The rose, according to many, is the most beautiful flower in the world. She is really beautiful, and everybody acknowledges that. But there are other representatives in floriculture who can easily compete with her in beauty.
One of those is camellia, a tea tree with luxurious buds of terry flowers. It is no worse than a rose, because it has the same beautiful flowers, and sometimes it is even more delightful. In it you will find nobility, elegance, tenderness and other positive characteristics. Camellia is good because it can be grown not only in the garden, but also in the apartment as a houseplant. On the principles of such cultivation and talk in this article.
Camellia, according to the botanical systematics, is a member of the Tea family. It grows in the subtropics and tropics of Asia. Representatives are actively found in Japan, China, Korea, Indochina, on the island of Java, the Philippine Islands. The name of the flower is dedicated to the famous priest G.I. Camelius. He was engaged not only in spiritual matters, but also studied nature. It was he who brought the camellia to the territory of Europe, where it began to be actively cultivated.
Camellia flower care and reproduction at home
Exotic plant has an evergreen crown, so it is ideal for indoor cultivation. Both treelike and shrub forms of camellia are cultivated, which can be cultivated to produce beautiful flowers or decorative leafy forms. The leaves of the plant with a leathery glossy surface, have an elliptical shape with blunt or pointed ends. As a rule, grow alone, but can be combined in 2-3.
The flowers are characterized by a large number of stamens, which are surrounded by scarlet, white or pink petals grown at the base. They bloom for a very long time - for a month or more each flower. All in all, camellia pleases with its flowering about 3 months, with which many ornamental plants cannot compete.
Camellia compares favorably with other plants also in that it has two periods of growth, therefore it develops faster. First, in the middle of winter, the indoor flower begins to grow actively the foliage and young shoots. In summer, the second phase of growth comes into effect, when vegetative buds start to be laid in most of the vegetative buds. Does the camellia smell? - you think immediately, seeing a beautiful flower. Alas, it will not surprise you with its wondrous aroma: there is practically no smell.
In the genus Camellia, scientists have identified over 80 species. But in decorative conditions, only one species is most known. And this is Camelia Bohea. In nature, this exotic plant can be found high in the mountains, where the tree grows over 10 meters in height. This cameo has dark green leathery ovoid leaves with a serrate edge. Blooms pure white flowers. The plant is actively cultivated, because classical tea is obtained from its leaves. But nothing prevents him from growing at home.
Growing camellia at home
Successful cultivation of camellia is determined by the correct lighting. Organize a bright diffused light from the window, placing the flower on the west or east side.
In order for the crown to develop correctly and evenly from all sides, the beauty should be gradually turned in a circle so that all sides of the plant receive a uniform amount of sun. In summer, when the sun burns the leaves, the plant is lightly shaved: you can put the pot in the back of the room - on the table or a decorative stand.
Camellia in natural conditions grows in tropical and subtropical conditions. Miracle of exotic is in dire need of constant replenishment of water and high levels of humidity. In order to achieve this goal, they regularly defend soft water and spray it with a bush, as well as water it. Make sure that the liquid does not fall on the petals.
How to plant a camellia
- For the plant is very important to use a good drainage layer.
- Choose a pot at the bottom of which you can pour a lot of claydite, and where there are drainage holes.
How to plant a camellia
- Then pour the soil mixture consisting of sod and leaf earth, sand and peat in the ratio of 1: 2: 1: 2. The pot is filled with 2/3 and placed camellia, fill the soil from the sides and from above.
- Ensure that the root neck of the plant remains at the same level.
- When buying ready-made soil choose substrates with an acidic environment.
- After planting, the camellia is poured, excess moisture is drained from the pallet.
How to care for room camellia video
- Camellia, grown at home, needs very frequent regular watering during warm periods and rarely in winter.
- During budding and flowering, watering is reduced, otherwise the plant may reset color. When the camellia blooms, it is better to water it over a pallet with pebbles to avoid waterlogging.
- You need to make sure that the soil is not flooded with water, especially in the winter - it is deadly for camellia.
- Moisturize the substrate during the drying of the upper part of the soil, but do not wait for complete drying, so as not to cause wilting.
- Feeding camellias spend all the time, even in winter. Full complex mineral fertilizer for flowering contribute monthly when watering.
From June to September, camellias can be kept on a balcony or in a shady garden area. Water moderately, without forgetting about top dressing.
From October to February, Camellia is kept in a cool room, you can corridor without heating, but to have a positive temperature of 7-13 ° C.
From March to May, the camellia blooms. If you want to see large flowers, cut off half the buds. So the plant will manifest itself in all its glory.
The second half of autumn is the time for pruning extra shoots of camellia. It is important that the plant actively grows axillary buds and gives greens. Branches can be cut at your discretion, shortening them by one third and cutting the branches, which give an unaesthetic look. Krona is shaped to your taste. And cut apical shoots can be used for grafting and obtaining new plants.
Camellia transplantation is carried out annually, while the plant is young. Older specimens, which bloom regularly, need to be transplanted every two years in spring. During the implementation of this procedure, be sure to pinch the top of the shoots. They put camellia in the same soil.
How to grow camellia from seed
The substrate is suitable with an acidic environment, for example, peat land. Camellia seeds are very large and have a solid walnut-like shell. In order to accelerate germination and facilitate germination in sprouts, the seeds are doused with boiling water and try to carefully break the shell with a sharp knife, making a crack. Planted seeds in wide cups with a diameter of 7-10 cm.
How to plant camellia seeds photo
To do this, fill the cup by two thirds, lightly watered the soil mixture and spread the seeds, cover it with the substrate at the top half a centimeter. The final layer is 1 cm of perlite, while the tops of the seeds are still slightly visible on the surface. Important! Seeds have an indentation resembling a peephole, it should be placed below: camellia roots will grow from there.
Camellia seed at home
When the shoots break through, you need to wait until two or three true leaves appear, and you can pick out the plants in separate containers. If you have enough space on the windowsill, you can immediately plant the seeds one by one to avoid picking.
How to grow camellia seeds
After 10-14 days after transplantation, the seedlings can be fed with complex fertilizer for additional growth stimulation. Planting in a permanent pot is done when the roots of the plant completely fill the temporary cup.
How to propagate camellia cuttings
Reproduction camellia cuttings photo
- Cutting is used when it is necessary to preserve the varietal characteristics of the plant.
- To do this, take more green shoots on the tops and cut them, harvesting seedlings 6-8 cm long with 2-5 leaves.
- Leaves can be cut in half to reduce moisture evaporation.
- Planting material is kept in a solution with a root, placed in pots with a substrate consisting of peat and sand in an equal ratio.
- The soil is taken warm - about 24 degrees.
Cutting Camellia Photo of Root Cuttings
The month is given for rooting cuttings in the substrate, after which the young plants are planted in high-grade pots.
Possible problems growing camellia
Camellia is an overly delicate plant, which suggests the flower’s vulnerability to all sorts of parasites, pests, and diseases. Camellia spider mite, aphid, scutes, thrips are amazing. The plant is treated with universal or narrower insecticides to defeat the pests. Diseases of camellia practically do not affect.
Compliance with a strict irrigation regime is an extremely important condition for the care of a tea plant. The growing requirements mentioned that over-wetting and over-drying are equally destructive. The first problem leads to the staining of leaves and shoots in brown and debutonization, and the second - to the complete loss of foliage.
Camellia home photo Growing and care Diseases and pests of camellia
Being under the scorching rays of the sun, the camellia can become covered with brown burn spots - you need to react immediately and shade the plant.
High air temperature, lack of optimal humidity, poor light, alkaline or neutral soil are the worst enemies of camellia.
Varieties of room camellias
Decorative types are really very good. These are tall plants, covered with many large flowers of different colors in the autumn-winter period. Often it is called the Chinese rose for the similarity of colors in appearance and smell. The camellia leaf is dense, with a glossy surface, so the decorative qualities of the plant are high not only during flowering.
In an apartment with good, attentive care, it grows up to 4 meters in height. There are many varieties, but not all of them are suitable for an apartment. The best varieties for growing at home are the following types:
- Japanese In nature, it is widespread in Japan, China, and Korea. The highest variety, which is a full-fledged tree up to 15 meters high. Japanese camellia is interesting with pointed glossy leaves that are so smooth that they glare in the sun. Ornamental varieties of Japanese camellia form a rather compact shrub or tree.
- Mountain. No less beautiful shrubs with upright or hanging shoots. Ovate leaves with slight pubescence on the underside. It blooms from early autumn to mid-winter, the flowers exude a delicate fragrance.
- Mesh. The camellia flower net in diameter reaches 20 cm. In some varieties of flowers have multi-colored strokes and play. They are called chimeras.
- Chinese In another way they call tea bush. Ellipse-shaped leaves with serrate edge. It is a lot of flowers - on 2-3 pieces in a bosom.
Separate attention deserve Williams hybrids, bred by crossing two types - net and Japanese. Their distinguishing feature is resistance to negative factors.
Features and rules of cultivation
The camellia houseplant, despite its beauty, is not very common. This is due to the difficulties of growing it at home. Inexperienced growers often face the death of a flowering and seemingly healthy plant some time after purchase. For proper growth of the plant, you need to create the appropriate conditions for it:
- Lighting and location. It is a light-loving plant, but it must be protected from the direct sun. It grows well on window sills facing west, east or on the floor next to them. The frame or pot with camellia is periodically turned to evenly form the crown.
- Temperature. The main difficulties in growing arise due to the need to maintain an optimal temperature. Without this, it will simply disappear. For each season, growers recommend sticking to a certain temperature. In summer, the optimum temperature is from +20 to + 25 ° C, in spring from 13 to + 17 ° C, in winter from +5 to + 8 ° C, in autumn from +15 to + 16 ° C. To create such conditions is possible only in the presence of a glazed balcony in the apartment.
- The soil. Soil for Camellia is better to choose sour with pH values of 4.5-5. The recommended composition is one part of humus and peat and half the size of fine sand. You can use ready-made soils for rhododendrons or directly camellias consisting of peat, perlite, crushed bark and fine sand.
- Watering. Recommended regular, but moderate watering. Excess moisture is not allowed. It is better to take soft water - snow, rain or settled for 1-3 days. In summer, during the period of budding, the frequency and intensity of irrigation is limited.
- Humidity. The flower responds gratefully to the humidification of the air. It is recommended to systematically spray it with a spray bottle using soft water. There is another way - the pot is placed on a tray filled with expanded clay, decorative pebbles and a small amount of water. Flowering plants are sprayed gently, avoiding water on the flowers. The purchase of a humidifier will simplify the task of maintaining high humidity.
- Feeding. Feed the plant during the period of active growth, using mineral and organic fertilizers. Camellia responds well to watering a very low concentration of chicken manure. Top dressing completely stop during the formation of buds.
- Pruning and crown formation. Forming allows you to get more beautiful and neat bushes by thinning the crown or stimulate the growth of the kidneys in the sinuses. Pruning is recommended at the end of the flowering period.
Due to the advanced root system, camellia needs to be transplanted into a larger container once every 2-3 years. The soil for planting should be light and sour. The use of heavy soil will lead to difficulty in breathing the root system, its rotting as a result of high humidity. Calcareous and alkaline soils are unsuitable for growing camellias - the plant dies quickly in them.
In order not to damage the roots, the plant is rolled over into a larger pot along with a lump of earth, filling up fresh soil mixture into free space. The first days after transplanting camellia need to be sprayed daily and monitor the soil moisture. Adding a small amount of hydrogel to the soil will help maintain optimal moisture, avoiding rotting of the roots.
Regarding the terms of transplanting opinions at florists diverge. Some believe that the optimal period is the end of flowering. Others prefer to replant camellia during flowering. The second option has a drawback - flowers will inevitably suffer. Prohibited transplantation of camellia in the period of active growth, which begins in April and ends in the fall.
Camellia is usually propagated by cutting. This is the easiest, but effective way to get a plant with constant signs of variety. In addition to grafting, seed planting and grafting are sometimes used.
- Reproduction by seeds. Camellia can be grown only from seeds that are sold in specialized stores. When Camellia propagates with seeds independently collected from the plant, it will lose the original characteristics of the variety. Sowing seeds produced in boxes, laying them on the surface of a light, moist soil. On top of the seeds need to lightly sprinkle the soil mixture. To speed up germination, the boxes are covered with plastic or glass and placed in heat. Seedlings dive into separate pots with the appearance of these leaves.
- Cuttings. The apical stiff cuttings are taken from adult plants in July or January. The optimum is the length of the cutting 6-8 cm with 3-5 leaves. The cuttings are briefly soaked in a heteroauxin solution, and then planted in a moistened mixture of sand and peat. For rapid rooting a temperature of about 20-23 ° C is required. Approximately 2 months later, the individual pots are planted.
Diseases and pests
Camellia is a capricious plant, with inappropriate care it suffers and suffers from pests.
- The appearance of brownish spots on flowers and black and gray on the leaves indicates a fungal disease. To combat it, fungicides are used.
- Chervets and aphids can completely destroy the young shoots of the plant. To get rid of them are treated with insecticides.
- The appearance of brown spots on the leaves in summer speaks of sunburn.
- Leaf fall indicates a deficiency or an overabundance of moisture in the soil.
Camellia requires constant care, but time costs are fully paid off with a very beautiful and long flowering plant.
The specifics of the microclimate for the successful growth of ornamental camellia
There are many varieties and varieties of this amazing and beautiful plant. The main competitor in the pomp and appearance of flowers can be considered, perhaps, only a rose. The variety of types will impress the most fastidious flower growers; they can be double and ordinary, classic white (for example, white camellia), pink, red, pale blue flowers. The variety of colors is truly limitless. В домашних условиях преимущественно выращиваются три сорта: сетчатая, Японская и горная камелии. Уже из них выведено множество гибридов, на радость цветоводам, более адаптированных под домашние условия содержания. Но успешное выращивание этого цветка зависит от выполнения некоторых критериев:
- Maintain moderate summer temperatures and freshness in winter.
- It is useful to provide high humidity in microclimate conditions.
- Plant the plant in a highly nutritive peat-containing substrate.
Provide protection from direct exposure to ultraviolet rays and drafts
Simply put, with respect to the decorative type of camellia, home care and cultivation is reduced to creating a microclimate close to the natural growth of this undoubtedly beautiful plant. If all the recommendations could be executed correctly, the flower will be comfortable, and it will surely please with colorful blooms for several months.
If you look at the flower Camellia: frost resistance to minus 5 degrees, flowering at +10 degrees, stunningly decorative, practically permanently, it may be thought that the plant is unpretentious and does not require special care. But this is far from the case. The problem lies in a difficult task, creating the necessary conditions in a regular room. It is important to remember that the opening of the buds occurs in winter, the growth of leaves in springtime, and for this you need a well-lit room. A reasonable question arises: how to care for camellia at home?
Proper care of the camellia plant
Camellia needs light at least twelve hours a day, but negatively perceives the direct exposure to the sun. Therefore, on windows facing south in the summer, it is necessary to provide easily darkened lighting. Being on the north side will be completely unfavorable, and will manifest itself in very elongated branches, faded and small foliage. Westerners are optimalas well as eastern window openings for the entry of light. In the seasons when light day decreases, additional specialized lighting is needed.
Camellia is also demanding for temperature conditions; in spring and summer, room temperature will do; in autumn and winter it is better to move it to a loggia or balcony with insulation on a thermometer, should be +12 - +15 ° C. Amazing fact - then the camellia will begin flowering in the winter despite even the small negative readings of the thermometer to minus 10 degrees.
Proper watering and fertilization
As mentioned earlier, the successful cultivation of the camellia flower, home care should be reduced to the reproduction close to the natural conditions in its habitat. It grows in a humid climate zone and, naturally, is demanding for irrigation.
In the warm months will require multiple generous watering, vital for a dynamically developing plant. And also in warm weather, evaporation increases, creating the necessary microclimate. But it is necessary to water wisely, without fanaticism, avoiding excessive moisture, leading to the appearance of rot of roots, pests and harmful bacteria.
In the cold season, despite the flowering, the frequency and volume of watering should be reduced. The earth needs only a little moisturize as it dries..
Water for irrigation must be separated, boiled or thawed. Sometimes it can be dissolved in water with acetic acid or citric acid. This shrub loves acidified soil and does not tolerate high content of alkalis and calcium salts.
Do not forget about the need to create high humidity in the habitat of the flower. Achieve this as follows:
- If possible, use a humidifier.
- Spray the foliage of the room miracle from the sprayer with warm water, preventing moisture from entering the soil.
And now let's figure out how to properly and at what time you need to feed the plant. Fertilize the flower should be in the spring, this is due to the beginning of active growth of shrubs. As a rule, this procedure is carried out from two to three times a month until the end of July. It should be noted that fertilizing is produced by both organic and mineral fertilizers. Complete the feeding procedure shrub in the second half of August, it was at this time that the camellia begins to form flower buds, then the buds.
The effect of transplantation on the successful cultivation of camellia
Garden camellias, quite large plants, growing them in indoor conditions is quite a difficult and problematic task. In order for the plant to delight you with its flowers, they should be regularly transplanted as they grow. This requires moving the shrub to a larger pot and adding fresh soil. Young camellias can be repotted every year, larger flowers no more than once every three years. It is worth noting that they are not afraid of moving to new conditions in the fall and even in the winter. In the period of abundant flowering plant You can safely expose the procedure of transplanting.
A flowering plant is quite capricious not only to air temperature, but also to its humidity. To make it easier to care for the flower, the most suitable light soil is selected, which will allow the plant to get enough nutrients from the soil. It should be borne in mind that the acidity of the substrate should not exceed pH 5.5. The required soil can be made both independently and you can buy ready-made land for azaleas. At the bottom of the pot drainage is laid, then a small amount of substrate is poured, on which a shrub with straightened roots is placed, it is undesirable for the soil to fall asleep to the root neck.
Tinting and cropping
Kolovka is an important condition for good growth and abundant flowering for camellias growing in indoor conditions. To do this, it is necessary to remove not only time-affected, diseased branches, but also, possibly, to simultaneously form a crown. After such care, the bush becomes more compact and fits well into the interior room. The crown of the shrub is formed, while the plant is already fading, and there are no new buds. Pruning the bush to be madebased on plant variety. Sometimes it is necessary to remove shoots up to half their height. Fans of these plants due to pruning and shaping the crown get beautiful trees from these shrubs.
Elimination of unnecessary shoots and pinching contribute to tillering, hence: after the above care, the camellia will bloom more brightly and more abundantly than will please the eye. But you need to evaluate the strength of the plant at the stage of conception of buds, and change the number of future flowers on the shoots. The bush is not able to hold a large number of open rims.
Timely and correct set of measures for the care of a gorgeous plant, a pledge of rapid flowering. Cap red, blue, white and other bright colors will delight the eye in the cold months of the year. - It looks exotic and elegant.
Features camellia and flower care at home
The decorative varieties and varieties of camellias, of which there are several thousand in the world, are amazingly beautiful. They can not be confused with other cultures. And in its pomp and shape, the camellia flower competes only with a garden rose. Smooth leathery leaves of rich green color have a pointed-elliptical shape and are attached to the shoots with short, dense petioles. Flowers, depending on the species, can be simple or double, white, pale pink, rich crimson or even variegated.
Most often in home collections you can find three types of this plant:
- camellia japanese or camellia japonica,
- camellia or camellia reticulata,
- Camellia mountain or Camellia sasanqua.
They gave the world the greatest number of varieties and hybrids used by flower growers.
Seeing this miracle only once, it is difficult to give up temptation. But in order for the acquired flower not to die, it will be necessary to arrange a special care for camellia, when it is grown at home.
This means that homely beauty is created like a natural climate, providing:
If all conditions are met, the maintenance and care of the flower is adjusted, the camellia, as in the photo, will respond with friendly flowering lasting from 2 to 4 months.
Conditions for growing camellia and home care
If you describe the features of the camellia flower, indicating that the plant can withstand temperatures down to –5 ° C, blooms at +10 ° C, has almost no rest period and is incredibly decorative for almost the whole year, you might think that there is no better culture for the home collection. But it is not. The difficulty of keeping a camellia is that it is extremely difficult to create such conditions in an apartment.
Without a bright closed balcony, loggia, terrace or winter garden, it is unlikely that you will be able to enjoy the flowering of camellia, because the opening of the buds of the plant occurs in winter, and the growth of greenery begins with the arrival of spring.
How to care for camellia at home? Throughout the year, camellia needs a long, light day, up to 12–14 hours, but does not respond well to direct sunlight. Therefore, in the south windows in the summertime shrubs provide shading. But on the northern side of the plant will be completely uncomfortable, as it signals the stretched shoots, pale and shredded foliage. With a decrease in natural light when autumn comes, camellias are given artificial light.
If in spring and summer, Camellias are kept at room temperature, then with the onset of autumn it will be harmful to be in a warm room to the plant. It is transferred to a glazed loggia or to a warmed balcony, to a terrace or to another place where the temperature will be around 12–15 ° C.
With proper care and maintenance, the camellia flower, as in the photo, will lay a lot of buds, and flowering will begin in winter, continuing even at small sub-zero temperatures down to –10 ° C.
Watering and fertilizer in the care of room camellia at home
Care camellia is built in such a way that in nature most species grow in areas with a fairly humid climate, which affects the needs of the plant:
- In the summer room camellia need frequent abundant watering. This is due to the consumption of actively growing shrubs, and a large evaporation of moisture in the soil surface.
- In winter, at low temperatures, although camellia blooms, she needs less water. Therefore, the substrate is moistened only when the earthen coma is dried in a pot.
Excessive moisture content of the soil mixture in summer and winter is unacceptable, since it leads to the multiplication of bacteria, soil pests and causes root rot.
Water is used separated, thawed or boiled. When caring for camellias, citric or acetic acid is occasionally added to the water to maintain a comfortable acidity level for the plant. The high content of calcium salts and other impurities adversely affects the condition of the flower.
In addition to proper watering, camelliam is important to ensure the content of moist air. Working heating devices will cause the foliage and already formed buds to fall off, therefore:
- if necessary, you can use a humidifier,
- make room beauty a warm shower out of a spray bottle, trying not to affect the surface of the soil.
With the beginning of active growth, that is, in the spring they start regular feeding of indoor pets. In the framework of care for the camellia flower, this procedure is carried out 2–3 times a month until the end of July, feeding the shrubs with organic matter and minerals. Then, in the second half of August, fertilization is stopped, which will help the camellia to start the formation of flower buds, and then the buds.
Transplanting room camellia at home care
In nature, camellias are large shrubs. In home conditions, the flower also grows strongly, and therefore requires:
- regular transplants to a larger pot,
- add fresh substrate.
Transfer of young plants is carried out every year, and adult specimens - no more than once every 2-3 years as the root system fills the entire pot volume.
Unlike other species that are transferred to the new soil in spring, room camellias are transplanted at the end of autumn or in winter. Lush flowering is not a hindrance to this procedure. Buds and already opened corollas will not fall off.
The whims of camellia concern not only the temperature of the air at the time of flowering and its high humidity, but also the composition of the substrate. To simplify the care of the camellia flower, as in the photo, at home, he is selected the most structured light soil that provides the plant with good nutrition and does not interfere with the passage of water and air.
At the same time, increased acidity of the soil at a pH of 4.0–5.5 units is extremely important. If it is not possible to independently make the required substrate from equal parts of leaf and coniferous soil, perlite, top peat and adding a small amount of chopped bark of coniferous trees and sand to make the mixture looseness, you can purchase ready-made soil for azaleas.
A drainage is made at the bottom of the pot, a little soil is poured over it, on top of which a shrub is laid with a straightened root system. Substrate fall asleep gently, easily crushing around the azalea.
The soil should not be allowed to hide the root neck. The same rules for the care of camellias are followed if the surface of the soil is mulched with acidifying soil with shavings, sawdust or crushed bark.
Pruning and pinching a camellia in caring for a flower
Pruning is an essential part of caring for a camellia flower growing in a room. In addition to sanitary removal of weakened, damaged and dried shoots, it is necessary to form the crown, otherwise the bush loses compactness, grows and becomes unsuitable for maintenance in the house.
Formation of the crown of Camellia do in the period when the mass flowering is declining, and the plant does not form new buds. Depending on the type of indoor flower, camellia pruned up to half the length of the shoots. Places of large cuts process garden pitch.
Experienced flower growers from trimming and shaping produce elegant stem trees or miniature bonsai from camellias. Pruning and pinching help to intensify the branching, so you can expect that after such a departure camellia will bloom much brighter and more abundant.
But at the stage of formation of flower buds, it is worth assessing the strength of the plant and adjusting the number of future flowers on the shoots. If there are too many buds, they will weaken the camellia, and the shrub will not be able to keep the large corollas open for a long time.
Description of appearance, origin, most popular varieties
This flower came to Europe thanks to Jesuit monk George Kamel, after whom he was named. Ladies of the 19th century decorated their hair and hats with camellia flowers. World famous plant provided Alexander Dumas in his novel "The Lady of Camellias." Marie Duplessi was very fond of camellias for her barely perceptible aroma and refinement. In the wild, shrubs and camellia trees are found in Japan, the Philippines, China, and Vietnam.
The leaves of the camellia are rich green with a glossy sheen, the stem is erect and branched (in shrub forms), the flowers are terry, bright, resemble roses. For growing camellia need conditions that resemble a tropical climate: heat and moisture. To grow a flower in our climate, preferably at home.
Breeders bred a lot of varieties. The photo shows the most popular.
Planting, breeding, benefits of seed breeding
Tropical beauty can multiply by seeds and cuttings. Seed propagation is as common as grafting. A plant derived from seeds will only bloom for 5-6 years.
It is better to sow fresh seeds, since during prolonged storage germination is lower. The composition of the seeds include oilseeds that are able to evaporate and the seed dries. For sowing, prepare a soil mixture of sand and peat in a 1: 1 ratio. The optimum temperature for seed germination is + 20-22 ° C. The first shoots should appear after 3 weeks. Next, we dive seedlings, transplanted into separate flowerpots with the same soil. Camellia likes moist soil, but to prevent root rot, ensure good drainage. Seed propagation has its advantages:
- plants quickly adapt to the microclimate
- adapt well to adverse conditions
- less prone to disease.
For propagation by cuttings, it is necessary to choose only matured shoots. At the end of the summer, choose a branch with 4-5 leaves, cut, dip in a phytohormone and immediately plant in the ground (sand + peat). The soil should be constantly wet and warm (if necessary, provide heating). The stalk must be moistened to prevent rapid evaporation. Rooting should end in two months. You can graft to adult plants.
Features care, the creation of conditions for the flowering of the camellia
Camellia is capricious and demanding of the microclimate. For growing requires a constant temperature of about + 20-25 ° C. Therefore, it is better to contain camellia from the south or east side. "Capricious lady" loves the sun and moisture. Indoors, you can install a vessel with water to maintain high humidity. You can spray the plant or purchase a humidifier.
Attention! When spraying, make sure that the water does not fall on the flowers and buds, otherwise they will die. For the full growth of the flower is also necessary soil with good drainage. The soil can be prepared by yourself.
Connect the same ratio:
- leaf soil,
- coniferous soil
- кору хвойных деревьев.
Или купите почву для азалий, которая подойдет и вашему цветку. Камелии любят кислую почву.
Молодое растение пересаживают каждый год осенью в более просторный вазон. Камелию пересаживать можно и зимой во время цветения. Раз в 3 года желательно менять грунт. Для обильного цветения необходимо соблюдение всех условий.
TipFor large flowers, shoots with flower stalks are cut, leaving 3-4 flowers per branch.
Watering, feeding, fertilizer types, diseases and pests
The first fertilizing with nitrogen or complex fertilizer seedlings is carried out in the spring, to increase the green mass of the plant. Adult plant is fed 1 time in 3 weeks. For fertilizing apply complex fertilizers or special for orchids and azaleas, which can be purchased at a flower shop.
For dressing camellias concentration of such fertilizers is reduced by half. Complex make at the rate of 1 g per 1 liter. Do not conduct dressing during the rest period. Camellia loves moisture. You need to water often and gradually. Care must be taken that the soil does not dry out. Watering is carried out with settled or filtered water. In winter, reduce watering.
Improper care leads to plant disease:
- the appearance of rot,
- cucumber mosaic,
- Root rot is formed when the soil is wetted. Brown spots appear on the leaves. The plant should be immediately transplanted to another soil and ensure drainage of the soil.
- When infiltrating phyllostiktosis will help the treatment of leaves and shoots with copper sulfate, reducing the humidity. Affected leaves are cut off.
- With the defeat of oidium, which can be recognized by the gray bloom on the leaves, processing plants with soapy water will help. Against the cucumber mosaic will help drugs "Aktelikt", "Aktara."
Overcome camellia and pests. The skosar loner is able to destroy the horse's horse system. When it appears, shoots and soil are treated with insecticides. Wiping with warm water helps from aphids and shield insects. If most of the plants are affected, pesticides are used.
Spring mood in winter can give you this noble flower. The usual flowering time for camellias is December. But in order for camelia to rejoice in the brightness of its colors, it is necessary to be patient. Planting and care requires skill and constant attention. With the help of decorative pruning, you can get any shape: a spherical bush, a small tree.
Mysterious flower, where are you from?
Camellia is a true southerner. In the subtropical climate is represented by evergreen shrubs and trees. In the family of tea allocated in the genus "Camellia". It belongs to flowering and ornamental foliage groups.
- Cultivated in India, China, Japan and other countries.
- In Russia it grows in the Caucasus, in Sochi. In the Krasnodar Territory culture is cultivated as a tea.
Botanical description of camellia
The genus Camellia is very numerous. About 80-250 species of evergreen perennials from 2 to 15-20 m are represented. The amazing ornamentalness of the bushes is due to the unforgettable elegance of flowers.
In varieties of species sometimes develops a bouquet of 2-3 flowers. Usually flowers single, large 1-12 cm in diameter. The color range of simple and double flowers includes white, pale pink colors with the transition to rich crimson. There are cultivars with variegated corolla petals. Depending on the variety, flowering may begin in April and end in December. Duration of flowering varieties, cultivar is 1-4 months. Duration of flowering individual flower up to 1 month.
Japanese camellia. Bud and leaves
Leaves simple, 3-17 cm, glossy, leathery, dark green color. The shape of the oblong-elliptical and other forms, short-petaled, arranged in 2-3 or single leaves
Fetus - dry capsule with 5 compartments containing 5-8 seeds.
According to their purpose, the species are divided into tea and decorative (garden) cultures.
Tea plants are grown in farms to collect tea leaves. But most cultivars are decorative crops. They are used in domestic cultivation, for interiors, recreation areas of office premises, in greenhouses. Under suitable climatic conditions, they are planted in open ground, decorating garden and park landscapes in the form of solitary or group plantings.
What kind of camellia to choose for home growing
Most often among collectors, florist and lovers of exotic animals there are 3 types of camellias:
Camellia mesh Mary Williams
Camellia Mountain "Daydream"
Distinctive features of Japanese camellia
Japanese Camellia Donation
Varieties differ large simple, double and semi-double single flowers, which literally strew the bush. The color range is dominated by a white-red line of shades. There are cultivars with variegated beaters. Bloom from October to April. Prefer penumbra. Used in rooms as a tub plant. It can be grown in greenhouses and winter gardens as unpaved.
Distinctive features of camellia reticulated
The camellia net is so named for a rather noticeable mesh on the petals of the corolla. The varieties and hybrids of the camellia net differ in the shape of flower petals. The shape can be smooth or wavy, in color from white to deep pink and rich red, sometimes motley mixture of several shades. The flowers are fragrant. The aroma is thin, pleasant, barely perceptible. The number and arrangement of petals (more than 10) of the corolla in terry forms resembles a small rose.
In some cultivars, the middle of the flower is decorated with long yellow stamens resembling a fringe. Garden varieties form unusually large flowers up to 23 cm in diameter. The potted plant does not tolerate direct sunlight and a greenhouse climate.
Distinctive features of camellia mountain
Camellia mountain is called real or sazanka (translated from Latin to Russian Camellia sasanqua).
Presented by cultivators and a group of frost-resistant hybrids. Shrubs 2-5 m with thin perennial branches. Young shoots pubescent. A distinctive feature is the hairy pubescence along the vein on the lower side of the leaf blade. The flowers are simple, single, but can be collected in bunches of 2-3 flowers. Blooming profusely, continues from November to December. The color of the corolla petals varies in a white-pink-red line.
How to grow a camellia: care at home
The main difficulty in growing is the high demands of plants on the availability of necessary conditions:
- consistency of the environment - temperate climate in summer and cool in winter,
- year round fresh air without drafts,
- humidity of air and soil within the limits of the required,
- nutrient soil without stagnant water.
When providing the required conditions, care for the crop should be the same as for ordinary home plants.
Location in the apartment
Camellia is better to have on the eastern or western windows. On the south you need shading. The room should be a moderate temperature. In summer, in regions with warm summers, it is advisable to put a camellia on a balcony or loggia, to plant in a potted garden or in open ground. On the northern windows of the Camellia climate is not suitable. Shoots will be pulled out, the leaves will be crushed, will become pale in color.
Lighting intensity requirements
Meeting the requirements for light intensity is very important for tying the buds and the onset of flowering. Camellia blooms in winter. To go to the budding and flowering, it needs lighting for 12-14 hours. Extra lighting is provided by phyto or LED lamps. It can be a different type of lamps. Summer pritenyut.
- From March to July, the ambient temperature is maintained at + 25 ° C.
- With the onset of autumn, the flower is placed in conditions of lower temperatures +12 .. + 15 ° С (closed terrace, loggia). There is a bookmark buds.
- They bloom will begin in winter at low temperatures. Therefore, with the advent of winter, camellias need a cold regime (from November to the end of December, some varieties until February) with temperatures within +5 .. + 6 ° C, not higher than +8 .. + 10 ° C.
- For some varieties, short below-zero temperatures in the range of -5 ..- 6 ° С are permissible.
- From January, the temperature can be raised and maintained within +10 .. + 15 ° С. Frost-resistant varieties easily tolerate lower temperatures.
Be careful! Camellia blooms at + 10 ° C. If the temperature regime is not observed in winter, the flowering will not occur, and with the arrival of spring, the growth of vegetative shoots and leaf mass will not begin. During budding it is impossible to change the location of a camellia and to turn it axially towards the sunny side.
If you can provide these conditions to Camellia, feel free to purchase a seedling of the variety or cultivar selected in the catalog and place it in the space provided.
Camellia Flower Planting Rules
- In order not to be deceived by dishonest sellers, it is better to buy seedlings in specialized stores that have the appropriate license.
- When purchasing a plant, in a pot or other container, be sure to ask if the camellia is planted in the substrate for standing or should be transplanted at home.
- If transplantation is needed, it is necessary to prepare the container and the soil mixture.
Container and soil preparation
- The capacity for a transplant must be larger than the root system so that the camellia, for at least a year, can grow without a transplant.
- The container must be disinfected.
- At the bottom of the tank must have drainage holes.
Fine crushed stone, expanded clay or other material fall asleep at the bottom of the container. Soil mixture can be bought ready-made (for azaleas) or you can prepare yourself from the following components:
- turf soil 1 part,
- peat 2 parts
- leaf substrate or mature humus 2 parts,
- sand, but better than perlite, agro vermiculite 1 part.
To increase the acidity and air permeability, finely chopped pine bark, rotted needles of pine needles (better than pine) are added to the soil mixture. If nessesary, the soil is acidified with citric acid to pH = 4.5-5.0. Acidity can be checked with a litmus strip.
- Drainage is poured on the soil mixture and transferred from the old pot sapling along with the soil to a new container.
- Fill all voids with new ground.
- The root neck should be above the soil level. If it is buried, then it is opened in wet soil.
- The transplanted plant is watered.
- Water is drained from the pan.
Young camellias need an annual transplant. Adult specimens after filling the entire pot or container with the root system. Camellia transplanted in late autumn, sometimes in winter. Transplanting / handling in winter does not have a negative impact on the budding and flowering of plants. The first time after transplantation, the plant is sprayed daily with warm distilled water.
Care camellia at home
- Plants do not tolerate overflow and drying out the soil.
- The main condition is uniform watering during the growing season.
- Every month, 2-3 drops of natural lemon juice are added to irrigation water to acidify the soil.
- The soil is kept moist (not wet).
- In adult camellias, regular irrigation is prescribed when the top layer of the soil mixture dries to the depth of the finger phalanx.
- The intensity of irrigation during the rest period is reduced to 1 time in 8-12 days with small norms. Spraying stopped.
- In July, when budding, watering is also reduced, but does not allow overdrying of the soil. Otherwise, the bush will drop buds, the roots will die off.
- In late August, irrigation rates increase. Water should be warm.
- When watering with cold water, the flower gets sick.
- In winter, when flowering, watering is carried out, moisturizing the soil. Excess water is removed. Regular watering is prescribed when drying the upper part of the substrate in a pot.
Camellia leaves need constant spraying, if possible it is carried out 2 times a day.
- When spraying, protect the flowers from water.
- If the bloom is intense, the flowers cover the whole shrub, it is better to wipe the leaves with a damp cloth.
- Moisten the air around the plants.
- Nearby place the humidifiers.
- Water for irrigation is soft, settled, warm.
- With the beginning of the active growing season begin feeding.
- For fertilizing use floral fertilizers for azaleas or rhododendrons, diluting the recommended dose 2 times.
- You can feed the plants with a solution of organic matter (not manure), alternating with mineral fertilizer.
- The main feeding is carried out in the period of increasing the sheet mass.
- Until the end of July - the first decade of August, fertilizing is carried out every 10 days. Then stop feeding.
- Conduct sanitary and formative pruning.
- When sanitary pruning remove sick, dried, growing inside the crown branches and shoots.
- The formation of the crown is performed in the phase of the end of flowering. During this period, new buds are not formed.
- Depending on the species, pruning is performed up to 1⁄2 - 1/3 of the length of the branches. The mountain camellia is cut as much as possible, and the net is very delicate.
- The cut sections must be disinfected and treated with garden pitch or other compounds.
- Plucking is carried out during transplantation in order to better branch the plant. Pinch the tops of the entire plant or at the discretion of the host.
- In addition to plucking vegetative shoots spend plucking buds. This technique corrects the number of flowers on the bush. With abundant flowering, the period of open rims is sharply reduced. They fade faster. Flowers shrink.
- If you do not carry out formative pruning and plucking, the plant takes the sloppy look of an overgrown bush.
Video about caring for camellia at home
The camellia flower is beautiful and capricious. When it is home grown it is necessary to strictly observe the conditions in which it is accustomed to grow and develop. And at the same time the plant is available in the care and does not require special approaches for watering, fertilizing and other life support techniques. Try it. And in your house for many years settled magical beauty flower - camellia.
Common varieties in indoor floriculture:
- Japanese camellia is a tree or shrub reaching 10 m in height. Glossy ellipsoid or ovoid sheet plates perfectly set off semi-double and double flowers of white, red or pink flowers that bloom from December to April.
- Mountain Camelia is a shrub plant reaching a height of 5 m in its natural environment. Branched, thin shoots are slightly pubescent with red fibers and covered with elliptical or ovate shiny leafy plates with serrated edges. From late autumn to mid-winter fragrant flowers of white, red and pink colors are noted.
- Chinese camellia, also known as tea bush, is an evergreen shrub-shaped plant up to 10 m in height. Oval or alternate sheet plates are painted on top in dark green and on the bottom in lime green. Yellow-pink flowers, collected by 4 pieces in axillary inflorescences, when flowering emit a strong, pleasant aroma.
Proper lighting for flowering
Camellia for flowering requires a large amount of bright ambient light., which will evenly fall on the shoots of culture from all sides. You can achieve uniformity of lighting by systematically turning the pot around its axis. However, if the buds have already formed buds, then it should not be disturbed: this can lead to their discharge.
Flower placement in the apartment
To ensure the required mode of lighting, camellia should be placed on the window sills of the west or east windows. If there are only windows of the southern direction, the flower should be shaded during the period of solar activity. In the summer, it is better to move the pot to the street in a shady place where direct sunlight does not fall.
Unlike orchids, the main difficulty of growing which is the correct selection of the substrate, camellia is demanding to temperatures:
- Maintaining the temperature in the spring-summer period is not difficult, since the optimum range of temperature values is 22–25 ° C.
- To set the buds with a prolonged daylight, the mercury thermometer should not exceed 18 ° C.
- Ensuring the winter temperature in urban apartments with central heating is most difficult, since camellia blooms at this time at 8–12 ° C. Higher temperatures can lead to the discharge of flower buds, the loss of ornamental plants and even death.
Tropical plants require moist air, to ensure that the pot is placed on a pallet with moistened pebbles and systematically sprayed with soft water. In the flowering phase it is necessary to spray carefully so that the liquid does not fall on the petals of the inflorescences.
How to water a flower?
Moisten the plant should be abundant, avoiding an excess of moisture. Between water procedures, the top layer of the substrate must be dry. In winter, when the flower is kept in a cool room, the volume and frequency of humidification are reduced to prevent souring of the earthy coma and the onset of the development of rot. However, drying out is also harmful to the crop and causes foliar discharges.
Important! For irrigation, as for spraying, only soft settled water without chlorine is used.
Camellia suffers painfully enough pruning, so it is held in extreme cases and with extreme caution:
- To maintain decorativeness. When a lot of weak and bare shoots, they are removed.
- To stimulate the development of axillary buds. In the second half of autumn shoots are shortened.
- In the budding phase. To save the plant more strength and ensure a beautiful flowering, the weakest buds are removed by pinching. Делается это таким образом, чтобы на побеге оставалось не более 2 бутонов.
Молодые растения пересаживаются каждую весну. При ежегодном цветении можно увеличить интервал до 2 лет.
If camellia is grown in a tub, it is necessary to annually update the top layer of the soil mixture with simultaneous application of fertilizers.
Transplantation is carried out according to the following scheme:
- Drainage material is placed in the selected tank to ensure the capacity of the soil.
- Drainage is sprinkled with an acidic substrate (pH 4.0–5.5) with a loose structure, which is prepared from turf, peat, leaf soil and sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 2: 1 or purchased in a flower shop (suitable soil mix for azaleas).
- The plant is transferred to a new container, which is filled with a special substrate.
- In young plants, pinching of shoots is carried out, stimulating branching.
The time consuming method by which:
- Prepare individual cups with a diameter of 5 cm and filled with an acidic substrate.
- In each tank fits one seed.
- The containers are placed in a bright, warm place and covered with a film, which is removed after germination.
- After the seedlings have 1 pair of true leaves, they swoop down into pots of a larger diameter.
The procedure is carried out in the middle of summer or in the middle of winter.
- Non-lignified apical cuttings 8 cm long are cut.
- Oblique sections are processed by a growth stimulator.
- The box is filled with a soil mixture of equal parts of peat and sand.
- Prepared cuttings are vertically embedded in the substrate.
- During the rooting period, plantings are watered and sprayed, and the temperature in the maintenance room is maintained between 20–23 ° C.
- Two to three months after the formation of the roots of the plant are planted in separate pots with a diameter of 7 cm, filled with a substrate of peat, sheet, turf soil and sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 1: 1.
Reproduction by vaccination
There are varieties that are characterized by poor rooting. In such situations, experienced growers resort to another vegetative method - grafting.
- Rooted cuttings or one-year-old plants are taken.
- A bud with a small part of the wood is cut from the upper part of the shoot of a non-expanding variety and inserted under the bark of the prepared plant.
- When the grafted plant is kept in a room with a temperature of 20–22 ° C, the grafts will germinate in 2 months.
- A year later, the plant is transplanted into a pot with a diameter of 9 cm, filled with a substrate for cuttings.
- And in the third year, camellia was transferred to a tank with a diameter of 14 cm with soil mixture for an adult plant.
Diseases, pests and methods of dealing with them
Root rot is the most frequent and most dangerous disease of camellia., which is the result of excessive efforts of the owner - too low temperatures and excessive watering of the plant, leading to stagnant moisture in the roots. At the first symptoms of the disease, the affected specimen needs to be transplanted into a new, disinfected substrate with good water and air permeability.
Also on the culture can be noted brown spots, indicating the development of phyllosis, provoked by excessively high humidity. When this disease occurs, the affected leaf plates are removed, the plant is sprayed with blue vitriol, and the air humidity decreases.
Sometimes camellia is attacked by spider mites, scutes, and aphids, which should be dealt with by treating a settled specimen with a systemic insecticide solution according to the instructions on the manufacturer's packaging. If the pests have only appeared, then you can try to cope with them with the help of two or three sprays of the culture with a soapy, warm solution.
Thus, if a camellia came into the house as a gift, you should not rush to get rid of it after the flowering is over. Having created the necessary conditions for the growth of a tropical flower, the new owner will be able to admire the beautiful flowering every year.