Paradoxically: almost 70% of the human body consists of water, but even water in large quantities is destructive. However, sometimes even a drop of a substance that can be fatal is enough. From flowers to heavy metals and gases produced by man himself, below is a list of the most dangerous poisons known to mankind.
Cyanide exists as a colorless gas or crystals, but in any case it is quite dangerous. It smells like bitter almonds, and getting into the body in just a few minutes leads to symptoms such as headache, nausea, rapid breathing and an increase in heart rate, as well as weakness. If time does not take action, cyanide kills, depriving the body's cells of oxygen. And yes, cyanide can be obtained from apple seeds, but don't worry if you eat a few. You will have to eat about ten apples before a sufficient amount of cyanide accumulates in your body, and you feel all of the above. Please do not do this.
24. Hydrofluoric acid (hydrofluoric acid)
Hydrofluoric acid is a poison used, among other things, for the production of Teflon. In the liquid state, this substance easily seeps through the skin into the bloodstream. In the body, it reacts with calcium and can even destroy bone tissue. The worst thing is that the effect of contact manifests itself immediately, which increases the likelihood of causing serious damage to health.
Arsenic is a natural crystalline semimetal and possibly one of the most well-known and widespread poisons used as a murder weapon in the late 19th century. However, its use with such objectives began in the mid-1700s. The action of arsenic lasts from several hours to several days, but the result is one - death. Symptoms of poisoning are vomiting and diarrhea, due to which 120 years ago it was difficult to distinguish arsenic poisoning from dysentery or cholera.
22. Belladonna or Death Death
Belladonna or Death Kathleen is a very poisonous herb (flower) with a romantic story. It is poisoned by an alkaloid called atropine. Absolutely all the plant is poisonous, though in varying degrees: the root contains the most poison, and the berries - less. However, even two pieces is enough to kill a child. Some people use belladonna for relaxation as a hallucinogen, and in Victorian times women often drip the infusion of belladonna into their eyes so that the pupils widen and their eyes sparkle. Before death, under the influence of the belladonna, a seizure develops, the pulse quickens and confusion occurs. Belladonna is not a toy for children.
21. Carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide)
Carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide) is a flavourless substance, taste, color and slightly less dense than air. It poisons and then kills a person. Partially carbon monoxide is so dangerous precisely because it is difficult to detect, sometimes it is called the "silent killer." This substance prevents the entry of oxygen into the body for the normal functioning of cells. The early symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are similar to the flu that runs without fever: headache, weakness, drowsiness, lethargy, insomnia, nausea, and confusion. Fortunately, a carbon monoxide detector can be purchased at any specialty store.
20. Beach Apple
The most dangerous tree in all of North America grows in Florida. The Mancinella Tree or Beach Apple has small green fruits that look like sweet apples. Do not eat them! And do not touch this tree! Do not sit next to him and pray that you will never be under him in windy weather. If the juice gets on your skin, it will blister, and if in your eyes, you can go blind. The juice is found in the leaves and in the bark, so do not touch them!
Fluorine is a very poisonous pale yellow gas that has corrosive properties and reacts with almost anything. For fluorine to be fatal, its concentration in 0.000025% is enough. It causes blindness and choking, like mustard gas, but its effect is much worse for the victim.
18. Sodium fluoroacetate
Compound 1080, also known as sodium fluoroacetate, is used as a pesticide. In its natural form, it is found in some plant species in Africa, Brazil and Australia. The terrible truth of this deadly poison without smell and taste lies in the fact that there is no antidote to it. Strangely enough, the bodies of those who died from exposure to sodium fluoroacetate, remain poisonous for another whole year.
The most dangerous artificially created poison is called dioxin - only 50 micrograms are required to kill an adult. This is the third most toxic poison known to science, 60 times more toxic than cyanide.
16. Dimethylmercury (neurotoxin)
Dimethyl mercury (neurotoxin) is a terrible poison because it can penetrate most standard protective equipment, such as thick latex gloves. It was this story that happened to a chemist named Karen Wetterhan in 1996. A single drop of colorless liquid hit the gloved hand, and that was all. Symptoms began to appear FOUR MONTHS later, and six months later she died.
15. Aconite (Wrestler)
Aconite (Wrestler) also known as the "monk's hood", "wolf poison", "poison of the leopard", "woman's curse", "devil's helmet", "queen of poisons" and "blue rocket". This is almost a whole genus, which includes more than 250 herbs, most of which are extremely poisonous. Flowers can be either blue or yellow. Some of the plants have been used not only in traditional medicine, but also as a murder weapon during the last decade.
The toxin found in poisonous mushrooms is called amatoxin. It affects the cells of the liver and kidneys and kills them within a few days. May affect the heart and the central nervous system. There is a cure, but the result is not guaranteed. The poison is resistant to temperature and cannot be disposed of by drying. Therefore, if you are not 100% sure of the collected mushrooms, do not eat them.
In fact, anthrax is a bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. What makes you sick is not so much a bacterium as it is the toxin it produces when it enters the body. Bacillus Anthracis may enter the system through the skin, mouth, or respiratory tract. Mortality from airborne anthrax reaches 75%, even though there is a cure.
12. Hemlock plant
Hemlock is a classic poisonous plant that was regularly used for execution in ancient Greece. There are several varieties, and in North America water hemlock is the most common plant. After eating it, you can die, despite this people still add hemlock to the salad, considering it an acceptable ingredient. Water hemlock causes painful and severe convulsions, convulsions and tremors. Those who have experienced the full power of the whitehead, but the surviving people may subsequently suffer from amnesia. Water hemlock is considered the most deadly plant in North America. Watch out for small children and even teenagers when they walk outside! Do not eat anything unless you are 100% sure of its safety.
Strychnine is commonly used to kill small mammals and birds and is often the main component of rat poison. In large doses, strychnine is dangerous for humans. It can be swallowed, breathed in or got into the body through the skin. The first symptoms: painful muscle cramps, nausea and vomiting. Muscle contractions ultimately lead to suffocation. Death can occur within half an hour. This is a very unpleasant way to die, both for humans and for rats.
Most well-versed in such things consider mitotoxin the most potent marine toxin. It is found in dinoflagellate algae, called Gambierdiscus toxicus. For mice, meiotoxin is the most toxic among non-protein toxins.
Mercury is a heavy metal, quite toxic to humans if inhaled or touched. Touching can lead to flaking of the skin, and if you inhale mercury vapor, it will eventually turn off your central nervous system, and everything will be fatal. Before that, it is likely that kidney failure, memory loss, brain damage and blindness will occur.
Polonium is a radioactive chemical element. Its most common form is 250,000 times more toxic than prussic acid. It emits alpha particles (incompatible with organic tissue). Alpha particles cannot penetrate the skin, so polonium needs to be ingested or injected into the victim. However, if this happens, the result will not be long in coming. According to one theory, gram polonium 210, introduced into the body. can kill up to ten million people, causing radiation poisoning first, and then cancer.
The suicide tree or Cerbera odollam acts by disrupting the natural rhythm of the heart and often causing death. A representative of the same family as Oleander, the plant was often used to conduct an “innocence test” in Madagascar. It is estimated that 3,000 people a year died from the use of Cerberus poison before this practice was declared illegal in 1861. (If a person survived, he was found innocent. If he died, it no longer mattered.)
6. Botulinum toxin
Botulinum toxin is produced by the bacterium Clostridium Botulinum, and it is an incredibly powerful neurotoxin. It causes paralysis, which can lead to death. Botulinum toxin is known by its commercial name - Botox. Yes, this is what the doctor puts in your mom's forehead to make it less wrinkled (or in the neck to help with migraines), which causes muscle paralysis.
5. Puffer Fish
Puffer fish is considered a delicacy in some countries, where it is called Fugu, a dish for which few literally are willing to die. Why does death come? Because in the guts of fish tetrodotoxin is contained, and in Japan about 5 people a year die from the use of puffer fish as a result of a violation of cooking technology. But gourmets continue to persist.
4. Gas Sarin
Gas Sarin makes you experience the worst moments in life. The chest shrinks, stronger and stronger, and then. death comes. Although in 1995 the use of Zarin was declared illegal, it was not stopped to use in terrorist attacks.
3. "Poisonous arrow"
The golden frog Poisonous Arrow is tiny, charming, and very dangerous. Only one frog-sized frog has enough neurotoxin to kill ten people! A dose of about two salt crystals is enough to kill an adult. That is why some of the Amazon tribes used poison, putting it on the tips of hunting arrows. One touch of an arrow kills in a few minutes! Strolling in the forests of the Amazon, stick to the rule: do not touch the red, blue, green and especially the yellow frogs.
Ricin is even more dangerous than anthrax. This substance is obtained from the castor bean beans, the same plant from which castor oil is extracted. This poison is especially toxic if it is inhaled, and its pinch is enough to kill an adult.
Received the codename "Purple Possum", belonging to the VX group - the most powerful nerve-paralytic gas on Earth. It was created by man, and for this you can “thank” the United Kingdom. Technically, it was banned in 1993, and the US government allegedly gave the order to destroy its reserves, but it really remains to be seen.
Known to all cyanide almost instantly leads to paralysis of the central nervous system and stops the heart. Even a small dose of a substance in the body is enough to stop the blood in the heart in a few seconds. A person dies in a few minutes as a result of oxygen starvation. There are several types of cyanide, the most dangerous of which is hydrogen cyanide. Just a few milligrams of this substance can kill a person in 10 minutes. Today, cyanide is banned by the Geneva Convention, but many continue to use poison for murder or suicide.
The ninth number on our list is anthrax controversy. This poison caused a lot of noise in 2001, after the terrorist attacks in New York. At that time, there were rumors about mysterious anthrax envelopes, from which 5 US citizens died. It is worth noting that the panic was far from being causeless, since spores of an ulcer can be infected by airborne droplets. Immediately after infection, the ulcer infects the respiratory system, and in 90% of cases the infected person dies after a week of asphyxiation.
Excellent tool for mass destruction. After the substance enters the lungs, the person dies from choking in less than 1 minute. Zarin was banned since 1933, but it was with the help of this gas that the terrorist act in Japan was made in 1955, which killed hundreds of people. A little later, similar acts of terrorism were carried out in Iraq and Syria, where the number of victims reached thousands.
The substance is produced from the most poisonous mushrooms in the world. When it enters the blood, the poison affects the liver and kidneys of a person, as a result of which the organs completely fail within 2-3 days. Amatoxin also causes severe heart damage. The antidote for this substance is ordinary penicillin, without the use of which death occurs from heart failure.
This poison was originally used as a pesticide for pest control, but it is so strong that it can kill a person. Strychnine can be obtained from a special tree that grows in Asian countries, as well as synthesized in the laboratory (the author of this method became the Nobel laureate). The substance can be delivered to the body through injection or inhalation. Strychnine causes muscle convulsions and asphyxia. Usually death occurs within 30 minutes after the injection of the poison.
The fact that a broken thermometer is dangerous, many have known since childhood. Most thermometers contain heavy metal - mercury. The danger of mercury is that it is very toxic and can get into the body through the skin, as well as by inhalation of its deadly vapors. Once on the skin, mercury causes burns, itching and flaking. For internal organs, the effects of exposure to poison are more pitiable - memory lapses, blindness, and even death.
The fourth place in our top went to tetrodoxin, which is contained in the internal organs of the Japanese fugu fish. If you are unlucky, and your portion of fugu land has been cooked incorrectly, then within half an hour the person begins to feel oral paralysis, impaired motor and speech coordination. The victim begins to twitch in convulsions, may fall into a coma. Death occurs within 6 hours after the poison enters the body. Tetrodoxin is considered one of the most toxic substances on the planet.
Three leaders opens ricin, poison, which became popular because of the movie Walking Dead, in which the main character sent this substance by mail. Ricin extract is found in the seeds of the castor bean plant. The deadly effect of poison is expressed by its destructive effect on protein in the human body, which causes almost instant death. At one time, ricin enjoyed a heightened interest on the part of the US special services and the Al Qaeda terrorist organization.
In the second place is the nerve-paralytic gas V-Ex (VX). One of the most dangerous types of chemical weapons on the planet. One drop of substance is enough to kill a person. Inhaling gas, a person begins to feel suffocated, and after a few minutes the substance paralyzes the respiratory system, and death is inevitable.
Botulism toxin has become the absolute leader in the list of the most deadly poisons on Earth. One cup of toxin is enough to spread the botulism epidemic to several hundred people, causing a huge number of deaths. Surprisingly, this poison is widely used in the cosmetic industry in the form of Botox injections. There are cases when patients died from botulinum toxin during the procedures. However, beauty always demanded sacrifices, and not always these sacrifices were justified.
Anthrax is a very severe, rapidly developing disease caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. There are several forms of anthrax. The most "innocuous" is skin. Even without treatment, the mortality from this form does not exceed 20%. The intestinal form kills about half of the patients, but the pulmonary form is almost certain death. Even with the help of the newest methods of treatment, modern doctors manage to save no more than 5% of patients.
Zarin was created by German scientists who tried to synthesize a powerful pesticide. Но свою мрачную славу эта смертельная отрава, вызывающая быструю, но очень мучительную смерть, приобрела не на сельскохозяйственных полях, а как химическое оружие. Зарин на протяжении десятилетий тоннами производили в военных целях, и только в 1993 году его производство было запрещено. Но несмотря на призывы к полному уничтожению всех запасов этого вещества, и в наше время его применяют как террористы, так и военные.
Amatoxins are a whole group of protein-like poisons contained in poisonous mushrooms of the amanitic family, including the deadly grebes. The particular danger of these poisons lies in their “slowness”. Once in the human body, they immediately begin their destructive activities, but the victim begins to feel the first discomfort no sooner than after 10 hours, and sometimes several days later, when it is already very difficult for doctors to do something. Even if such a patient can be saved, he will still suffer for the rest of his life from painful disorders of the liver, kidneys and lungs.
Strychnine is found in large quantities in the nuts of a tropical chilibuch tree. It was from them that it was obtained in 1818 by the French chemists Pelletier and Cavantu. In small doses, strychnine can be used as a drug that increases metabolic processes, improves heart function and treatment of paralysis. He was even actively used as an antidote for barbiturate poisoning.
However, it is one of the most powerful poisons. Its lethal dose is even less than that of the famous cyanide potassium, but it acts much more slowly. After half an hour of terrible agony and severe convulsions, death from strychnine poisoning occurs.
Mercury is extremely dangerous in all its manifestations, but its vapors and soluble compounds cause especially strong harm. Even small amounts of mercury in the body cause severe damage to the nervous system, liver, kidneys, and the entire gastrointestinal tract.
When small amounts of mercury enter the body, the process of poisoning proceeds gradually, but inevitably, since this poison is not eliminated, but on the contrary, it accumulates. In ancient times, mercury was very widely used for the production of mirrors, as well as felt for hats. Chronic mercury vapor poisoning, which manifested itself in behavioral disorder up to complete insanity, at the time was called the "disease of the old hatmen".
This extremely strong poison is found in the liver, milt and roe of the famous puffer fish, as well as in the skin and roe of some species of tropical frogs, octopuses, crabs and in the calf of the California triton. Europeans first met this poison in 1774, when the crew ate an unknown tropical fish on the ship of James Cook, and the slop from dinner was given to the ship's pigs. By morning, all the people were seriously ill, and the pigs had died.
Tetrodotoxin poisoning is very serious, and even today, doctors manage to save less than half of all poisoned.
It is interesting to note that the famous Japanese delicacy of puffer fish is made from fish, in which the content of the most dangerous toxin exceeds the lethal dose for humans. Fans of this food literally entrust their lives to the art of the chef. But no matter how hard the chefs try, they cannot avoid accidents, and every year several gourmets die after enjoying a delicious dish.
Ricin is an extremely strong poison of plant origin. Greater danger is the inhalation of its smallest grains. Ricin is about 6 times more potent than potassium cyanide, but it was not used as a weapon of mass destruction due to purely technical difficulties. But various special services and terrorists really "love" this substance. Politicians and public figures with enviable regularity receive letters filled with ricin. True, it rarely comes to death, since the penetration of ricin through the lungs has a rather low efficiency. For one hundred percent result, ricin must be injected directly into the blood.
VX, or, as it is also called, VI-gas, refers to the category of combat toxic gases that have a neuro-paralytic effect. He, too, was born as a new pesticide, but soon the military began to use it for their own purposes. Symptoms of poisoning with this gas appear within 1 minute after inhalation or contact with the skin, and death occurs within 10-15 minutes.
10. Cyanic potassium
Well-known cyanide is a deadly poison that acts on the central nervous system and on the heart. Even a small dose, getting into the blood, binds iron molecules and blocks the supply of oxygen to vital organs, resulting in death in a matter of minutes. There are different forms of cyanide, for example, hydrogen cyanide, which is considered the most toxic. This gas kills a person in about 10 minutes. Gas was used during World War I as a chemical weapon and was banned by the Geneva Convention. Today, cyanide is used as a means of murder, suicide and in the plots of books.
Amatoxin is a substance found in the most deadly mushrooms in the world. When it enters the blood, it infects the cells of the kidneys and liver, as a result of which the organs fail after a few days. Amatoxin also affects the heart. If you do not enter a large dose of penicillin, then a person may fall into a coma or die from heart and liver failure.
Strychnine was used as a pesticide to kill pests, but it can also kill a person. He was discovered in Asia, he was kept in special varieties of trees, but it can also be obtained in the laboratory (the one who managed to do this, received the Nobel Prize). Strychnine can enter the body in different ways: injection, inhalation and absorption. After entering the body, muscle convulsions and spasms begin, leading to asphyxiation. After the injection the person dies in half an hour.
Back in school, everyone was warned to carefully handle a thermometer. And it is not just that, but because of the heavy metal by the name of mercury. It is an incredibly toxic metal that enters the body either by inhalation or by contact with skin. In contact with skin, mercury causes itching, burning, and the skin can even peel off. Mercury can cause loss of memory, vision, kidney failure and destruction of brain cells. As a result, death occurs.
1. Botulinum toxin
Many poisons can be deadly in small doses, because it is quite difficult to select the most dangerous. However, many experts agree that botulinum toxin, which is used in Botox injections for smoothing wrinkles is the strongest.
Botulism is a serious disease. paralysiscaused by botulinum toxin that produces bacteria Clostridium botulinum. This poison causes damage to the nervous system, respiratory arrest and death in terrible agony.
Symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, double vision, facial muscle weakness, speech defects, difficulty swallowing other. The bacterium can be ingested with food (usually poorly preserved foods) and through open wounds.
2. Poison ricin
Ricin is natural poison, which is obtained from castor beans castor plants. To kill an adult, just a few grains. Ricin kills cells in the human body, preventing the production of the proteins it needs, which results in organ failure. A person can be poisoned by ricin through inhalation or after ingestion.
Inhalation symptoms usually appear 8 hours after exposure, and include difficulty breathing, fever, cough, nausea, sweating and chest tightness.
When swallowed, symptoms appear in less than 6 hours, and include nausea and diarrhea (possibly with blood), low blood pressure, hallucinations and seizures. Death can occur in 36-72 hours.
3. Sarin gas
Sarin is one of most dangerous and deadly nerve gaswhich is hundreds of times more toxic than cyanide. Sarin was originally produced as a pesticide, but soon this transparent, odorless gas became a powerful chemical weapon.
A person can poison with sarin by inhalation or exposure to gas on the eyes and skin. Symptoms such as runny nose and chest tightness, breathing becomes difficult and nausea occurs.
Then the person loses control over all the functions of his body and falls into a coma, convulsions and spasms occur, until he suffocates.
5. Cyanide potassium
Potassium cyanide is one of the fastest deadly poisonsknown to mankind. It may be in the form of crystals and colorless gas with the smell of "bitter almond". Cyanide can be found in some foods and plants. It is in cigarettes, and it is used for the production of plastic, photographs, the extraction of gold from ore and for the destruction of unwanted insects.
Cyanide was used in ancient times, and in the modern world it was the way of the death penalty. Poisoning can occur by inhalation, ingestion and even touching, causing symptoms such as seizures, respiratory failure and in severe cases, deathwhich may occur in a few minutes. It kills due to the fact that binds to iron in blood cells, depriving them of the ability to carry oxygen.
6. Mercury and mercury poisoning
There are three forms of mercury that can be potentially dangerous: elemental, inorganic, and organic. Elemental mercury which contained in mercury thermometers, old fillings and fluorescent lamps, non-toxic when in contact, but may be deadly by inhalation.
Inhalation of mercury vapors (metal quickly turns into gas at room temperature) affects the lungs and brainby shutting down the central nervous system.
Inorganic mercury, which is used to produce batteries, can be fatal when taken orally, can cause kidney damage, and other symptoms. Organic mercury contained in fish and seafood is usually dangerous with prolonged exposure. Symptoms of poisoning can include memory loss, blindness, seizures, and others.
7. Strychnine and strychnine poisoning
Strychnine is a white, odorless, bitter, crystalline powder that can be ingested, inhaled, in solution and administered intravenously.
Get it from chilibuha tree seeds (Strychnos nux-vomica), native to India and Southeast Asia. Although it is often used as a pesticide, it can also be found in narcotic substances such as heroin and cocaine.
The degree of strychnine poisoning depends on the quantities and the route of entry into the body, but a small amount of this poison is enough to cause a serious condition. Symptoms of poisoning include muscle spasms, respiratory failure and even lead to brain death 30 minutes after exposure.
8. Arsenic and arsenic poisoning
Arsenic, which is the 33rd element in the periodic table, has long been synonymous with poison. It has often been used as a favorite poison in political assassinations, since arsenic poisoning resembled cholera symptoms.
Arsenic is considered a heavy metal whose properties are similar to those of lead and mercury. In high concentrations, it can lead to symptoms of poisoning, such as abdominal pain, cramps, coma and death. In small quantities, it can contribute to a number of diseases, including cancer, heart disease and diabetes.
9. The poison curare
Curare is a mixture of various South American plants that were used for poisonous arrows. Curare was used for medical purposes in a highly dissolved form. The main poison is an alkaloid, which causes paralysis and death, as well as strychnine and hemlock. However, after paralysis of the respiratory system occurs, the heart may continue to beat.
Curare death is slow and painful, since the victim remains conscious, but cannot move and speak. However, if you apply artificial respiration before the poison settles, the person can be saved. The Amazon tribes used curare to hunt animals, but poisoned animal meat was not dangerous for those who consumed it.
Fortunately, the chances of encountering this poison are very small. Batrachotoxin, which is contained in the skin of tiny wood frogs, is one of the most powerful neurotoxins in the world.
The frogs themselves do not produce poison, it accumulates from the products they consume, mostly small bugs. The most dangerous content of the poison was found in the form of frogs horrible leaf leaffound in Colombia.
One representative contains enough batrachotoxin to kill two dozen people or several elephants. Poison affects the nerves, especially around the heart, makes breathing difficult and quickly leads to death.