Stomatitis is an inflammation of the tissues of the oral cavity, which may be accompanied by malaise, fever, soreness of the inflamed mucosa. In society, it is believed that this disease occurs mainly in childhood, but this opinion is erroneous. Adults often suffer with stomatitis, but among children up to 5-7 years the incidence is several times higher. The reasons for this are imperfect immunity and the habit of pulling foreign objects into your mouth.
Causes of stomatitis
Stomatitis can develop independently or be a complication of other pathologies. Many people with often recurrent stomatitis are identified immunodeficiency states, therefore, reduced immunity - the main predisposing factor to the development of the inflammatory process in the oral cavity.
The causes of stomatitis are different:
- fungal infection
- allergic reaction,
- a complication of another inflammatory-infectious process, localized in the oropharynx,
- mechanical injuries, damage to the gums with chipped teeth, dentures, excessively hard food,
- congestion on the teeth of soft and hard dental deposits,
- burn hot drinks, food, aggressive drugs, alcohol,
- taking medications that reduce the activity of the immune system (corticosteroid drugs),
- poor quality care of teeth and gums,
- endocrine disorders and systemic diseases (provoke the development of infectious stomatitis).
What are stomatitis?
Depending on the cause of the development and the depth of tissue damage, stomatitis can be:
Each of these types of stomatitis has its own symptoms and characteristics. But It should be noted that any inflammation in the oral mucosa requires expert advice. The doctor must understand the causes of the inflammatory reaction, and do everything possible to prevent the spread of the infectious process to the adjacent tissues.
Diagnosis of stomatitis
At the reception, the doctor will determine the type of stomatitis, and further medical tactics will depend on it. The survey may include the following studies:
- PCR diagnostics (for fungi and herpes infection),
- bakposev smear from places of inflammation,
- feces on dysbiosis,
- laboratory diagnosis (blood test).
Stomatitis often occurs on the background of a weakening of the body’s defenses. Typically, immunity is reduced in people in the autumn-winter period, when respiratory viral infections are rampant. Relapsing stomatitis deserves special attention. If he often becomes aggravated, it is worth carefully examining, undergoing ultrasound diagnostics of internal organs, examining the liver, stomach, examining the work of the intestines, assessing the condition of the ENT organs and consulting with an otolaryngologist about the removal of adenoids, cysts, hypertrophied tonsils, which are a source of chronic infection. They just can lead to a decrease in local immunity and frequent exacerbation of stomatitis.
Who is at risk for developing stomatitis?
First, stomatitis most often still develops in childhood. It is difficult to keep an eye on small children: they are always in a hurry somewhere, they are driven by the desire to learn and taste everything. In children's groups, toddlers use the same toys; in the absence of a teacher, they can try food with other people's spoons. All this contributes to the ingress of pathogenic microorganisms in the mouth and infection with stomatitis.
Therefore, in the risk group in the first place - young children (up to 5-7 years). By school, the child usually becomes more responsible, he begins to understand the benefits of hygienic procedures and actively absorbs new information. By this age, the immune system of children begins to fully function, which reduces the risk of developing stomatitis. Proper nutrition, strengthening the immune system, schooling the child to wash hands before eating, timely treatment of caries help to avoid the appearance of inflammatory processes in the oral cavity.
In adults, stomatitis is not uncommon. At risk are people who:
- use dentures,
- have chipped teeth
- recently suffered complex operations, are in the recovery period,
- poorly brush their teeth, have carious cavities,
- suffer from autoimmune pathologies, immunodeficiency disorders,
- a lot of smoking, abusing alcohol,
- like to drink hot tea or use overly spicy dishes.
What are the symptoms of stomatitis?
The symptomatology at stomatitis depends on their type and a place of localization of the centers of an inflammation. In most cases, the disease proceeds without fever and is well tolerated by patients. But in childhood, stomatitis may be accompanied by fever, anxiety, tearfulness, and impairment of well-being. The child may refuse to eat, sleep badly. But special treatment gels allow you to quickly remove all unpleasant symptoms and alleviate the condition of the baby.
How is allergic stomatitis?
Allergic stomatitis occurs on the background of allergies. Hypersensitivity of the body can occur both on food (which is most common) and on household chemicals, cosmetics, pollen, pet dander and household dust. When contacting an allergen, someone has bouts of itching, a runny nose, bronchial asthma worsens, a skin rash appears, but there are people who suffer from allergic stomatitis, and it is one of the symptoms of chronic allergy exacerbation.
The main signs of allergic stomatitis:
- dry oral mucosa,
- loss of taste
- itching, burning in the mouth,
- unpleasant metallic taste in the mouth,
- redness, swelling, hemorrhages on the mucous membranes,
- discomfort during chewing, pain in the mouth.
In case of bullous allergic stomatitis, vesicles appear in the oral cavity, inside of which are filled with transparent contents. After opening them, a red and inflamed mucous membrane, prone to bleeding, is exposed. Erosion is covered by characteristic fibrin films. The ulcers are sharply painful, the pain intensifies during a conversation or meal. Ulcerative defects can merge into one large inflamed area. The stronger the inflammatory process, the worse the patient feels. In some cases, the appetite may disappear and the body temperature rises.
The most severe is necrotic form of allergic stomatitis. The mucosa is sharply hyperemic, the doctor during the inspection reveals multiple ulcerations, which are covered with a fibrinous coating, which has a dirty gray tint. Lymphadenitis may occur (an increase in the ear and submandibular lymph nodes). There is also increased drooling, pain in the mouth while chewing food, often patients complain of headaches.
Symptoms of ulcerative stomatitis
Ulcerative stomatitis is relatively easy. Signs of inflammation appear in the oral cavity: the mucous becomes red, becomes edematous, burning occurs in the gum area. After a few days of such manifestations on the inside of the cheeks, on the gums there are single ulcers, on top of which there is a white and dirty patina. In this case, patients complain of increased salivation, bad breath. Fever may occur. In case of ulcerative stomatitis, there is a sharp pain, which is aggravated at the moment of contact of the inflamed areas with food, teeth and tongue.
Vincent's necrotizing stomatitis is manifested by extensive inflammation of the oral mucosa with a rapid increase in symptoms. For several days, the tissues are covered with ulcers with jagged edges, on top of which are thick gray-green films. Hyperemic tissues are located around them, and ulcers themselves often spread to the tongue. Inflamed lesions may merge, affecting the deeper layers of the mucous membrane. If you try to remove the plaque, then under it will appear a red bleeding surface.
For Vincent stomatitis is characterized by an unpleasant putrid breath, which does not disappear even after brushing your teeth. Severe illness can lead to severe malaise and swelling of the face. Regional lymph nodes are enlarged, painful. The duration of the disease is at least 10 days. If stomatitis is not treated, the necrotic process will spread to adjacent tissues, deep down, down to the bone structures (with the development of osteomyelitis).
In chronic course of ulcerative stomatitis, dangerous complications can occur: rhinitis, otitis, endocarditis, gastroenteritis, tooth loss, pleurisy. Therefore, do not take lightly to the treatment of stomatitis - when the first signs of the disease appear, immediately contact a specialist and begin active treatment.
Signs of candidal stomatitis
Candida stomatitis develops against the background of active reproduction of Candida fungi, which cause the development of thrush. Normally, these microorganisms are part of the microflora of the mouth, intestines and vagina in women, but when immunity is weakened or other adverse factors are affected, they begin to increase their numbers, leading to an acute inflammatory reaction.
Candida stomatitis is often found among children under 2–3 years of age and elderly people with weakened immune systems. The disease occurs with swelling, redness of the oral mucosa, the formation of a characteristic cheesy plaque on the inside of the cheeks, on the lips and tongue. Also, there are signs such as burning, itching, pain during chewing food, drinking beverages. In childhood, candidal stomatitis occurs with vivid symptoms: children refuse to eat, and during crying, parents can see a white patina that literally completely covers the mucous membrane and the entire tongue.
Symptoms of aphthous stomatitis
Fibrinous form of aphthous stomatitis is characterized by the appearance of rashes (single), which are covered with bloom. Aphthae heal in 10-14 days after the appearance. They occur most often on the mucous lips, the side of the tongue. Exacerbation of aphthous stomatitis can cause microtraumas of the oral cavity (prostheses, jagged teeth), reduced immunity in the spring or late fall, relapses of acute respiratory viral infections, ENT diseases. If you do not carry out treatment and do not pay attention to immunostimulation, then relapses will occur 3-4 times a year.
With a necrotic variety of aphthous stomatitis, dystrophic changes appear in the oral mucosa. Necrosis of oral tissues is often found in people suffering from severe somatic disorders and blood diseases. Aphthae in this case are not accompanied by a sharp pain, but go into ulcers, persisting up to 2-4 weeks.
With the defeat of the ducts of the salivary gland of saliva stands out an order of magnitude less and develops grand aphthous stomatitis. Aphthae painful, can occur against the background of temperature irritation, respiratory viral diseases, the development of carious process.
The most severe form of aphthous stomatitis is the deforming form. At the same time, profound changes in the connective tissue are observed. Ulcerative defects do not heal for a long time, growths of the mucous membrane of the soft palate, lips and palatines can be formed.
Causes of stomatitis in adults
The main factors that provoke stomatitis include:
- Bacteria, viruses, mycoplasmas. Since different pathogens of infectious diseases are directly related to the occurrence of mouth ulcers, provoking facts are necessary for their reproduction.
- Unbalanced nutrition. With an incomplete or improper diet, there is a high risk of stomatitis. This is especially associated with insufficient intake of zinc, folic acid, iron and B vitamins.
- Mechanical, chemical and thermal injury to the oral cavity. As a rule, many patients themselves pay attention to the fact that they developed stomatitis, the causes of which are associated with any injury. Violation of the integrity of the oral mucosa occurs in various ways. Quite often, stomatitis in adults occurs after scratching the edge of a crown, cheek bite, from a cut, after being injured by dried fish, bread crumbs, and nuts. Chemical burns with alkali or acid can also cause inflammation. Small injuries heal fairly easily, but if adverse factors exist, there is a risk of developing an unpleasant illness.
- Poor dentures or their unsuccessful installation can cause stomatitis. Photos of the disease, provoked by these factors, can be seen in the dental offices or in our article in the second photo.
- Violation of the elementary rules of hygiene, eating with unwashed hands, eating raw vegetables and fruits.
- Alcohol abuse and smoking often contribute to the occurrence of ulcers in the mouth.
- Diseases of the digestive tract, which include gastritis, colitis, worm infestations.
- Treatment of various malignant neoplasms, chemotherapy or radiation can trigger the appearance of inflammation in adults.
- HIV infection is a serious cause for stomatitis in adults.
- Anemia is a significant risk factor.
- Dehydration due to diarrhea or vomiting, prolonged fever, significant blood loss - all of these are risk factors that cause inflammation.
- Hormonal diseases, menopause.
Stomatitis: symptoms and treatment of the disease in adults
It is important to know that treatment carried out in a timely manner and at an early stage will help prevent recurrences. Usually, the symptoms of stomatitis are the same for different types of lesions. Stomatitis in adults rarely occurs in an acute form, with a high fever and symptoms of general intoxication. But when the first signs of an unpleasant disease appear, it is imperative that you seek medical help, as in the absence of proper treatment and identifying the causes of occurrence, the risk of recurrence increases in the future.
- The onset of stomatitis is characterized by the appearance of redness at the site of injury. Further, the affected area swells, swells up, becomes painful. Sometimes there is a slight burning sensation.
- With the most common bacterial stomatitis, a round or oval sore is formed, around which an inflamed halo occurs. Inside it forms a thin white film, the edges of the ulcer are fairly smooth.
- Stomatitis pain is quite strong, many people cannot chew food properly and are forced to restrict movements to the tongue and lips.
- In addition to a painful sore, increased salivation begins to bother, sometimes bleeding gums are observed, there is an unpleasant smell from the mouth.
- Sometimes the temperature during stomatitis rises in the case when there is an acute disease, accompanied by an increase in lymph nodes.
Recommendations for the treatment of stomatitis
How to treat stomatitis in the mouth? If you have a mild catarrhal form of the disease, then treatment with medications in this case may not be necessary. In other cases, therapy involves taking antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal drugs along with drugs that are aimed at raising immunity.
Viscide is a complex drug that is prescribed for most forms of stomatitis, since it is resultantly active against various types of pathogens. The drug relieves pain, relieves inflammation, inhibits the growth of bacteria, fungi, viruses, accelerates the healing of tongues and erosions, and most importantly, enhances local immunity so that the disease does not occur again. The composition of Viscide includes 8 herbal extracts, 8 amino acids, hyaluronic acid, taurine, betaine.
When stomatitis occurs in children, treatment with potent drugs is prescribed only in extreme cases. Since there are a lot of causes of the disease (fungus, stress, viruses, injuries, bacteria, chronic diseases), only a qualified specialist can determine the real cause, choose the right treatment tactics and prescribe the right drugs.
If you do not have medical education, and you do not know how to cure stomatitis correctly, you should not self-medicate.
Stomatitis treatment methods
There are three ways to treat stomatitis:
- Topical treatment that will help stop the pain and relieve the acute symptoms of the inflammatory process.
- Oral treatment with medications, which is carried out to eliminate the causes of stomatitis.
- Treatment of stomatitis using a laser.
It is worth considering in more detail these methods of treatment.
Basically, this method of treatment is used if the cause of stomatitis is an infectious pathogen. Naturally, this is detected only in laboratory analysis. How to treat stomatitis in the mouth in this case? Most often, antibiotics Gentamicin, Kanatsymin, Lincomycin, Penicillin are used in the fight against bacterial infections. Вместе с этими препаратами назначают антигистаминные средства, которые используются для того, чтобы избежать проявления аллергической реакции.Also included in the course are probiotics that help restore intestinal microflora.
Echinacea tincture and Interferon can be attributed to antiviral drugs, since antibiotics do not affect viruses. In addition, it is recommended to improve immunity in viral infections with the help of immunomodulatory drugs and course taking vitamins B, A, C, in some cases E. Sometimes doctors prescribe taking folic acid.
The most effective is the local treatment of stomatitis, since it includes frequent rinsing of the oral cavity using disinfectant solutions, antiseptics (hydrogen peroxide, Chlorhexidine, Miramistin, Furacilin, a weak solution of potassium permanganate).
Good remedies for stomatitis in the form of medicinal decoctions, which includes calendula, sage, oak bark, linden. If it is not possible to rinse the oral cavity, then anesthetic sprays, such as Tantum Verde, can help in this situation. Also, for the local treatment can be prescribed ointment "Zovirax", "Acyclovir", "Oxolinic". For anesthesia, applications with benzocaine, lidocaine, trimecain are perfect, and for faster healing, they prescribe liquid vitamins A and E, kalanchoe juice and sea buckthorn oil.
Signs of herpetic stomatitis
The causative agent of herpetic stomatitis is the herpes virus. On the mucosa appear single or grouped bubbles, inside of which there is a transparent content. After they burst, shallow and painful erosion is exposed.
The disease is characterized by increased salivation, deterioration of general well-being, malaise, decreased appetite, nausea, enlarged submandibular and cervical lymph nodes. In children, herpetic stomatitis proceeds with fever, runny nose, severe redness of the gums.
The formation of vesicles lasts several days, while the oral mucosa remains sharply painful, and the erosions that appear are gradually epithelial, leaving no traces. With generalized herpes infection, the risk of developing dangerous infectious complications increases, especially if the disease occurs during the neonatal period.
Tactics of treatment of stomatitis is selected individually. In this case the form of the disease is necessarily taken into account. For the period of an active inflammatory reaction it is forbidden to take spicy, spicy, cold or excessively hot food. Food should be warm, and the food itself - semi-liquid. If you eat hard food, then secondary infections can join the mucosal damage.
For 2-3 weeks of treatment under a ban, alcoholic beverages, if possible, give up cigarettes. It is recommended that you limit the motor activity, it is forbidden to overwork and overcool, even if the disease proceeds without fever and pronounced discomfort. In any form of stomatitis, it is useful to consume dairy foods that heal the intestinal microflora, thereby increasing immune activity.
In case of herpetic stomatitis, the main focus of treatment is on the reception of antiviral drugs. They help suppress the activity of the herpes virus. Additionally prescribe drugs that eliminate inflammation, vitamins, immunostimulants. Mandatory antiseptic rinsing of the mouth: it is recommended to use solutions that have antiviral activity.
Symptomatic therapy for herpetic stomatitis is required in children if high body temperature rises (antipyretic drugs are prescribed), anesthetic gels and ointments. Mouth rinses are indispensable for treating any form of stomatitis. Topically, antiseptics help reduce the activity of microorganisms, wash out pathogens along with infected saliva, improve well-being and accelerate recovery.
If, against the background of stomatitis, the body temperature rises, then, in addition to antipyretic drugs, it is useful to drink more vitamin drinks (warm herbal teas, weak tea with lime, honey). In case of fungal forms of stomatitis, it is useful to rinse your mouth with a weak soda solution. Chlorhexidine is effective in aphthous, traumatic stomatitis. This antiseptic has a weak effect on viruses.
In aphthous stomatitis, prone to recur, allergenic foods (chocolate, citrus fruits, strawberries) and food that can injure an already inflamed mucous membrane should be excluded from the diet. Aphthae are treated with anti-inflammatory dental gels with an anesthetic effect (for example, holisal). Recommended mouthwash with special antiseptics or decoction of medicinal herbs. For rapid epithelialization of tissues after the acute inflammatory reaction subsides, regenerating agents are prescribed.
Necrotizing stomatitis of Vincent is treated with antibiotics, which are most often prescribed in injections. Additionally, you can recommend the use of metronidazole tablets. Such potent drugs are necessary because this type of stomatitis without effective treatment often leads to dangerous infectious complications. When stomatitis Vincent prescribed also antihistamines.
In candidal lesions of the oral mucosa using antifungal agents. It is very important to choose the right treatment that will affect the cause of the inflammation. This is the only way to minimize the risk of recurrence of stomatitis and the occurrence of secondary infections.
Stomatitis during pregnancy: features of treatment
Pregnancy is a difficult period for every woman. Against the background of hormonal adjustment of the body and increased stress on the internal organs and systems, immunity is reduced. It is so conceived by nature: the suppression of immune activity is necessary so that the embryo attaches to the endometrium and begins to actively develop. At this time, the risk of developing thrush, stomatitis, flu and other infectious and inflammatory processes increases significantly.
Hundreds of microbes and viruses are trying to attack the weakened body of a pregnant woman. The difficulties of treating stomatitis in this interesting situation are associated with the impossibility of using many drugs. You must remember that every medicine is potentially dangerous. Many manufacturers do not indicate in the annotation to the drug that it has not passed clinical trials and may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. Therefore, self-medication for stomatitis during pregnancy is unacceptable. The doctor will prescribe remedies that can be used to eliminate local manifestations of the disease.
It is important to pay attention to strengthening the immune system. Immunostimulating agents, vitamins are prescribed. This allows to reduce the frequency of recurrence of stomatitis in the future. Topically, the mucous is treated with anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal formulations, antibacterial drugs can be prescribed, but only topically. When choosing a substance, the doctor is guided primarily by the interests of the unborn child. If the benefit of treatment for a woman exceeds the risk to the fetus, and there is an urgent need for the use of medications, then the doctor allows the woman to use this or that remedy.
How can you prevent the development of stomatitis? First of all, you need to monitor oral hygiene:
- brush your teeth at least 2 times a day,
- visit your dentist regularly and treat carious teeth in a timely manner,
- remove the accumulated tartar 1-2 times a year,
- use only high-quality dentures, made only in a dental laboratory,
- use irrigators that efficiently wash out food particles and microbial deposits from hard-to-reach places,
- timely replace rotten dental crowns with new ones, remove unviable teeth.
Strengthen immunity by taking courses of multivitamin complexes. The diet should contain fresh vegetables, fruits, greens. Try not to injure the delicate mucous with hard products - bread, bread crumbs, fruits, nuts.
If your child often suffers from stomatitis on the background of bad habits (thumb sucking, non-compliance with the principles of personal hygiene) and low immunity, try to teach him to properly care for his teeth and not to put dirty hands or foreign objects in his mouth.
What is stomatitis?
Stomatitis, which in translation from ancient Greek means “mouth,” is the most common name for a group of diseases of the oral mucosa. Do not confuse the disease with stomatitis with glossitis (damage to the tongue), cheilitis (damage to the lips) and palatinitis (damage to the sky). Although this disease is not contagious, almost every person has directly or indirectly encountered this or that kind of stomatitis in their life. It is noteworthy that if you ever hurt them, the chance of the disease reappearing is very high.
It is very difficult to diagnose stomatitis correctly. This is due to the fact that the doctor can only visually assess the situation - in medicine there are no special tests for this disease. Of course, your medical record will help the doctor, but no more than that. Another difficulty in diagnosing stomatitis is that it can only be a symptom of other more serious diseases.
Causes of Stomatitis
The mechanism of stomatitis, unfortunately, has not yet been fully identified, so anything can be the cause of the disease. For example, microorganisms, pathogens that act directly on the oral mucosa, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system, general weakening of the immune system, vitamin deficiency, metabolic disorders, nervous disorders, malignant tumors, hormonal fluctuations, anemia, various injuries in the form of abrasions of the oral mucosa and heredity.
In addition, local factors can cause stomatitis. Elementary failure to comply with oral hygiene, caries, oral dysbacteriosis, poorly made or poorly installed dentures, the effects of the use of medications, the use of nicotine and alcohol, and allergic reactions to products. Especially I want to say about the use of toothpastes containing sodium lauryl sulfate. Various studies have shown that they can provoke the occurrence of stomatitis and its aggravation.
Symptoms of stomatitis
Mild redness of the oral mucosa - the first symptoms of stomatitis. Over time, they swell up, and a burning sensation appears in them. If you do not start treatment at this stage, the reddening is replaced with ulcers of a small size, oval or round, grayish or white, with a red halo and a film on top. Moreover, the tissue around them looks completely healthy. Mouth ulcers are very sore and difficult to eat. They appear on the inner surface of the cheeks and lips, under the tongue. In most cases, mild stomatitis is manifested by a single sore.
The emergence of several larger ulcers and depths, which sometimes merge into one, are signs of more severe forms of stomatitis. An increase in temperature, inflammation of the lymph nodes, general deterioration of well-being, headache, loss of appetite and constipation are added to the appearance of ulcers. Acute stomatitis is accompanied by severe pain in the mouth, which interferes with eating and talking. In addition, there may be excessive salivation, plaque on the tongue, bright red mouth, irritability, vomiting after eating.
Forms of the disease
There are many forms of oral stomatitis, so let's consider only the most popular ones.
Catalar stomatitis is the most common type of stomatitis. In this unpleasant disease, the mucous membrane of the mouth becomes edematous, painful, hyperemic, it can be covered with white or yellow bloom. There is increased saliva secretion. All this can be accompanied by bleeding gums and a bad breath. The cause of its occurrence may be local factors: lack of hygiene, caries, tartar, oral candidiasis. In addition, catarrhal stomatitis can cause diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and worms.
Ulcerative stomatitis is more serious than catarrhal disease. It can develop both independently and be a neglected form of catarrhal stomatitis. Most often, this disease develops in people suffering from gastric ulcer or chronic enteritis, diseases of the cardiovascular system and blood, as well as infectious diseases and poisoning. In ulcerative stomatitis, the entire thickness of the mucous membrane is affected, the temperature rises to 37.5 ° C, weakness, headache, lymph nodes increase and soreness. Meal is accompanied by severe pain.
Aphthous stomatitis, the causes of which can be diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, allergic reactions, viral infections, rheumatism, and also heredity, is a rather severe form. Aphthous stomatitis has the following symptoms: the appearance on the oral mucosa of single or multiple aft - small ulcers (3-5 mm) gray-white color with a narrow red rim, poor health, fever and pain of ulcerative lesions. The disease may be acute or chronic, with periods of exacerbation and remission, so-called chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
Candida stomatitis is a fungal disease that most often occurs in young children (stomatitis in children) and the elderly. This type of stomatitis is caused by a fungus (most often the genus Candida) and develops most often with a decrease in the immune forces of the body, as a result of prolonged treatment with strong antibacterial drugs, and also against the background of another chronic disease. Candida stomatitis has the following symptoms: burning sensation in the oral cavity and larynx, white plaque on the tongue and oral cavity, hyperemia and mucosal bleeding, unpleasant taste in the mouth or loss of taste. This type of stomatitis is considered infectious and can be transmitted by both the household and sexual intercourse.
Herpetic or herpes stomatitis occurs in both adults and children. It is caused by the herpes simplex virus and can be acute and chronic. The mild form of the disease manifests itself in the form of several small bubbles that resemble aphthae. In severe development, herpetic stomatitis is manifested by multiple rashes on the oral mucosa, which, as a rule, swells and becomes inflamed, by increased salivation, as well as by general malaise, toxicosis, fever, lymphadenopathy. A person experiences a burning sensation and pain when eating. The peculiarity of herpetic stomatitis, as well as any other herpetic disease, is that the herpes virus remains in the body forever.
How to treat stomatitis?
Treatment for any form of stomatitis begins with a professional hygienic cleaning procedure, during which the tartar and soft plaque are removed. In addition, if there are teeth affected by caries, they need to be healed. The mucosa is treated with antiseptic rinses. During the day, the oral cavity can be rinsed with a warm solution of chamomile decoction, calendula. With this treatment, catarrhal stomatitis disappears in 5–10 days. If it turns into ulcerative or aphthous stomatitis, then local treatment should be combined with general. In addition to professional oral hygiene, antiseptic procedures are performed in the clinic where stomatitis is treated.
If herpetic stomatitis is assumed, additional antiviral therapy is carried out. In the case when candidal stomatitis is observed, or oral candidiasis, the treatment is prescribed with antifungal drugs. If the cause of stomatitis is any other disease, for example, of the stomach or intestines, then it is necessary to begin treating the root cause. In the course of treatment, it is necessary to follow a diet with restriction of spicy, hot, cold, sour and coarse foods. A side effect of medication can be a green patina on the tongue.
Stomatitis and home treatment
Treatment of stomatitis at home in the first place involves the use of various herbal teas and infusions of antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulating action. For example, even doctors recommend rinsing calendula - it has a strong antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effect, promotes healing. Chamomile is an excellent antiseptic - it is one of the most popular drugs that are widely used in folk and official medicine.
Stomatitis is treated using folk remedies not only for rinsing, but also for ingestion. For example, rosehip decoction is a real storehouse of vitamins and other substances necessary for the human body. Он повышает иммунитет, препятствует развитию воспалительных процессов, а также способствует уничтожению вредных бактерий. Несмотря на чудодейственную силу трав, следует помнить, что кандидозный и герпетический стоматит подобное народное лечение не устранит, так как грибки и вирусы не подвержены влиянию антисептических, противовоспалительных и иммунномодифицирующих средств.
Today, among 30% of the population, allergic reactions to pollen, animal dander, food, and medications occur. Contact with some drugs or dentures may cause allergic stomatitis in the oral cavity.
This type of stomatitis is not considered as a separate disease, as it is part of a common allergic manifestation. His treatment, as a rule, boils down to taking antihistamines like “Cetrin”, “Suprastin”, “Tavegila”, which help eliminate the allergen.
This type of stomatitis has a more severe clinical picture, since it can develop both independently and take the advanced form of catarrhal stomatitis. Most often, this disease is observed in people who suffer from chronic enteritis, gastric ulcer, blood diseases and infectious diseases. In case of ulcerative stomatitis, the temperature rises, which rises to 37 ° C, there is a headache, weakness, lymph nodes increase.
Stomatitis in children
The development of stomatitis in children occurs for several reasons. The kid can not always express his feelings, explain the nature and location of pain, the time in which she appeared. When stomatitis occurs in children, its symptoms consist in increased body temperature, sleep disturbance, refusals to eat, and changes in stool. All this has to do with the characteristics of the course of all metabolic processes and the reactions of the child’s body.
Classification of children's stomatitis and causes
A certain type of stomatitis refers to a specific age of the child, but, of course, there are exceptions:
- In babies from birth to the age of three, candidal stomatitis is the most common.
- For babies from one year to three years, herpetic stomatitis is characteristic.
- School-age children are most likely to have aphthous and allergic stomatitis.
- Children of any age suffer from bacterial stomatitis, which occurs on the background of mechanical, thermal injury to the oral cavity, eating unwashed fruits, hygiene violations, eating with unwashed hands. Often, babies have stomatitis in the period when their teeth are climbing.
The causes of frequent children's stomatitis are that the mucous membrane of the mouth of babies is more tender, and its injury is quite easy. At the same time, the child’s immune system cannot cope with infections in the mouth.
Remember that if children develop stomatitis, treatment should be carried out competently and as quickly as possible - at the first manifestations of the symptoms of this disease.
Treatment of fungal stomatitis in children
For treatment, it is necessary to carry out local procedures, which consist in creating an alkaline environment, since it is precisely its absence in the oral cavity that promotes the active reproduction of bacteria and fungi. How to treat stomatitis in a child's mouth?
- It is necessary to perform oral cavity treatment about six times a day, using soda solution: two teaspoons of soda per cup of water. Also suitable for rinsing a two percent solution of boric acid.
- There is a special gel, solution and cream brand "Candid", which is part of clotrimazole: it has good antifungal effects.
- When processing the affected areas, nystatin ointment, Clotrimazole cream, Pimafucin cream can be used. The bulk of all fungal agents accumulate directly in the area of the teeth, so special attention should be given to the cheek and gum areas when treating the oral cavity.
- For older children, it is possible to prescribe antifungal agents in suspensions or tablets, which include drugs "Fluconazole", "Diflucan."
- With any stomatitis it is necessary to follow a diet: with a candida variety, it is necessary to exclude sour drinks and fruits, rough and hard food, too cold and hot water, to reduce the consumption of sweets, confectionery products, carbohydrate foods.
This is one of the most common forms of stomatitis among children and adults. This is due to the fact that 95% of the population is infected with the herpes virus, and the development of a herpes reaction primarily depends on the immune system.
The danger of this virus is that it does not completely disappear from the body, remaining in a latent state. If a child has a weak immunity, then the disease becomes chronic, in which relapses are possible.
Stomatitis- This is a disease of the mucous membrane in the oral cavity, which has an inflammatory character. The disease is a consequence of the defensive reaction. immunity on the action of various stimuli. Inflammation of the oral cavity is often manifested in children, but now this inflammation is also characteristic of adult patients, as the health of people is affected by unfavorable environmental conditions, as well as a massive deterioration of the immune system function.
The causes, symptoms and features of stomatitis treatment, as well as which types of this disease are determined by specialists, will be discussed in this article.
Stomatitis in mouth, classification
Mouth ulcers, causes and treatment are determined primarily by the causative agent of the disease. There is a definite classification of the disease depending on which pathogen caused the white spots to appear. How does stomatitis in the mouth, also to a certain extent depends on the pathogen.
Also, depending on the associated diseases, emit syphilitic, streptococcalstomatitis.
Stomatitis in adults
Before starting treatment of stomatitis in adults, the doctor must establish a diagnosis and determine which particular diseases of the oral cavity take place in a particular case.
Photo stomatitis in adults
Symptoms of all types of stomatitis in adults (herpetic, aphthous, herpes, ulcerated) appear gradually. Initially, a slight redness and swelling appear on the mucous membrane. Next comes the ulcer, the main symptoms of which are as follows:
- single, round or oval shape, shallow,
- thin loose white or gray film in the center of the ulcer,
- smooth edges, reddish halo,
- the ulcer is painful and creates palpable discomfort.
Such diseases of the oral cavity, as a rule, lasts 4-14 days. The causes of frequent stomatitis in adults are described above, but if a person has been ill with this disease once, then the probability of re-development of the disease is high. Sometimes symptoms thrush in the mouth in adults and other types of stomatitis appear periodically, acquiring a virtually chronic form. In this case, determine the symptoms and treatment in adults of this disease should be exclusively a doctor, prescribing medication only after careful research.
There is currently no evidence that stomatitis is contagious. However, the latter does not apply to some of its forms.
How to treat stomatitis in the mouth
When prescribing medication, the causes of the disease are taken into account. Adult patients are prescribed a complex of means: lozenges, rinses, ointment, sprays, gels, etc. However, if a person is worried about severe pain that worsens the quality of life, the doctor recommends taking anesthetic for stomatitis in the mouth in adults.
In particular, it is recommended to use anesthetics. These are powder making pills. Anesthesin, pills Hexoral Tabs, solutions Chlorhexidine and Benzocaine. Gel is also used. Lidohlor - strong anesthetic drug 5 minutes after administration.
It is advisable to choose a spray bottle with which it is convenient to use throughout the day. This means Hexoral, Lugol, Ingalipt, Viniline, Kameton in the form of a spray. Anesthesia, treatment and prophylaxis are carried out using calendula, chamomile, kalanchoe juice for rinsing.
Specifically, what to treat stomatitis in the mouth in adults, the doctor determines after examination and research.
Treatment of candidal stomatitis
This type of disease is mainly seen in debilitated people suffering from diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, in patients with HIV infection, those who have been treated with steroid hormones.
Candida stomatitis, photo
Fungal stomatitis occurs due to the action of the fungus. Candida. Therefore, complex treatment of adults in this case includes a number of activities. In particular, local and oral antifungal agents are prescribed: Nystatin, Fluconazole, Levorin, Clotrimazole, Irunin.
It is imperative to consult a doctor for the appointment of a specific drug in this case - it is not possible to select any medicinal drug yourself. Affected surfaces need to be treated topically. levorinicor nystatin ointment, Miconazole.
It is advisable to treat the affected surfaces and dentures with soda solution, Iodinol, Lugol, Lugol spray.
It is equally important to stick to a diet, as nutrition affects the patient's condition. To restore the microflora in the menu of children and adults should not be easily digestible carbohydrates.
Treatment of aphthous stomatitis
How to treat this form of the disease depends on the degree of damage. Sometimes after the appointment of a treatment regimen, treatment of aphthous stomatitis in adults is carried out at home.
Aphthous stomatitis, photo
In the aphthous form, the appearance of lesions occurs against a background of reduced immunity. Only specialists can determine why mouth sores appear, causes and treatment, as some of them believe that the causes of this type of disease are associated with mucous herpes infection. In the chronic form of the disease, white sores in the mouth of an adult appear periodically and appear on the cheeks, on the inner side of the lip, sometimes in the throat.
In aphthous stomatitis, a person may note both single manifestations (for example, a white sore appeared on the gum) and multiple ones. In contrast to herpetic stomatitis, aphthous has rounded white plaques, that is, aphthae with a red rim, which is noticeable in the photo. If once again a white sore appeared in the mouth, how to treat it depends on whether the stomatitis has passed into the chronic form. The disease can last for years, so it is important to immediately determine what to treat sores in the mouth.
In the aphthous form of the disease, treatment is carried out in stages. Initially, the treatment of aft is carried out, for which a solution of boric acid and chamomile decoction is used. An antiseptic rinse is also performed with a solution recommended by a specialist. For example, the throat and oral cavity can be rinsed with a weak solution. potassium permanganateor Furatsilina. You can do other rinsing. Injection is practiced. sodium thiosulfate for the purpose of desensitization and detoxification. Those who have been diagnosed with this disease of the oral mucosa are prescribed Prodigiosan, Lysozyme, Pyrogenal. Means Lidocaine Asept contains local anesthetic and works effectively in the aphthous form of the disease.
Also prescribed multivitamins, antihistamines, sedatives.
Since aphthous stomatitis develops in people suffering from diseases of the nervous, endocrine, and digestive systems, it is possible to prevent recurrent stomatitis by curing these diseases.
Treatment of catarrhal stomatitis
The clinic of this form is such that for successful treatment it is necessary to eliminate the cause of its manifestation. If the mucous membranes appear on the affected areas, they must be carefully treated with antiseptic solutions - Miramistin, Chlorhexidine. Practicing the use of applications with lidocaine or benzocaine with severe pain.
A widely used remedy Metrogil Dent and others, which can be anointed after the appointment of this tool. If after receiving these funds the condition does not improve, it is advisable to go to the hospital. For the period of treatment is to abandon the toothbrush, so as not to irritate the gums. The use of folk remedies is also practiced: sea buckthorn oil, honey, etc. helps to prevent stomatitis.
Treatment of herpetic stomatitis
This type of disease occurs most often, because the carrier of the virus herpes is the vast majority of the population. However, stomatitis on the lip or on other parts of the mucous membrane appears when a person has a deterioration in immunity.
Herpetic stomatitis, photo
The disease does not cause acute reactions, so often a person notices the disease when ulcers appear, the sky in the mouth hurts. The causes and treatment of the disease should be determined by the doctor. However, people who have a "white sore", often try to independently practice the treatment of ulcers on the lip inside.
Viral stomatitis often appears under the tongue. In this form of the disease, the following treatment regimen is practiced.
Anesthetic drugs are initially prescribed to relieve pain. Also suitable local drugs that reduce inflammation:
These funds are applied to the affected points. Sometimes the doctor prescribes antiviral drugs:
To prevent the disease from turning into chronic stomatitis, the use of immunostimulants and vitamin complexes is indicated.
It is necessary to take into account the fact that sores in the mouth of this type are infectious and can be transmitted through close contact, for example, through a kiss. Therefore, if a person has a bubble on the gum, or in the mouth, a white sore, how to treat it and what its nature should be determined by a specialist. Independently deal with such manifestations — smearing brilliant green, drinking antibiotics, and practicing other unconfirmed methods — should not be.
Treatment of Allergic Stomatitis
Approximately a third of the population manifests a variety of allergic reactions associated with the action of certain allergens. It is with them that stomatitis can be associated with the tongue or other places of the mucous membrane.
In this case, the causes of the sore are contact with dentures, drugs, etc. Since this manifestation is not considered a separate disease, how to treat a sore in the tongue and how to treat a wound depends on the nature of the allergic reaction.
Treatment in adults is reduced to the use of antihistamines - Suprastin, Cetrinum, Tavegila. Prevention comes down to the elimination of the allergen.
It also stands out the so-called prosthetic stomatitiswhich is subdivided into the following types: allergicand bacterial. In the case of a bacterial form, stomatitis on the gum is manifested by redness of the mucous membrane of the prosthetic bed. In case of an allergic form, the redness may spread further, for example, stomatitis in the throat, etc.
Complications of stomatitis
To get rid of unpleasant symptoms in time and avoid complications, you need to know what stomatitis is and how to treat it. If you appear on the mucous membrane - on the lips on the back side, on the cheek on the inside there is a white sore, you must take measures to eliminate the disease. Treatment should be practiced for as long as prescribed by the doctor.
Stomatitis on the gum, photo
Special attention should be paid to stomatitis during pregnancy. In this case, you need not only to get clear information about how to treat stomatitis during pregnancy, but also to determine the cause of the disease and, if possible, eliminate it.
With the right approach to therapy, the disease is not dangerous. But if the patient does not know which doctor is treating this disease, and what to do, the disease can spill over into the chronic form. Dangerous and can be treatment of inflammation of the sky at home.
Often with stomatitis (stomatitis on the gums, etc.) as a complication develops bleeding gums. Also possible tooth loss, the development of a secondary infection. There may be lesions on the glands, angina. With advanced forms of the disease in humans can occur hoarseness and hoarsenesslater - chronic laryngitis.
In women, persistent fungal stomatitis can lead to development. candida genitals. The most serious complication is infection of the whole organism.
Therefore, to take the disease lightly and write messages to the non-specialized forums like “bit the cheek, an ulcer formed than to cure” or ask non-specialists whether it is possible to smear it with green paint ulcers should not be done. It is important to know what the disease looks like, what kind of doctor treats this disease.
Prevention of stomatitis
Reviews show that with proper prevention, you can avoid manifestations of this disease. It should be borne in mind that the cost of preventing a disease is much lower than the cost of treatment. In most cases, the best means of prevention is proper oral hygiene and timely treatment of infectious and chronic ailments.
So that later he does not torture stomatitis, people with dentures need to maximize their fit. Less common is the disease in those who quit smoking and alcohol abuse. It is important to take measures to strengthen the immune system, making it not one week or a month, but going through full courses of taking vitamins, minerals, etc. Another important point is to know where the dentist's office is and regularly visit it for preventive examinations.
What causes stomatitis?
Also noteworthy is the fact that there is no scientific evidence that stomatitis can be contagious, although there is a fairly wide range of factors that can cause this disease.
- The most common cause of stomatitis is a common infection that can get into your mouth with dirty hands, for example, you took dirty handrails on the street, held the handle on the bus, came home and sat down to drink tea with gingerbread, completely forgetting to wash your hands.
- Toothpastes and oral cleaners that contain sodium lauryl sulfate can also cause outbreaks of this disease. The fact is that this compound makes the mucous surface of our mouth vulnerable, and any irritants, over time, can provoke a disease.
- Mechanical injuries can also affect the development of stomatitis, for example, it is enough to bite the soft tissues of the mouth or scratch the gums on solid food.
- By the way, poorly installed dentures or braces, as well as poor oral hygiene are some of the possible causes of such an unpleasant illness.
- It is worth noting that unbalanced nutrition, lack of certain vitamins and trace elements can also be the causes of the development of stomatitis, especially the lack of vitamins of group B, folic acid, zinc, iron and selenium.
- Hormonal changes, as well as genetic predisposition: if parents often suffered from outbreaks of stomatitis, then, quite possibly, this ailment will pass on to their children.
- Allergic reaction to certain foods and other substances. To identify allergies, you must carefully monitor what you eat, and then in the mouth there is a certain discomfort. The most common products and substances that can cause stomatitis are citrus fruits, orange and tomato juice, alcoholic beverages, vinegar, soy, mustard, chewing gums, dental materials, as well as some medicines, antibiotics.
As you can see, there are many reasons for the occurrence of this ailment, all of which are diverse and can manifest themselves in a comprehensive manner.
We have already said that stomatitis can only be a consequence of other, more serious diseases, such as stomach ulcers, malignant tumors in the nose, neck or pharynx, weakening of the immune or nervous system.
In this case, the treatment of external symptoms will not bring a special effect, and the systematic occurrence of stomatitis can lead to the development of its more complex and advanced forms that are difficult to cure without the intervention of a specialist.
- The simplest and most common type of stomatitis is catarrhal, it is he who most often occurs in children and adults due to improper oral hygiene. Most often, with this type of disease, swelling and soreness in the mouth occur, one or several ulcers, the mucous membrane may become covered with yellow or white bloom, all this may be accompanied by bleeding gums and bad breath.
- Ulcerative stomatitis is the next stage of the catarrhal stage, usually accompanied by a brighter clinical picture, ulcerative foci grow and spread throughout the oral cavity.
- Aphthous stomatitis is accompanied by a high temperature jump (up to 40 °), the appearance of many small ulcers (3-5 mm), which are surrounded by a red rim and have a gray-white color. Most often, this stage of the disease is provoked by the presence of the gastrointestinal tract, viral infections and allergic reactions.
How to help yourself?
Almost always, the treatment of this disease is accompanied by both general medicines and topical preparations. Of course, it is best to see a doctor who can prescribe adequate treatment, starting from a specific stage of your illness.
If the disease is at the initial stage (there is one small sore, there is no temperature), then you can try to be treated with traditional methods: rinse the mouth with a decoction of chamomile or calendula, which have anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects.
Alternatively, rinsing the mouth with hydrogen peroxide, carrot or cabbage juice, diluted with water, eucalyptus extract, and apply the mush of grated potato or its lobule to the inflamed places.
If the disease becomes more serious, and the ulcers spread not only through the gums, but also along the tongue and cheeks, then it is necessary to resort to general medicines. Anti-inflammatory ointments help well: tebrofen or oxolinic.
Places of ulcerative lesions every 3-4 hours should be lubricated with antiseptic solutions, for example, furatsilinom or rivanol. Sometimes, with serious stages of the disease, doctors prescribe antiviral drugs, but you should not prescribe such drugs yourself, it is better to consult a doctor.
It is also important to take care of the general strengthening of immunity, in this not bad showed a decoction of hips, which must be drunk every day, as well as multivitamins containing vitamins B and C.
What is aphthous stomatitis
The ulcers that appear in this disease are called aphthas. They can be placed singly or in groups. The form they usually have a round shape with clear contours, having a narrow red border with a grayish bloom in the center.
Treatment of aphthous stomatitis in adults should take place under the supervision of a physician who prescribes it, taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient’s body, its age, and the strength of its immunity.
Symptoms of the disease
In aphthous stomatitis, the symptoms are similar to the first manifestations of ARI:
- There is a weakness, malaise.
- Body temperature rises to 38 degrees.
- Appetite decreases.
- Lymph nodes may increase.
After that, redness appears on the oral mucosa. As the disease develops on the mucous aphthy are formedthat cover the entire oral cavity. Symptoms such as fever and malaise continue. Conversation, eating, laughing - all this causes pain in the mouth.
Causative agents of the disease
In order for the disease to begin its development, it is necessary to enter the organism of its pathogen. If the skin or mucous membrane has at least minor damage, then this is enough for penetration of the infection. She hides for a while, and when the right time comes, she begins to multiply.
If as a result of unsuccessful brushing oral mucosa is injureda, then the causative agent of aphthous stomatitis rapidly penetrates through this damage. Weak immunity can not resist infection, and it begins to multiply rapidly.
Infection can enter the body not only from the outside. The oral cavity has a normal microflora, which contains streptococci, bacteroids and fusobacteria that do not cause harm to a healthy person. If your body hasits protective functions are loweredThis microflora may contribute to the development of the disease.
Stomatitis can be caused by viruses and bacteria. Virus pathogen is measles, herpes, chicken pox. Bacteria not only cause diseases, but also contribute to the development of complications. It may be a tuberculosis, streptococcal and scarlet infection.
Folk remedies for the treatment of aphthous stomatitis
Treatment of this disease should include strengthening the immune system, taking vitamins, as well as the use of folk remedies.
- Since ancient times mouthwash use the following solution: take half a teaspoon of salt, a third of a teaspoon of ordinary soda and mix in half a glass of boiled water at room temperature. If the pain is very severe, rinse your mouth every 2 hours. This will relieve inflammation and soothe the pain.
- Very good relieves inflammation pharmacy chamomile. To use its healing properties, you need to take 1 teaspoon of a flower and pour it with one glass of boiling water. The tool should cool at room temperature, then it is filtered and mixed with 1 teaspoon of honey. This infusion should rinse your mouth 3-4 times a day.
- The following tool also helps very well. Are taken burdock seedsgrind them down. The resulting gruel is salted, heated, add butter or pork interior fat. It is necessary that the gruel turned out thick as sour cream. This ointment smears oral ulcers.
- For the treatment of aphthous stomatitis apply the following medicinal fee: pharmaceutical chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves, medicinal sage leaves and the fruits of fennel ordinary. All ingredients are mixed, crushed. Then 2 tablespoons of the collection pour water and simmer for about 20 minutes. The broth is cooled, filtered and rinsed mouth warm 5–6 times a day.
- Good help oak bark decoction. It is crushed, a tablespoon is poured with a glass of water and boiled over low heat for about 15 minutes. They cool, filter and rinse the mouth cavity. The resulting volume must be used at one time.
- Sores are not bad are treated with the following tincture. The dry grass of mint, paprika and chamomile is taken, all one tablespoon, it all adds up to a jar and filled with a glass of alcohol. The can is closed with a tight lid and infused for 2 weeks, then filtered and 3 drops of mint oil are added. This tincture is necessary to cauterize ulcers twice a day.
To as little as possible to have aphthous stomatitis, it is necessary to strengthen the immune system. For this use immunomodulators and immunomodulators, as well as vitamin complexes, which contain a large amount of vitamins B and C. The diet should consist of a sparing diet, without salt, spices, spicy and acidic foods.
So that the body can actively resist various infections, it is advisable to temper, start to play sports and quit all bad habits. In addition, do not forget to monitor the condition of your gums and teeth, regularly visit the dentist for treatment and prevention.
Clinical manifestations of stomatitis.
Catarrhal stomatitis is the most common form of stomatitis. The mucous membrane of the oral cavity becomes swollen, hyperemic and painful. Patients complain of pain during eating, an increase in salivation, and sometimes bleeding and bad breath. In some cases, with catarrhal stomatitis, the mucous membrane is covered with a yellowish-white bloom.
Ulcerative stomatitis may be a neglected form of catarrhal stomatitis or it may develop as an independent disease. With ulcerative stomatitis, the entire mucous membrane is affected, whereas with catarrhal stomatitis, only its upper layer is affected. At the initial stage, catarrhal and ulcerative stomatitis have similar symptoms, but 3-5 days after the onset of the disease, the body temperature rises, and the regional lymph nodes increase. Patients complain of severe pain during eating, many of them refuse to eat. Symptoms of general weakness increase, headache appears. The symptoms of ulcerative stomatitis are especially pronounced in children and debilitated patients.
In aphthous stomatitis, the mucous membrane of the oral cavity is covered with multiple or single aphthae - oval or round ulcers. Aphthae are delimited from a healthy tissue by a narrow red border, and in the center of the aphthous ulcer there is a gray or yellow patina. Aphthous stomatitis begins with symptoms of general malaise, after an increase in body temperature, the oral mucosa becomes painful, then aphas appear in areas of pain. After healing, scars remain on the site of aphthous ulcers.
When an oral cavity is infected with a herpes simplex virus, acute herpetic stomatitis is diagnosed. Herpes stomatitis is mainly susceptible to children in closed institutions. The prodromal period is absent, the disease begins with a sharp rise in temperature to febrile values, the general well-being of the patients also suffers. When viewed from the oral mucosa hyperemic, edematous, sometimes there are foci of bleeding gums. Most patients with herpetic stomatitis complain of an increase in salivation and the appearance of bad breath. After a few days, small groups of pustules and vesicles appear on the mucous membrane and symptoms of necrotic changes in the epithelium join.
Necrotizing stomatitis or Vincent stomatitis is caused by a symbiosis of a spindle-shaped bacterium and a spirochete oral cavity. Hypovitaminosis and reduced immunity contribute to the occurrence of this stomatitis. Clinically, ulcerative-necrotic stomatitis is characterized by the appearance of ulcers and erosions on the oral mucosa and an increase in body temperature to subfebrile values. Patients complain of soreness and bleeding of the gums, and eventually a putrid odor from the mouth joins. For the ulcerative-necrotic stomatitis is characterized by the beginning of the process from the gingival margin, then the inflammation passes to other parts of the mucous membrane.
Allergic stomatitis can be of any severity, ranging from catarrhal forms and ending with necrotizing ulcers. Distribution of allergic stomatitis can be localized or diffuse. When exposed to mucous drugs, which have become allergens, allergic stomatitis is usually catarrhal or catarrhal-hemorrhagic in nature. Patients complain of dry mouth and itching, eating becomes painful. The mucous membrane of the oral cavity is edematous, hyperemic, with long-term allergic stomatitis, atrophic changes of the papillae of the tongue are noted.
Diagnosis and treatment of stomatitis.
A clinical picture, subjective complaints and a careful examination by a dentist are enough to make a correct diagnosis. Sometimes they resort to laboratory diagnostics: a PCR test for candidiasis and herpes, a scraping or smear. And with stomatitis that cannot be treated, a general examination is shown to identify systemic diseases that have become the main cause of stomatitis.
The goal of therapy is to reduce the pain and duration of the disease. Statistics confirm that stomatitis is less common or is faster if using oral care products that do not contain sodium lauryl sulfate, it is this component that can provoke sluggish and recurrent stomatitis.
Applications and rinsing with low-grade anesthetic solutions help to reduce pain, which is especially important for ulcerative stomatitis. It helps to keep your appetite and prevent food from giving up.
The ulcers are smeared with benzocaine, lidocaine, trimecain, and aloe or kalanchoe juice; these substances not only reduce pain in stomatitis, but also cover eroded areas with a protective film. It should be borne in mind that anesthetics are suitable for short-term treatment, long-term use of such drugs is unacceptable.
Good effect have drugs that clear ulcers from bacterial plaque. In case of ulcerative stomatitis, the layer of bacterial plaque prevents the rapid healing of elements, therefore stomatitis becomes sluggish or recurrent in nature. Most cleansing pastes contain carbamide peroxide and hydrogen peroxide.
The use of antibacterial drugs is an aggressive treatment for stomatitis. They are used if there is a re-infection of ulcers, most often used drugs, which include chlohexidine digluconate. Prolonged use of such drugs causes the formation of stains on the teeth and fillings, which pass after the end of treatment.
Antiviral ointments have a good effect if stomatitis is viral in nature. The use of interferon, oxolinic, tebrofen and other antiviral ointments is possible only after prescribing by a doctor. There are drugs that create a protective film on the sores. Such a film speeds up healing, prevents ulcer reinfection and traumatization. These are drugs that contain carotolin, sea buckthorn oil, rosehip oil and vinylinum.
Rinsing the mouth with a solution of furatsilina, infusions and decoctions of St. John's wort, calendula, chamomile, oak bark and other herbs with antiseptic action accelerate the healing process. With catarrhal stomatitis, recovery can be achieved only through frequent rinsing of the oral cavity. For the treatment of stomatitis used physiotherapy methods: ultrasound, magnetic therapy, ultraviolet irradiation, and others.
The treatment of a traumatic stomatitis character consists in the elimination of provoking factors, symptomatic therapy is carried out according to indications. The prognosis is usually favorable, only in rare cases, chronic traumatic stomatitis can cause leukoplakia of the tongue or malignancy of oral cells. При стоматите аллергической природы необходимо выявить и устранить аллерген, после чего симптомы стоматита проходят. В тяжелых случаях требуется гипосенсибилизирующая терапия и госпитализация.
Preventing stomatitis is proper oral care, promoting healthy lifestyles and learning the rules of personal hygiene since childhood.