHOUT A STROKE"

Classes are held in the form of a lecture lasting 60-90 minutes.

During the lecture, you will receive information about the causes of atherosclerosis, risk factors for the progression of this disease, its complications and the possibilities of their prevention, individual recommendations for examination and treatment

Classes are conducted by the head of the angio-neurological center of the Vsevolozhsk KMB, Ph.D. –Aleksey Viktorovich Soloviev

Information about the dates and times of the event, enrollment for the “Life without a stroke” school by phone: 8 - (81370) - 43 - 149, 8 - (812) - 331-63-75

Recovery rate after stroke

It is possible to restore the vital functions of the body by making serious efforts, but this process can last for years. According to statistics, stroke patients recover only partially, since this pathology affects the brain. Their relatives will have to prepare for a long recovery, the timing of which directly depends on the type of illness and the severity of the patient's condition.

Important! The initial stage of treatment takes place in a hospital, where the patient is removed from the unconscious state and normalizes hemodynamic parameters. After discharge, physicians and close relatives should control his state of health.

A good effect is provided by an additional healing course in a sanatorium or a specialized center, where suitable conditions are created for full recovery. Organizing recovery and further treatment after a stroke at home after discharge is much more difficult, but with proper care, about 85% of patients return to their usual life after 1.5 years. The patient can achieve good results if he does not break the rules and fulfill all the prescriptions of the doctors.

Recommendations of doctors after a stroke

Classification of recovery periods after stroke

The duration and sequence of recovery periods depends on the individual condition of the particular patient, changes in the vessels and lesions. If the patient consistently follows the recommendations of the doctors, the duration of the rehabilitation period may be reduced.

Phases of recovery are isolated based on the results achieved. The early period takes at least six months, the late one lasts up to a year, and a noticeable effect can be obtained several years later. Rehabilitologists distinguish 4 stages:

  1. The first month. This period is considered the most dangerous, since the survival of the patient depends on it. At this time, repeated heart attacks and strokes can occur, seizures and a marked deterioration of the condition can be recorded. Dizzy and headache. Treatment consists of eliminating cerebral edema, stimulating collateral circulation and preventing the development of complications.
  2. Six months after a stroke. In the next six months, the patient will have to adapt to his state psychologically and develop a clear plan of action. The attitude of the patient is of great importance - if he is ready to resist the disease, improvement will come much faster.
  3. The next six months. If during seven months the patient kept bed rest and diet, did not refuse to take medications and ruled out possible complications, he manages to partially restore the lost functions, including speech and physical activity.
  4. The second year after ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. A person who has suffered a disease is able to fully return to a previous life, while he will have to follow the doctor's recommendations after a stroke for life.

The standard rehabilitation period is three years, but it all depends on changes in the work of the heart, progression of ischemia and other associated pathologies, as well as many other factors. Each organism is individual, and the brain of an individual has its own characteristics; for this reason, some patients need more or less time to recover.

Exercises to recover from a stroke

List of typical complications after a stroke

Forecasts of doctors provide an opportunity to understand how long it will take to fully or partially restore vital functions. Rehabilitation should start as soon as possible after stabilization of the patient’s general condition. His relatives should be actively involved in treatment, monitor the implementation of the plan in view of changes, increase the workload and set new goals for the patient. A stroke often causes many problems that arise during treatment:

  1. Paralysis of the upper and lower limbs, weakness in the legs or hands. More often, the patient paralyzes one part of the body, while he can independently rise to sit and even walk. Solving the problem is achieved with the help of physiotherapy and drug treatment, after the onset of visible improvements, the patient will have to train and do exercises.
  2. Spasms and increased muscle tone. Often, paralyzed limbs remain in one position for a long time, which causes problems with mobility. Specialists prescribe special medications, muscle relaxation, and physiotherapy.
  3. Speech problems. Partial or complete speech therapy impairment of speech is noted in all patients after a stroke. Often these patients lose the ability to write, the restoration of this function occurs under the control of a speech therapist.
  4. Difficulty in swallowing. Dysphagia or abnormalities when swallowing food and fluids can cause pneumonia if food gets into the respiratory throat area. This is due to damage to the nerves that are involved in the swallowing function.
  5. Vision problems. Often, after a stroke, the patient's eyesight drops dramatically, his partial loss is due to a violation of brain functions.
  6. Disorders of the digestive tract and bladder. Incontinence and constipation are a major problem for bed patients. Problems with the intestines occur because of a long stay in bed, they can be eliminated after correcting the diet, training the pelvic muscles and increasing physical activity.

Another common complication is epilepsy and mental disorders. Stroke patients often experience depression, they are characterized by heightened emotionality, anxiety, constant mood swings and inability to control themselves. Psychiatric disorders can slow down the recovery process, so doctors often prescribe special drugs with a calming effect. In the period from 6 months to 2 years, some patients develop epilepsy, which requires separate treatment.

Restrictions on the post-stroke recovery phase

After returning to normal life, many patients want greater autonomy, for example, to start driving again, to go to work and to perform ordinary and everyday activities. Unfortunately, a stroke imposes a number of restrictions on many types of activities, such bans greatly complicate the patient's life and negatively affect his emotional background. The ability to again engage in one or another type of activity depends entirely on the individual state of the organism.

Sport and physical activity after a stroke

Answering whether it is possible to go in for sports after a stroke, many doctors recommend including feasible and moderate loads at the second recovery stage. Sport and physical activity restore muscular tissues, help the patient to learn again how to control his body, strengthen the work of the nervous system. While maintaining optimal activity, the likelihood of recurrent strokes is markedly reduced. The first month of therapy is the most important after the illness and includes many procedures.

Important! Intensive fitness classes, visits to the standard sports center and swimming pool are prohibited in the first stages of recovery. The patient should not engage in heavy sports. He is prescribed a specially designed set of exercises based on the state and gradually increase the load.

Such classes should be regular, only in this case they will bring real benefits. Swimming in the sea and swimming in the pool for several months during the rehabilitation period is prohibited.

Light loads have a positive effect on the nervous system, develop heart muscle, reduce anxiety and increase the body's resistance to stress in both women and men. Feasible exercises have a positive effect on the respiratory system, increase the volume of the lungs and enable the brain to get more oxygen.

A visit to the bath and sauna after a stroke

Many are interested in whether it is possible to go to a bath after a stroke, and how a steam room will affect the functioning of the brain and other body systems. Doctors allow visits to the bath, but in each case the patient will need to undergo an examination, including an MRI, and get additional advice. Due to the possible development of complications, water procedures can worsen the condition or lead to a sudden death. В течение первого года после перенесенного инсульта походы в баню категорически запрещены.

If recovery takes place normally, brain damage is minor, and scarring of necrotic tissue occurs rapidly, short visits to the steam room will do more good than harm. If the patient takes a steam bath and goes to the sauna, observing all the safety measures, he will notice the effect in a short time. The list of benefits of a bath and sauna after a stroke includes dilation of blood vessels and relaxation of the musculoskeletal system, improved blood supply and intensive feeding of nerve cells.

Bath after a stroke

Nutrition Recommendations for People with a Stroke

Nutrition of patients is of paramount importance and directly affects recovery. Compliance with the diet recommended by the doctor will help to significantly reduce the rehabilitation period and improve the patient’s general condition. The diet should include foods that reduce blood clots and thin the blood. It is recommended to eat lean meat and fish, more vegetables in boiled or stewed form, fresh fruits, berries and greens, nuts, bee products, healthy carbohydrates in the form of cereals.

On the question of whether it is possible to drink black coffee after a stroke, doctors usually recommend at the time to abandon this drink and give preference to weak tea or herbal decoction. The list of prohibited foods includes fatty meats and lard, dairy products with a high fat content, mayonnaise, smoked meats, spicy, fried and salty foods. They should be abandoned for the entire period of rehabilitation in order to preserve health and speed up healing. Additional recommendations include:

  • exclusion of alcoholic drinks, coffee and tobacco, which negatively affect the process of recovery of brain cells and the work of the immune system,
  • minimizing the use of sugar and salt, which are bad for vessels and the circulatory system,
  • the exclusion and diet of foods containing large amounts of cholesterol and transgenic fats,
  • reduced intake of wheat flour dishes.

Homemade food should be fractional and be combined with the schedule of medication and medication. Many patients who have had ischemic stroke, have problems with swallowing, which are recorded in the hospital and remain after discharge home. For this reason, the diet in the first days of the recovery period should be benign. The patient should receive a large amount of liquid and food in a shabby or liquid form. Healthy and fresh food in combination with a full-fledged regimen will help the patient recover faster and return to normal life.

Important limitations for stroke patients

The general list of restrictions depends on the severity of the patient’s condition, the type of stroke and additional complications that will be recorded at the examination stage. Ignoring contraindications and advice of the attending physician can cause movement disorder and other functions, problems with eyesight, provoke a repeated extensive heart attack or stroke.

The patient is recommended to eat right, follow the advice of a doctor and not to miss medication. Since a stroke is accompanied by the violation of many important functions, often the patient requires constant care.

Drinking alcohol even in small quantities is strictly prohibited during the entire recovery period - the risk of a recurrent stroke is noticeably increased in a person who drinks. Alcohol negatively affects the functioning of the cerebellum, increases blood pressure, increases pain in the head, which can put pressure on the neck. Patients with circulatory disorders develop speech disorders, problems with memory, motor functions and emotions. Such people should be supervised by relatives and doctors throughout the entire period of treatment. The list of restrictions includes:

  1. Strong emotional stress and nervous tension. The patient should not be engaged in physical work and experience stress.
  2. Car driving. For 3-6 months after suffering the disease is prohibited to drive a car. If we are talking about the most severe form of pathology, this prohibition will be permanent.
  3. Traveling by plane is prohibited for at least two weeks after diagnosis. With the most complex form of the disease, flights should be suspended for a period of at least one month, before the planned trip you will need to undergo a second inspection.

A combination of proper nutrition, physiotherapy, such as acupuncture, taking medications prescribed by a doctor, and following the correct regimen will help restore vital functions as soon as possible and eliminate the occurrence of repeated complications. Comprehensive rehabilitation provides an opportunity to return to a full daily routine, to which the patient was accustomed before the onset of a stroke.

Get more information in the video below:

Man after hemorrhagic stroke

This type of stroke is considered to be the most dangerous, because it is associated with hemorrhage in the brain, which means that the affected area can have a significant area. Patients who have had a hemorrhagic stroke experience serious problems with movement, speech, memory, and clarity of consciousness. Partial paralysis is one of the most common consequences; it affects the right or left part of the body (facial, arm, leg) depending on the location of the brain lesion. There comes a full or partial loss of motor activity, changes in muscle tone and sensitivity. In addition, the behavior and psychological state changes: speech after a stroke becomes slurred, incoherent, with obvious violations of the sequence of words or sounds. There are problems with memory, character recognition, as well as depressive states and apathy.

Man after ischemic stroke

The consequences of this type of stroke may be less severe, in the mildest cases, after a short period of time, the full recovery of body functions occurs. Nevertheless, doctors do not give a positive prognosis often - problems with the blood circulation of the brain rarely pass without a trace. After an ischemic stroke, disorders of swallowing, speech, motor function, information processing and behavior occur. Often a stroke of this type is accompanied by subsequent pain syndromes that do not have any physiological soil, but are caused by neurological problems.

Throughout the recovery period after a stroke, the upper limit of the patient’s blood pressure must be carefully monitored in order to take timely action in case of a dangerous increase. The normal rate is 120–160 mmHg. Art.

Features of patient care after a stroke: expert advice

If the result of a stroke is paralysis, then the patient needs bed rest. At the same time every 2-3 hours should change the position of the patient's body in order to avoid the formation of bedsores. It is necessary to monitor the regularity and quality of discharge, to change linen in a timely manner, to monitor any changes in the skin and mucous membranes. At later stages, you should first practice passive, and then active gymnastics, massage, it is necessary to restore the patient's motor functions, if possible. During this period, the psychological and emotional support of loved ones is very important.

Drug treatment

The main task of medical drugs in this period is to restore normal blood flow in the brain and prevent the re-formation of a blood clot. Therefore, doctors prescribe to patients medications that reduce the level of blood clotting, improve cerebral circulation, reduce pressure, as well as neuroprotectors to protect cells. Only a professional doctor can prescribe specific medications and follow the course of treatment.

Botox therapy

Spasticity is a medical term meaning a condition when individual muscles or their groups are in constant tone. This phenomenon is characteristic of patients who have recently had a stroke. To combat spasms, Botox injections are used in the problem area, muscle relaxants reduce muscle tension or even completely nullify it.

This is one of the easiest, but effective ways to restore mobility after a stroke to hands and feet. The main task of physical therapy is to “wake up” nerve fibers that live, but which have fallen into biochemical stress, create new chains of connections between them so that the patient can return to normal life or get by with minimal help from outsiders.

After a stroke, the muscles need to be restored, and for this, doctors recommend using a special therapeutic massage. This procedure improves blood circulation, reduces spastic states, removes fluids from tissues and positively affects the functioning of the central nervous system.

Physiotherapy

Methods based on various physical effects. They can be very effective in restoring blood circulation, reducing pain syndromes, improving the functioning of various organs. The abundance of methods allows you to choose the appropriate option for each case or develop a range of measures aimed at the rehabilitation of body systems. Physiotherapy procedures include muscle electrical stimulation, laser therapy, electrophoresis, vibratory massage, and others.

Reflexology

Impact on the acupuncture or biologically active points of the body helps to activate its vitality, in fact being an effective additional treatment method. Acupuncture and injections reduce muscle tone in spastic conditions, regulate the nervous system and improve the condition of the musculoskeletal system.

Kinesthetic

One of the most modern ways to restore patient autonomy after a stroke. It consists in gradual learning to perform movements that do not cause pain. For example, for bed patients, one of the main tasks of kinesthetics is the ability to regularly change the position of the body on its own in order to prevent the formation of pressure sores.

Bobat therapy

This is a whole set of measures, based on the ability of healthy areas of the brain to assume responsibilities that were previously the prerogative of the damaged ones. Day after day, the patient re-learns to accept and adequately perceive the correct body postures in space. Throughout the whole process of therapy, a doctor is located next to the patient, which prevents the occurrence of pathological motor reactions of the body and helps to carry out beneficial movements.

Dietary and herbal medicine

In the post-stroke condition, the patient needs proper nutrition with a minimum content of fatty foods - the main source of harmful cholesterol. Fresh vegetables and fruits, lean meat, and whole grains are most often the basis of the menu. It is best if the doctor prescribes a diet, based on the characteristics of a particular case. As phytotherapeutic methods use treatment with essential oils (rosemary, tea tree, sage), as well as the use of decoctions and tinctures (rose hips, St. John's wort, oregano).

Psychotherapy

After a stroke, any patient needs psychological help, preferably provided by a professional. In addition to the fact that depressive states can be caused by impaired brain function, the patient is under constant stress due to his helplessness. An abrupt change in social status can adversely affect the patient’s psychological state and even slow down the recovery process as a whole.

Ergotherapy

Behavioral reactions during the recovery period also often change, so the patient needs to re-learn the simplest things - handling household appliances, using transport, reading, writing, building social connections. The main goal of occupational therapy is to return the patient to normal life and restore working ability.

Some time after the first stroke, the likelihood of a second one increases by 4–14%. The most dangerous period is the first 2 years after the attack.

The duration of rehabilitation after a stroke

It is necessary to take measures to restore every lost body function after a stroke as soon as the patient's condition stabilizes. With an integrated approach to this task, the motor activity returns to the patient after 6 months, and the speech skill - within 2-3 years. Of course, the term depends on the degree of brain damage, the quality of the procedures performed and even on the desire of the patient himself, but if you approach the solution of the problem with full responsibility, the first results will not take long to wait.

The more sudden the stroke, the more shocking the consequences become. Yesterday your close relative was healthy and cheerful, and today he cannot do without outside help. You must understand that in this situation, much depends on those people who are close to him. And it’s not just the degree of professionalism (although this is an important factor), but also simple human care and understanding.

What rehabilitation center can I contact?

Recovery after a stroke can be accelerated, it is enough to place the patient in those conditions that will facilitate a speedy recovery. Hour control, care, procedures, walks in the fresh air and the absence of additional stresses are all necessary for the patient. A modern metropolis, such as Moscow, with its unfavorable atmosphere and the lack of suitable conditions for a comfortable life for people with disabilities, does not contribute much to the healing process. But in the near suburbs there are cozy rehabilitation centers, similar to the usual sanatoriums, but with a clear specialization in restoring the normal functioning of people who have had a stroke. One of the good examples of such an institution is the famous Three Sisters rehabilitation center. This private institution is located 30 km from the Moscow Ring Road on Schelkovskoe highway, in an ecologically clean area. Surrounded by a fragrant pine forest, this center is always open for those who need help, as well as for their loved ones. It employs qualified specialists who will develop an individual rehabilitation program after a stroke and implement it at the highest level. Physical therapy according to the latest and classic methods, ergotherapy, massage, classes with a psychologist and speech therapist, kinesitherapy - this is just a partial list of rehabilitation procedures offered by the Three Sisters Center. 35 comfortable rooms are equipped in accordance with the patient's condition - each room has an alarm button, special furniture, as well as a telephone, TV and even Internet access. Accommodation at the Three Sisters Rehabilitation Center is not only a necessary measure for a speedy recovery after a stroke, but also a pleasant pastime in a comfortable and friendly environment.

License of the Ministry of Health of the Moscow Region No. LO-50-01-009095 dated October 12, 2017

What is a stroke?

If we turn to scientific terminology, we can learn that a stroke is called the investigative phenomena, which are accompanied by a sharp violation of the blood circulation of the brain. In total, there are two main causes of stroke: the occurrence of a blood clot in the brain vessels, which is accompanied by their narrowing and arterial blood supply to the brain.

As a result - the death of brain cells in a particular area. If a stroke occurred for this reason, then it is called ischemic, and it is dangerous because the symptoms develop gradually and are difficult to distinguish immediately, but the person should be helped no later than three hours after the formation of a blood clot.

The second main reason for the development of a stroke is a hemorrhage in the box of the brain, which occurs due to a rupture of blood vessels. Such a stroke is called hemorrhagic, most often the cause of its occurrence is high blood pressure, in which case the risk increases by 5-10 times!

During a hemorrhage, a tumor is formed that causes the death of brain cells. In the case of this type of stroke, timely assistance to the patient must be provided within an hour.

Main symptoms:

  • The person is suddenly thrown into fever, the sudden onset of severe headaches and dizziness.
  • Numbness of the limbs, general weakness.
  • Speech impairment, sharp visual impairment, fog before the eyes, the picture looks blurred.
  • Violation of articulation and gesticulation, poor speech perception.
  • Nausea, vomiting.

How to save yourself and your loved ones from a stroke?

The processes occurring in the circulatory system of the brain are a consequence, which is due to a poor lifestyle, as well as a lack of knowledge of certain techniques, which help avoid the approach of such a terrible disease. Knowledge of the main causes of stroke is the best prevention of a terrible problem.

  • Bad ecology. Конечно, с этой проблемой справиться достаточно трудно, вряд ли кто-то мгновенно все бросит и уедет жить в экологически чистую среду, в деревню к бабушке или на необитаемый возраст. Но, чтобы хоть как-то минимально сгладить влияние плохой экологии на организм, его необходимо снабжать всеми необходимыми витаминами и полезными веществами для укрепления иммунной системы.
  • Постоянные стрессы, нервные перенапряжения могут привести к серьезным проблемам. Of course, it is impossible to escape from problems, they have always been and will, perhaps, should reconsider their attitude towards them and learn to react more calmly, so to speak, in a philosophical way. Everything is solved, but health will not be returned, sometimes even for the biggest money.
  • Chronic fatigue, which has recently become a normal part of the life of any modern person, can also be a prerequisite to the formation of a stroke. But in order to rest, it is not necessary to go to a foreign resort, it’s enough to take a habit of choosing nature or a river at the weekend, add a little physical activity, because the rest can be both active and passive.
  • Overweight. Even an extra 5 kg can cause the formation of a wide variety of health problems. What can you say about excess 15, 30 or 40 kg?
  • The presence of bad habits, for example, active or passive smoking is one of the most dangerous habits, which, over time, leads to problems with blood vessels.
  • People who suffer from hypertension should also be cautious, since such a disease can cause rupture of the blood vessels of the brain. Systematic monitoring of blood pressure and keeping it normal is an excellent prevention of strokes. In order to stabilize the pressure, it is enough knowledge and use of simple means (tea, coffee, medicinal herbs).
  • The presence of heart disease, diabetes, arterial hypertension.

How to prevent occurrence?

As we have said, to avoid the appearance of such a terrible disease is quite real, the main thing is to follow a small number of basic recommendations. By the way, the following recommendations also apply to men and women who have already suffered one stroke, and absolutely do not want to be in the power of a second one.

The main causes of recurrent stroke is the negligence of the patients themselves, they completely ignore the fact that they now need to be doubly monitored for their health.

  • Continuous monitoring and normalization of blood pressure. For people over 40, as well as those who have already suffered a stroke, the procedure for measuring pressure should be a daily one.
  • Do not forget to constantly monitor the level of sugar and cholesterol in the blood. Up to 30 years - once a year, up to 40 - once every six months, and after 40 and for the sick - once every 3 months.
  • Normalization of the daily diet, try to reduce the consumption of intake of sugar and salt.
  • The decrease in the consumption of animal fats with an increase in the amount of vegetable.
  • Do not forget that an active lifestyle, systematic exercise, active recreation and fresh air are the best helpers for good health.
  • Overweight people should take care of its normalization, as well as subsequent retention.

Pathology description

What is a stroke? Many of us have heard this name more than once, but every person is sure that this disease will bypass it. Someone thinks that he is too young, others are sure that this is the lot of chronically sick people, and still others believe that this disease can occur only in those who have a genetic predisposition.

Today, doctors say that pathology most often affects the elderly and heredity also plays a role, and chronic diseases can also cause a stroke. However, experts also say that no one is immune from this dangerous disease. Increasingly, stroke overtakes young and seemingly healthy people. What is the reason and the danger of a stroke?

The cause of a brain stroke lies in various vascular diseases. It is the blood vessels that feed the brain with oxygen. Their network is spread throughout the body, and they must be strong, resilient and clean. If a narrowing of the vessel lumen occurs, for various reasons, pressure on the wall begins, and it may not withstand and burst. This is a brain hemorrhage. Its effects are often severe and violate important body functions.

Another type of stroke is necrosis of brain cells in case of occlusion of cerebral vessels from oxygen starvation.

The most dangerous stroke with hemorrhage. When hemorrhage forms a hematoma, and it is the cause of death and disability in humans. The hematoma grows and squeezes the nerve endings that are concentrated in the brain. The brain stops functioning normally. A person can lose speech, physical activity, ability to breathe independently. The same consequences can develop with necrosis of brain cells, however, ischemic stroke (in which the vessel does not break, but only becomes blocked) is considered most favorable in terms of prognosis and rehabilitation for the patient.

More on types of stroke

Today, doctors distinguish three main types of stroke. It depends on the type of life after a stroke and the possibility of maximum recovery after an attack. Types of stroke are directly dependent on the nature of damage to the blood vessels and brain cells, namely:

Subarachnoid stroke. The causes of this form of pathology lie in traumatic brain injuries or aneurysm rupture. The hemorrhage in this case is localized between the soft and spider sheaths of the brain. Mortality from this form of pathology is quite high and reaches 50%. However, this type of pathology is quite rare. Complications after it are the worst. It develops instantly or within a few hours after injury.

Hemorrhagic stroke. The causes of this form of stroke are a rupture of the vessel and bleeding in the brain. Mortality from such attacks reaches 33%. However, the degree of disability is very high. In this case, hemorrhage and subsequent hematoma is localized in the ventricles and under the membranes of the brain.

An attack of this type develops rapidly and the patient may fall into a coma within a few minutes after he felt unwell.

Ischemic stroke. The attack develops from constriction or blockage of the vessel. The causes of vasoconstriction are varied from atherosclerosis to nervous tension. This is the most common form of stroke. Mortality from it reaches 15%. With timely hospitalization in patients most often the prognosis for recovery is positive. The attack may develop several days.

In addition, doctors distinguish acute type of pathology, microstroke, extensive or spinal stroke. All these forms differ in the degree of damage and localization. Forecasts for each case are purely individual.

Risk factors

Despite the fact that nowadays stroke can develop in any patient and even in young people, there are a number of risk factors that are most often present in patients with this diagnosis.

  • Age after 50 years.
  • Gender male.
  • Heart diseases.
  • Arterial hypertension.
  • Constant nervous tension.
  • The presence of bad habits.
  • The presence of excess weight.
  • The presence of diabetes.
  • Genetic predisposition.

It is worth noting that the consequences of a brain stroke are directly dependent on the speed of hospitalization of the patient. Unfortunately, in our country, emergency hospitalization is observed in only 30% of the total number of patients with this diagnosis. Doctors call already when it becomes clear that the situation is critical and the patient is doing very badly. However, for example, ischemic stroke can develop up to 3 days, and if the patient is taken to the hospital on the first day, his predictions will be more favorable. Most of the time, people who live alone are left without medical help.

Many patient relatives ask how many years they live after a stroke. There is no single answer to this question. With timely assistance and the implementation of all the recommendations of the doctor, the patient can live for many more years, but it also depends on the age and the general health of the patient.

Consequences of an attack

A brain stroke invariably leads to negative consequences. In principle, there is no difference between what the consequences of a stroke are in women and which are in men. The consequences of a stroke in men can be observed more often only for the reason that in the male sex this pathology develops more often. The most dangerous complication of a stroke is considered a second attack.

About 40% of patients die from it in the first 30 days.

The consequences of an attack begin to manifest from the first minutes of the strike. The patient experiences the following symptoms, which clearly indicate the development of a cerebral stroke:

  • Increased pressure.
  • Increased body temperature.
  • Inhibition of reaction.
  • Cramps.
  • Sharp headache.
  • Loss of sensation in one side of the body.
  • Loss of orientation.
  • Memory loss.
  • Speech impairment.
  • Coma.

After stopping the attack, the patient may experience the following abnormalities:

Paralysis. The most frequent consequence of a stroke is paralysis of one side of the body. Paralysis develops from the opposite side of the pathology site. With this violation, the patient can no longer do without outside help. He needs a serious rehabilitation, which can last several years. The main motor functions must be restored within a year, fine motor skills recover much longer.

Loss of sensation This deviation is characterized by loss of sensitivity of the muscles of the body. Recovery must be accompanied with exercises for the return of physical activity.

In this case, stroke is actively used exercise therapy and other rehabilitation methods.

Speech disorders. Restoration of speech skills depends on the specific violation. Speech problems occur in about a third of stroke patients. A person may experience the following speech problems:

  • Impaired speech comprehension.
  • Violation of own speech.
  • Difficulties with the selection of words.
  • Violation, both understanding and reproduction of speech.
  • Complete violation of perception and speech reproduction.

Recovery of speech functions should begin as early as possible. For this, the patient is recommended to have special sessions with a speech therapist. Recovery time is quite long. As a rule, speech is restored after a few years.

In addition to these consequences, the patient may face such complications as:

  • Hypotonus muscle.
  • Central pain syndrome.
  • Trophic pathology.
  • Pathology of view.
  • Difficulty swallowing.
  • Nervous system disorders.
  • Coordination violation.
  • Epilepsy.

All these disorders require long-term treatment. Often, care for patients falls on the shoulders of relatives, and they must monitor the implementation of all the recommendations of the doctor. How many people live after a stroke depends largely on the care of relatives. The main task of relatives and doctors is to prevent re-attack and rehabilitation of the patient, which should begin as soon as possible.

Recovery predictions

After a stroke, the projections for life are purely individual. Many relatives also want to know when full recovery is possible. Doctors say that rehabilitation is influenced by many factors, including the desire of the patient himself. The most favorable forecasts for recovery are projected for the following factors:

  • Young age
  • Early hospitalization.
  • Stroke moderate and mild.
  • Localization of stroke in the vertebral arteries.
  • Full care.
  • Properly organized rehabilitation.

Life forecasts

Projections for survival - this is the main thing that relatives expect from doctors when their loved one is hospitalized with a stroke. How much does a stroke live after an attack, and what does this prognosis depend on? Most often, doctors do not give specific predictions. The main thing, they say, is to prevent another attack within 30 days. Next, a person must live for a year, and only after this period the risk of death gradually decreases.

Stroke recurrence is the most common cause of patient death.

The development of re-attack is influenced by the following factors:

  • The age of the patient.
  • Late treatment at the hospital.
  • The presence of chronic diseases before the attack.
  • Poor quality of care.
  • Non-compliance with the recommendations of doctors.
  • Stress and nervous tension.

Doctors say that if negative factors are eliminated as much as possible and a correct approach to the treatment and rehabilitation of the patient makes predictions on life can be favorable. Some patients still live a long life, gradually recovering and learning to live again. Of course, there are more chances to survive at a young age, but sometimes the elderly also show such a desire to live, which even surprises doctors.

Thus, it can be argued that the predictions depend on how much the brain has suffered, on the patient's age, care for him and his desire to live. It is with the last paragraph that problems often arise. Older people do not want to fight, they do not want to become a burden for their relatives. In this case, counseling psychologists and the support of loved ones. Only by reviving the desire to be healthy in a person, can we count on his speedy recovery.

How to live with a full life stroke

Cerebrovascular diseases are changes in cerebral vessels and impaired blood flow in the brain. The consequence of these diseases is stroke.

Stroke affects people differently. In 100% of cases, the patient’s rehabilitation is required, regardless of the level of brain damage. It is important not to give up and to begin rehabilitation as soon as possible. Full recovery is not always possible, but patience, help and support of loved ones can help to adapt and acquire some independence.

With minor brain damage, the patient will have to give up bad habits and hard work, change the food system, but this will not significantly affect his life.

In case of severe injuries, patients will have a long and difficult rehabilitation. In such cases, the person sometimes loses some of the skills and functions of the body. Even if a person cannot return to the previous level, then with the help of proper rehabilitation it is possible to adapt to changes in life.

Hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes: which one is more dangerous?

Hemorrhagic stroke makes up about 20% of all cases of stroke and is the most severe and dangerous, since it causes rupture of cerebral vessels, hemorrhage into the cranial cavity, development of hematoma and swelling of the brain. The death of brain cells occurs in minutes.

This type of stroke is fatal in 50-60% of cases. About 70% of survivors are at risk of remaining disabled. With this form, the critical days are considered the entire period from the moment of the strike to 2 weeks after it. In this period, the probability of death is highest.

Ischemic stroke - The most common type of stroke. It accounts for about 80% of cases. It is a violation of blood flow in any part of the brain due to blockage of blood vessels (blood vessels remain intact). Because of the blockage, there is an acute lack of oxygen and nutrients in the brain cells, due to which the cells die. This species leads to the death of patients in 20% of cases.

Periods of stroke:

  1. The sharpest: the first 4-5 hours.
  2. Acute: 14-20 days.
  3. Early recovery period: from 3 to 6 months.
  4. Late recovery period: from 6 months to a year.
  5. Period of remote actions: 12 months from the onset of the attack.

Help and support from relatives is an important factor for recovery

A stroke dramatically changes the life of the patient, his family, companion and friends. A person is physically limited, cannot express his feelings, it is difficult or impossible for him to speak. A patient who has suffered a stroke looks like a child - he has to re-learn many things: self-serve, walk, pronounce words.

Care at home is aimed at restoring and preventing re-shock. Be patient and indulgent to the patient. Approve and support it. The help of relatives is important for a person.

Attract other family members and friends who can help. Remember, that:

  • Excessive guardianship and care become a hindrance - it is important that a person tries his hand, even if at first it turns out bad for him.
  • Show a person that he is still important, consult with him, talk, include him in family life, make plans for the future.
  • Speak slowly and calmly.
  • Do not avoid issues that concern him, such as life and death.
  • Watch the patient's condition: he must eat right, stick to a diet, exercise and take medications.
  • Do not lose optimism, even if you find it difficult.

Depression after an illness

Post-stroke depression (FID) - The most common neuropsychiatric consequence of a stroke. From 30 to 50% of survivors suffer from varying degrees of FID, which is characterized by lethargy, irritability, sleep disturbances and low self-esteem.

Depression reduces motivation, slows the recovery of the body and reduces survival. Some have mild emotional instability, but most suffer from severe depression. Эмоциональные проблемы после инсульта могут быть следствием повреждения клеток головного мозга или возникать из-за трудностей в адаптации к новым условиям.

Инсульт может привести к длительной или полной нетрудоспособности. Особенно это касается пожилых людей. Some physical disabilities that can result from a stroke, including muscle weakness, pneumonia, difficulties in performing daily activities, mean for a person a loss of independence and need for care, which can lead to depression.

The main causes of PID:

  • the initial predisposition to depression, which the blow suffered only exacerbates,
  • reaction to the changes that have occurred - the patient has a feeling of helplessness and uselessness,
  • damage to brain cells due to oxygen starvation or the effects of hemorrhage in the brain, damage to the nervous system,
  • lack of support from loved ones.

Exercises for stroke

A person who has suffered a stroke should try to do the exercises on their own, because his future life depends on it. Muscles and joints need movement to stay in shape. And mental exercises will help the brain recover faster.

Exercises for a stroke patient:

  1. Train your face muscles in front of a mirror: inflate your cheeks, push air from one cheek to another, stretch your tongue, show your teeth, smile, laugh, wrinkle your forehead.
  2. Flexion-extension, rotation of the limbs, squeezing the hand into a fist, waving his arms and legs. Be careful not to overdo the person.
  3. If a person used to love to sing, then try to sing with him. Some people can sing after a stroke, even if they cannot speak, because different parts of the brain are responsible for singing and speaking.
  4. Exercises for breathing. Exhale air through closed lips or through a tube into the water. As the forces increase, you can try to inflate balls.
  5. Talk and discuss the news, ask about his opinion.

Life expectancy after stroke

Although treatment and rehabilitation options are improved every year, stroke is still among the top three leading causes of death worldwide. The survivor is still in danger because of the risk of a recurrent stroke.

Factors affecting life expectancy:

  • age of the patient
  • focus and place of brain damage,
  • avoiding bad habits, healthy eating, pressure control, exercise,
  • blood clots and vascular occlusion, which is especially common in patients with paralysis,
  • stresses.

Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation should start as soon as possible. The severity of stroke complications and the ability of each person to recover greatly differ. People who participate in a targeted rehabilitation program feel much better than people who did not have it. The restoration program is made taking into account the particularities of the case, therefore it is impossible to speak about exact dates.

The main goal of rehabilitation is to improve the patient's condition and prevent a second stroke.

Rehabilitation includes:

  1. speech therapy: speech restoration program
  2. physiotherapy: exercises to strengthen muscles and coordinate movement,
  3. occupational therapy: helps a person improve the ability to perform routine daily activities, such as bathing, cooking, dressing, eating and reading,
  4. support of friends and family
  5. proper nutrition.

Healthy nutrition

The diet includes the consumption of large quantities of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and nuts. There is a restriction on the consumption of cholesterol and saturated fat. Salt intake should be minimized to maintain healthy pressure.

It is necessary to eat:

  • Lots of vegetables, fruits containing antioxidants that can help reduce damage to blood vessels. They also contain potassium, which helps control blood pressure. Fibers of fruits, vegetables reduce cholesterol. Folic acid in greens reduces the risk of recurrent stroke.
  • High fiber cereals such as rice, pasta, oats and barley.
  • Lean meat and poultry, fish, eggs, nuts, seeds, legumes.
  • Milk, yogurt, low-fat cheese are a source of potassium along with calcium.

Limit consumption:

  • Foods high in saturated fat are cookies, cakes, pastries, pies, meat products, pizza, fried foods, potato chips.
  • Foods that contain mostly saturated fats - butter, cream, coconut and palm oil.
  • Salty foods that increase pressure.
  • Beverages containing sugar: soft drinks and liqueurs, soda and energy drinks. Too much sugar can damage the blood vessels.
  • Alcohol

Sometimes the patient is hard to swallow or chew food. Food should be easily swallowed and soft. Do not cook the patient viscous food, such as jam, jelly, bananas - they can choke. Food should be finely chopped and not given in solid form. Chew better healthy side of the mouth. Cups and cutlery should be with thick handles - they are easier to use.

Refusal of drugs

Some patients refuse to take medication. There may be several reasons for this:

  • a person feels good and does not see the need for medications,
  • the drug caused a side effect
  • laziness, unwillingness to change habits and follow the schedule,
  • disappointment from the lack of quick results.

No matter what form of stroke a person has suffered, his brain is faced with irreversible consequences, which can lead to a recurrent seizure. The purpose of medication is to prevent the spread of the lesion on healthy brain cells, prevent a recurrent stroke attack, and restore damaged brain areas.

It is necessary to explain to a person that his life is in danger without medication. Some drugs do not have a visible clinical action, but support the body in the norm (for example, drugs that reduce pressure). Recovery is a long process requiring patience and perseverance.

Statistics of life after a stroke

A stroke is one of the three most common causes of death for people.

About 12 million strokes are recorded every year in the world, of which 6.2 million end in death. The United States accounts for 795,000 cases, 270,000 cases are registered in Germany. In Russia, this figure is 450,000 people, of whom 35% die.

Mortality largely depends on the type of stroke. When hemorrhagic kills up to 60% of people. In the case of ischemic, this figure is 20%.

Women are less likely to experience this disease than men, but as a percentage, mortality is higher among women. Men are 30% more likely to suffer a stroke, but women die less often.

The younger a person is, the higher his chances of survival and recovery. Elderly and elderly people have the lowest chances of recovery. According to statistics, after 80 years, almost 70% of patients die. 50% of survivors die within a year, since their cells are no longer able to recover quickly. Stroke is one of the leading causes of long-term disability of the adult population.

Dementia is diagnosed in 10-30% of survivors of the stroke.

It is important to try to eliminate the second stroke, because mortality from re-strike is 70%. Secondary stroke affects 10-15% of people within a year. In the first 5 years, it is diagnosed in 25% of women and 45% of men.

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