- Homeschooling: Pros and Cons
- Should I opt for home schooling?
- How to teach disabled children
Initially, home education was considered a good way of learning for children with disabilities and health problems, but more and more parents are choosing this type of education for their absolutely healthy children. The “homeschooling” has a number of minuses and advantages.
Pros of home schooling
One of the main advantages of such training is an individual approach to the child. It doesn’t matter if one of the parents or a specially hired visiting teacher works with him, home education allows you to pay maximum attention to the development of the student’s strengths. In addition, an individual approach can significantly reduce the time for obtaining classes, since one child is much quicker to explain the educational material than the whole class.
"Homeschooling" is quite convenient for introverted children who can hardly socialize in school walls. At home schooling, a fairly stable negative relationship “learning is equal to mental abuse” is removed, and the child happily accepts new knowledge. Similarly, education at home can help children who have been ridiculed by peers and teachers at school.
The lack of an appraisal system is one of the main arguments for the “homeschooling”. From the point of view of psychology as a science, constant assessment by a teacher can cause subsequent neuroses in adulthood. Homeschooling, aimed not at external assessment, but at internal acceptance of the necessary knowledge, allows you to grow a more harmonious and developed personality.
One of the advantages of education at home is the development of online technologies, the emergence of a huge variety of educational courses, developing television films, tablet applications and PC programs. With the help of them you can not only educate the child, but also increase your own level of knowledge.
Cons of home schooling
There are a number of drawbacks to homeschooling in Russia. The first of these: unprepared parents. Not being an educator, it’s quite difficult to plan your day and choose the right learning method for a particular child.
The second disadvantage is the absence of society around. If a child does not attend circles and sections, out-of-school education may have an impact on a person’s sociality, and in the future it will be difficult for him to contact other people.
If parents choose “homeschooling” or “anskuling” as one of the methods of permanent control over the child’s life, home education can cause infantilism or, on the contrary, psychological rebellion against the parent.
In general, before transferring a child to this type of education, it is worthwhile to think quite seriously about whether it is necessary for him and his parents.
History and stereotypes
In the era of the USSR, schooling at home was possible only for children with disabilities. For children who could not move freely or suffered from any psychological illnesses, school teachers came to the house daily and gave individual lessons.
The rest of the schoolchildren went to school for general education on a general basis. But since 1992, every school student who is willing to study without leaving home is completely officially entitled.
And if earlier home schooling (or homeschooling as it is called) was a forced measure, now education at home has become a fashionable trend - increasingly, parents choose this way of education for their children.
The reasons why parents transfer their offspring to home education are varied:
- unwillingness to entrust the upbringing of children to strangers
- protecting the baby from physical and moral pressure in school,
- the desire to give a son or daughter knowledge independently, as they themselves consider necessary,
- dissatisfaction with the quality and level of school education.
We will understand what types, pros and cons has home schooling.
What forms of homeschooling are there?
There are several types of homeschooling:
- Home-based training. Every day, school teachers come to the child at home and individually read the subjects. This form of education is possible with medical recommendations,
- Externality. A student studies disciplines at a convenient pace and mode with the help of parents or independently, and then he takes exams at school. You can, for example, go 2 years of the program for one,
- Non-skilling. At the same time, parents do not interfere in the learning process, and only at his request help in certain issues, the child independently acquires knowledge of the particular style he chooses.
In any form of homeschooling, the student is obliged to come to school twice a year and pass exams - only in this case he will be able to receive a certificate of completed secondary education.
Before you decide to transfer your precious child to home schooling, parents need to carefully weigh all the pros and cons and decide whether this model of education will benefit their son or daughter.
Pros of home education
- More effective mastering of the program. The teacher or parent in the course of learning understands what the child “floats” in, and what material it has learned impeccably. As a result, the student has a higher academic performance and quality of knowledge
- An individual program also saves precious time, as a result of which it becomes more for visiting museums, theaters, exhibitions, etc. The ten-year program can be mastered in a shorter time,
- The opportunity to study subjects that are not readable at school, but necessary, according to parents, for example, rare or ancient languages, architecture, art,
- The ability to organize an individual schedule in accordance with the student's biological clock, thus avoiding unnecessary stress, with the result that such children are less likely to get sick,
- The absence of conflicts with teachers, peers, senior schoolmates (this is known to be negatively reflected on the psyche of children),
- A child at home is deprived of the evil influence of peers in unwanted companies,
- The development of an individual way of thinking, without other people's stereotyped influences, the absence of the herd instinct characteristic of many teams,
- The upbringing takes place in the customary traditions of the family, which is especially important if it belongs to a religious community or ethnic minority,
- Excluded influence on religious beliefs and beliefs, as well as their criticism and ridicule,
- Closer contact with parents, close relationships of trust with them.
Cons of homeschooling
- Lack of communication with peers. Many may object: but the baby is not completely removed from society, it does not sit within four walls, but communicates with friends, neighbors, goes to shops, visits sports sections, other public places. This is true, but in such situations he chooses to communicate only pleasant and nice people to him, without gaining valuable experience in solving conflict situations (which, of course, are inevitable in adulthood),
- Constant control of parents and over-care can lead to infantilism and selfishness,
- A parent who controls a son or daughter must be a very organized and firm person, because he is responsible for his education, upbringing and development. Not every adult is able to competently, professionally and effectively organize training for children outside of school,
- Unfortunately, parents can not always professionally educate, answer all the questions of a son or daughter. This is only possible if an adult has brilliant knowledge of the school curriculum (and this, you see, is a rare phenomenon), a broad outlook and tremendous erudition,
- What 12-15 school teachers can give a child is not able to give one parent, no matter what knowledge, wisdom and experience he may have,
- The child understands that he is “not like everyone else,” as a result of which he deeply feels like a black sheep,
- Lack of experience in communicating with peers and teachers is reflected in communication in adulthood. In his own family, he becomes accustomed to increased attention, love, feels like a necessary, important and irreplaceable person, and when he enters a higher educational institution, a job or an army, he faces a harsh reality in which he is completely indifferent to others,
- High cost. Methodical manuals, textbooks, payment of services of private teachers (and they, most likely, will be needed) will cost parents dearly,
- Inability to learn from the mistakes of others. Being 5-6 hours in school, in a team, a student watches other children, analyzes their behavior, divides actions into “white and black”, learns to recognize lies, insincerity, hypocrisy. Adults who are opposed to home-skilling claim that it is impossible to explain this at home.
To transfer a son or daughter to home education, of course, is only for parents. You can, for example, organize a “home school” not during the school year, but during the last month of the summer holidays and assess your own strength and observe the reaction of the children.
Council Before you transfer a student to home education, show it to an experienced psychologist. The specialist will help determine the characteristics of the character, type of thinking, assess the temperament of the child and tell you whether home skating will benefit him.
Homeschooling: Pros and Cons
Calls, desks, harsh but fair teachers, best friends, classmates - can we do without these attributes of childhood? Some ten or fifteen years ago, it seemed that there was no alternative, school education was compulsory and few managed to get out of attending classes. According to their own schedule, small circus performers and sportsmen, actors and musicians, children of diplomats studied. All the others regularly did their homework. In 1992 a decree was issued, according to which any child had the opportunity to study at home and take exams as an external student. And family education (or homeschooling) quickly became fashionable. It is chosen by all kinds of people - advanced vegans and yogis, opponents of mixed or secular education, freelancers and free travelers, parents of children with disabilities, and even the most ordinary fathers and mothers who have aversion to the traditional school since childhood. Is it good or bad?
The need for home schooling is determined by several factors - the lifestyle of the parents and the characteristics of the child. It is almost impossible for a family from a megalopolis, in which both father and mother work in offices from nine to five, and it is senseless to transfer a child to external education — it is quite difficult to hire a teacher in all subjects. For this form of study, you need an adult who can allocate at least several hours a day to practice with a child, contact an educational institution and control independent lessons.
Homeschooling is the best option for families who have to travel a lot, move from city to city, live abroad, in small remote villages away from decent schools. Individual lessons or incomplete school attendance are necessary for seriously ill children, with some developmental features (autism, ADHD) or limited opportunities, adopted children with severe pedagogical neglect. Temporary home education (for one academic year) is part of the rehabilitation after severe stress and psychotrauma, dangerous diseases, etc. In some situations, it makes sense to take an external student with an autistic personality trait. Individual training is hardly suitable for sociable, active extroverts, as well as for inactive, lazy and incapable of self-discipline kids.
Forms of home schooling
Anskuling - rejection of the school and the school curriculum in general. Supporters of anschooling believe that they know better what and how to teach their children, doubt the need for secondary education, the Unified State Exam, etc. The fatal consequence of unscaling is that by the age of 16–17 the child will no longer be able to master the knowledge necessary for entering a university or acquiring any complex profession. In Russia, anskuling is formally prohibited.
Actually home schooling - individual lessons with school teachers at home, passing tests, exams, etc. Issued by medical certificate when it is impossible to attend school.
Partial home schooling - visiting several lessons a day or a week. Part of inclusive education for children with special needs. Issued by medical certificate.
Externate - self-study at home with passing exams and tests, without attending school. Issued by agreement with the leadership of the school.
Distance education - training via the Internet, contact with teachers on Skype or on forums, doing homework and control on-line. Issued by the school management.
Mass school is not for nothing called "mass", it is designed for the average majority of children, home schooling involves an individual approach. What is best for your child is up to you!
Types of home schooling
At the legislative level in the Russian Federation are available such forms of education at home, or homeschooling, as family and, in fact, home-based. What is the difference?
- Family education - here the parents themselves make up an individual study plan for the child, while the school chooses the subjects, but it does not interfere in the educational process itself. A child may not attend classes at school at all, or do it selectively, in the form of part-time education, but he remains assigned to the school and is obliged to undergo annual certification in the subjects of the program. At the end of training, the child, like all children, also takes exams in order to get a school certificate. This form of education is suitable for both lagging children who do not keep up with the pace of schooling, and excellent students who are able to complete the program faster.
- Homeschooling is a type of education, or rather, a form of its organization, which is intended only for children with serious medical illnesses or disabilities, which is an obstacle to attending an educational institution. At the same time, the educational process is organized by the school, for which the student is assigned.
In Ukraine, in addition to full-time and family education, they also study in absentia, distance, network, external, but in fact it’s all the same self-study at home, either partially or fully, with mandatory assessment of knowledge in public or private schools, that is, it’s all homeschooling
Anskuling - what is it
It is necessary to touch upon such a phenomenon in education as unschooling. The term was first introduced into circulation in 1977 by the American educator John Holt. This is a radical form of education, which implies a complete separation from the school system of education, when parents teach children absolutely independently, without being guided by any program and a certain set of knowledge in advance by someone. To a large extent, anskilling relies on the interests of the child himself, avoiding artificial conditions for learning and using real situations in life. However, unscaling is not adopted at the legislative level, since the refusal to follow the program excludes the possibility of conducting final certification and confirming the child’s knowledge, which means that he cannot receive a high school diploma and then go to university on a general basis.
How to go to family education
Homeschooling in the Russian Federation is provided for by Federal Law of December 29, 2012 No. 273-ФЗ “On Education in the Russian Federation”, art. 17. "Forms of education and forms of education." Thus, education in the Russian Federation can be obtained:
1) in organizations engaged in educational activities,
2) outside organizations engaged in educational activities (in the form of family education and self-education).
In Ukraine, the Law of Ukraine dated 05.09.2017 No. 2145-VIII “About Osvita”, Art. 9. “Form a health education”, where from 2017 there is a family (home) form of education.
To go to family education, parents must notify the local government or district in whose territory they live. The notification must confirm the consent of the child, either by signature (from the age of 14) or by the conclusion of a specialist. If the child is already assigned to the school, then you should contact the director directly and immediately submit a written application for the transition to family education. There should be two copies of the application - one you take for yourself, and there must be a note on admission (stamp, signature) on it. Ребенка отчисляют из школы, родителям отдают его документы, но он продолжает быть закрепленным за ней для прохождения итоговой аттестации. По закону ученик может в любой момент вернуться на очную форму обучения в школе, по общему согласию его и родителей. Также часть предметов он может посещать в школе, а часть – изучать дома самостоятельно с родителями.
- Помните, что семейное обучение предусмотрено на законодательном уровне. The school administration has no right to refuse to accept the application for transfer. You only undertake to complete the curriculum on time, which is required for passing the final attestation.
To switch to home-based training, parents also need to submit a corresponding application, and the conclusion of the medical commission must be attached to it. The list of diseases for which children need individual classes at home and are exempted from attending a public school can be found in the Letter of the RSFSR Ministry of Public Affairs of 07/08/1980 N 281-M, RSFSR Ministry of Health of 07/28/1980 N 17-13-186. The same letter states that the organization of homeschooling is carried out "on the basis of the conclusion of the medical institution and with the permission, in each case, of the district (city) department of public education." It should be remembered that in this case all educational standards are established by the school, and the educational process is organized by the school teachers, remotely and at home.
Should I choose home schooling? Advantages and disadvantages
- Among the advantages of home education, parents call a higher quality of education and the ability to control the learning process. At the same time, tutoring services are often used, which allows parents to be more confident that their children will receive the necessary knowledge. Parents themselves choose the number of hours allotted for a particular subject, so they can decide what is easier for the child and what is more difficult, what to spend more time and less. Practice shows that children with family education are more diversified and have more in-depth knowledge than their peers with full-time education at school, and also get a clearer idea of what they want to pursue further in life, what kind of profession they want to choose. In addition, when studying at home, financial expenses for transportation, school lunches, uniforms and much more are excluded.
However, despite some difficulties, more and more parents are transferring children to the family form of education. This is especially important for Orthodox families, since besides the main disciplines for home schooling, it is possible to include in the curriculum the study of the word of God, the history of Orthodoxy, hagiography and other important subjects for study. In addition, an important argument for family education is that parents can fully control the moral aspect of raising a child, his ethical views, cultural values, etc., because he gets rid of the influence of teachers and other children, as well as political pressure. Close contact between parents and children is maintained. If these aspects worry you no less, and you do not want to give a significant part of control over the education of your child into the wrong hands, then home (family) training can be a good alternative to daily school trips.
- We also offer to watch this video, where the specifics of out-of-school education are explained in more detail:
Why children do not go to school
However, not only psychological problems or the level of a child’s ability to learn affect whether a little man will go to school or not. Unfortunately, a considerable part of children cannot attend school for health reasons. According to the Russian Ministry of Health, there are more than 620,000 disabled children under the age of 18 in our country. Most of them can not get a secondary education in school. For such children, home schooling is the only way to get a high school diploma.
Why parents choose home education
In our country, the format of home schooling is becoming increasingly popular. “Why?” - you ask. There are many reasons for this:
- the child’s health,
- dissatisfaction with the quality of school education,
- distrust of educational structures,
- problems with the socialization of the child,
- ahead of classmates in mental abilities,
- interests in another field of activity (sports, acting, etc.),
Advantages and disadvantages of homeschooling
• Full mastering of the program
At home schooling it is easier to understand which topics are more difficult for the child in order to further fill the gaps in knowledge.
Independently master the curriculum is possible in a shorter time. So there is more free time on trips to theaters, cinemas and museums.
The visible advantage of home education is the ability to independently choose additional subjects. For example, ancient languages, art and more.
• No conflict situations
Negative socialization (unnecessary nagging on the part of teachers, harassment among peers) is not uncommon for children who receive education in a regular school. At home, the child is isolated from such problems.
• Development of an individual way of thinking
A child studying at home is not subject to other people's stereotyped influences.
• Lack of communication with peers
At home schooling, children build relationships only with those children with whom they want to continue communication. Socialization also implies the ability to communicate even with unpleasant people and the willingness to resolve conflict situations if necessary.
• Parental control
Some parents choose home education in order to maximally control the child’s life. It is difficult to say what such a hyper-care will lead to in the future.
For some children, having a large amount of free time becomes a cause of lack of coordination and irresponsibility. Parents who have made a choice in favor of family education need to be attentive to planning and to teach their child to schedule correctly.