Women's Tips

To serve the washing machine for a long time


The washing machine is an indispensable assistant to any housewife. High expectations are placed on the home appliance, as it significantly reduces the time of housekeeping. And what is the surprise of many owners when a true friend refuses to work.

Meanwhile, everything is very simple. You need to take care of the washing machine, moreover, meticulous care is the key to the durability of the appliance, so this point should be given some attention.

Initially, it is worth learning that the washing machine should be cleaned both from the inside and from the outside.

The housing should be cleaned regularly. To do this, it is enough to wipe the machine from all sides using a damp cloth. If there are stubborn stains, you can use a light detergent.

After the action, the body is best wiped with a dry cloth to avoid corrosion. As a rule, the unit is installed in the bathrooms, where the humidity is high, so rust can appear very quickly.

It is best to carefully place the water supply hose and electrical wire behind the washing machine so that they are not subjected to mechanical damage.

Care for the internal components of the unit - a key point on which the life span of the home assistant directly depends. It is worth paying attention to the plastic box, which is added to the powder and air conditioning. Very often traces of laundry detergent remain on the walls of the receiver, which harden with time. It is recommended to clean the box as it accumulates residues by washing it with warm water.

Steel drum - a key element of the washing machine, requiring special attention.

During washing in the drum, coins, rivets and other metal objects that cause corrosion can get stuck, so after each use of the device it is necessary to examine the drum for the presence of foreign bodies.

It is recommended that the drum and box for washing products be treated once a month with a powder solution.

For its preparation will require 100 grams of bleach and 300 grams of powder. The diluted mixture should be divided in half, added to the receiver and the drum in equal parts, and then turn on the washer for daily washing.

Seal on the door of the washer should be wiped dry with a cloth after each wash - this will prevent the accumulation of hair and wool. Otherwise, an unpleasant smell may occur.

There are a few things that affect the life of the washing machine:

One of them - filters, usually located on the bottom of the case. They need to be cleaned regularly, as filters accumulate various small particles. Late cleaning of these elements leads to poor drainage of water and affects the operation of the pump.

Scum - another reason for the rapid failure of equipment. Surely, everyone has seen the advertising of popular anti-scale detergent. However, it is not necessary to use expensive drugs. Acetic solution or citric acid solution is quite suitable for descaling.

To save the washing machine life, you do not need to make a lot of effort. It is enough to check the pockets of clothes before washing, to observe elementary recommendations for care and to use high-quality laundry detergent.

Proven agents do not clog the powder passage and, as a rule, completely dissolve. Recently, capsules for washing that are loaded directly into the drum are popular - you can use them. Such simple rules will allow you to use a household appliance for many years.

Why such a difference in the life of the washing machine?

Those who have a washing machine breaks down soon after the purchase, most likely, have purchased poor quality, defective goods. It does not depend on the correctness of operation and even on the price of household appliances - a marriage can occur even when the most expensive washing machine works.

As for the first failures in the operation of the machine after five years of service, here, apparently, the reason lies in the natural wear of parts, especially if you use the washing machine often.

But after all, someone does not break the machine even after ten to fifteen years! Why? The reasons for this may be several: quality goods, not too frequent use, careful handling, taking preventive measures.

How to extend the life of the washing machine? Are there any secrets?

Yes of course. The most interesting thing is that most of these secrets are revealed. in the instruction manual and care, complete with purchased equipment. Unfortunately, many people do not read this manual completely. And in vain. Someone who, and the manufacturer of your washing machine knows better than others how to take care of it, in order to prolong its service life.

We will not rewrite the instruction manual, but consider the most common causes of washing machine breakdowns and determine preventive measures.

The most common causes of washing machine breakdowns

1. Wear parts and components. According to experts of service centers engaged in the repair of washing machines, the first failures begin due to the wear of functional parts, which are often expensive. Is there any way to influence this? Yes. The main prophylactic is to prevent increased vibrations of the washing machine. All washing machines vibrate, but you need to try to reduce the level of vibrations.

For this you need correctly install the automatic machine on a flat hard surface. If you doubt your own abilities, it is better to invite experts who put the machine on the level, so that the vibrations will be minimal.

However, strong vibrations can occur and due to improper use of the washing machine : you can not tightly fill the drum with things - from this and the quality of washing will suffer, and the vibrations will increase. However, you can not erase and too few things - the machine will be difficult to distribute the load, which will also lead to prolonged increased vibrations. For the same reason, it is impossible to erase one heavy and several light things at the same time - the distribution of the load will become a problem even for the “smart washing machine” itself.

2. Clogging in the washing machine. More than once I had to hear stories that after washing underwear there was a need take the washing machine in for repair. And the reason for this was the metal “bones” from the bra, which left their usual place of dislocation during washing and slipped through the holes in the drum. Coins, clips, buttons, pins, keys, etc. can do the same damage. Before loading things into the car, they need to be carefully checked: turn out the pockets, see if the buttons and runners of lightning are good. By the way, things need to be washed buttoned up.

If a blockage has occurred, Washer during the work begins to make extraneous sounds. You need to check the drum: perhaps some metal object is stuck in it.

You also need to look into the contents of the filter pump pump and at the same time clean it. If nothing is found, and other sounds continue to be present, you need to invite a specialist to the house.

3. Breakdown of heating elementswashing machine . There is a rumor among the people that heating element combustion is the most common cause of washing machine breakdowns . Apparently, this was greatly facilitated by the advertising of powders that protect the elements of the washing machine from scale. In fact, the failure of the heater is the third most common cause of the inoperative state of the washing machine. Rather, the machine works, but only erases in cold water. This, of course, is not the case - you need to install a new heating element. It is inexpensive, and the work on its replacement is simple. By the way, according to statistics of some service centers, heating elements fail on average in the eighth year of the service of the machine. Not so scary, right?

Why does the heating element of the washing machine break? First of all, due to the appearance of scale on it. A layer of scale contributes to the overheating of the element, which leads to its combustion. How to prevent the occurrence of scale on the heater? Use Calgon regularly or use folk remedies? We will talk more about this, but for now let us return to the causes of breakdowns.

Above are the most frequent causes of washing machine breakage. There are, of course, failures in the “computer” of the washing machine, but this happens much less often. Frequent and problems with wiring due to non-compliance with precautions. But no one is insured from force majeure situations, for example, with a fall of the washing machine or a power surge in the electrical network!

So, to prevent damage to the washing machine, you need to read the instruction manual and follow it. It is necessary to set the machine exactly and take care when loading the drum, avoiding difficulties with load distribution and blockages with foreign objects. But how to protect the heater and whether it is necessary?

How to protect the washing machine from scale?

First, the formation of an excessive amount of scale that threatens the work of the heating element is possible only under several conditions: you have hard water, you wash it almost daily, you often choose a washing mode in which water heats up above 60-70 degrees. If at least two conditions match, then your washing machine is at risk.

How to determine hard water or soft? In fact, those who have hard water do not need any special tests, as they constantly encounter a large amount of scale and lime deposits wherever there is water - in the kitchen, in the bathroom, in the toilet. Understand whether you have hard water or soft water, you can also be judged by how quickly the soap is washed off your clothes or hair. If you rinse the clothes washed in powder for a long time, and it is still soapy, it means you have soft water.

The fact is that a large amount of calcium and magnesium ions in hard water prevent the formation of foam. Calcium and magnesium "envelop" the soap molecule, and that part of it that foams does not work properly, that is, dissolve in water. A simple test with rinsing soapy hair demonstrates how hard water is. If your water is soft, since you cannot wash the shampoo remnants from your hair for a long time, it means that you do not need to worry about the formation of scale on the heating elements of the washing machine. By the way, if you still want to determine the exact level of hardness, call the water utility (or other organization that provides your house with water).

So, with the hardness / softness of the water, we decided a little. As for high washing temperatures, here it’s a matter of taste. However, be sure to look at the labels on the clothes. How many things spoiled zealous hostesses who prefer to wash everything in hot water! For example, jeans can not be washed at temperatures above 40 degrees. Woolen things also desirable to wash in lukewarm water. But white laundry can be washed at 90 degrees, but is it worth doing it often? White washes well and at a temperature of 60 degrees.

If the results of washing do not satisfy you, perhaps the reason lies in the laundry detergent. Please note that the leading manufacturers of household chemicals began to produce separate series for white and colored linen. If you have hard water, try to wash at a temperature of a maximum of 60-70 degrees, since crystallization occurs at a higher temperature, that is, the formation of that terrible scum in the washing machine.

Or maybe we need to continue to “boil” the laundry in the washing machine, but protect it with Calgón?

Will Calgon protect a washing machine against breakage?

In the advertising claim that only he will protect. And if you do not use Kalgon, the uncle from the service center will load the poor machine on the cart and take it somewhere or worse - take a chainsaw and arrange a “horror film”. People watch ads, and at the subconscious level they form an opinion: “That the machine does not break, we need Calgon". But it does not protect against damage, but only prevents the formation scum in the washing machine. Notice: does not relieve scum, but only prevents its formation!

Calgon and others like him are just soften water that prevents the occurrence of scale, but not one hundred percent. That is, if the water is very hard, and the wash goes at a high temperature, Kalgon will not be able to provide perfect protection.

If the scale in the washing machine is already there, then "late, uncle, to drink Borjomi." If a washing machine served you faithfully for 3-5 years without any “Kalgons”, then you shouldn’t change anything. Less costly TENA cleaning - do it yourself, if you need to grow your arms from where, or with the help of specialists. Service centers provide such a service, and it costs a penny. Adding Calgon every wash will cost more - it is unique.

In the newspaper "Komsomolskaya Pravda" once conducted a calculation of the money leaving the average-sized family in Kalgon. It turned out that in five years exactly this money is spent on this tool. new washing machine ! So is it worth it? Of course, you decide.

By the way, water softener is also added to good washing powders. That is, pouring Calgon into a good powder is almost the same as adding sugar to tea with honey. True, in powders the amount of "water softener" is much smaller, but it is also for the better, judging by the statements of the manufacturers of washing machines. They claim that Kalgon products, of course, protect against scale formation, but at the same time have a detrimental effect on other parts of the washing machine. It turns out that one is curing and the other is crippling?

Is it possible to extend the life of the washing machine? And how to do it?

Sure you may. But the most interesting thing is that most of the various tips and secrets for the care of a washing machine are dealt with in the manual for its use, which comes complete with appliances. But, unfortunately, most people do not read the instructions at all or do not read them completely. That is in vain! So how exactly the manufacturer of the washing machine you bought knows best how to properly care for it so that the machine will serve for a long time.

Now let's look at the most frequent causes of washing machine breakdowns and determine the necessary preventive measures.

1. Wear parts and various elements of the machine. Specialists who carry out repair of washing machines, argue that the first malfunctions of the equipment begin due to the wear of expensive functional parts. In order to reduce the wear of parts, it is necessary to avoid strong vibrations of the washing machine, try to reduce the level of vibrations to a minimum. To do this, you need to properly install the machine on a flat and hard surface. But if you doubt whether you can install the machine yourself, then it is better to call specialists who will be able to set the washing machine in order that the vibrations are minimal.

But strong vibrations may appear due to improper use of the washing machine. In no case can not very tightly stuff the drum with things, as this will increase the vibration, and the quality of washing will significantly decrease. It is also not recommended to load too few things - it will be quite difficult for the washing machine to distribute the load and only increase due to vibration. And for the same reason, you should not erase at the same time several light and heavy things, since even a machine with the latest technologies will not be able to distribute the load.

2. Blockage in the car. Before loading things into the drum, you need to check them: turn out the pockets, see how well buttons, lightning runners are held. Things need to be washed in a buttoned up and turned inside out. As in the opposite case, different coins, buttons, pins, paper clips, and especially the metal “bones” of the bra can cause your typewriter to be repaired.

If a blockage did occur, then during operation the washing machine starts to emit various extraneous sounds. In order to fix the problem, you need to check the drum: maybe something is stuck in it. You also need to check the filter of the drain pump and clean it. If you have not found anything, and there are still some strange sounds, it means that you need to call in specialists.

3. Breakage of the electric heater (heating element) of the washing machine. Most people believe that the failure of the heating element - this is one of the most common causes of inoperative machines. This was probably due to the advertising of powders whose properties are aimed at protecting machine parts from scale. In fact, the failure of the heater is the third most common cause of failure of the washing machine. Although rather, the machine works, but here it washes in cold water, and not in hot. Therefore, it is necessary to install a new heater. In fact, it is not so expensive, and the works on its replacement are quite simple. Specialists of service centers claim that heating elements usually break down somewhere after 8-10 years of service of a washing machine.

What provokes breakage of the heating element of the washing machine? Прежде всего, это накипь на ТЭНе. Слой накипи значительно уменьшает теплопроводность материала, из которого изготовлен ТЭН, вследствие чего он перегревается и сгорает. Как же уберечь нагревательный элемент от появления накипи? Об этом немного позже.

The above are the most common causes of failure of a washing machine. Of course, there are other car crashes, but they are much less common. Often there are unpleasant situations with electrical wiring due to improper operation and non-compliance with precautions. Also, there are such force majeure circumstances as the fall of the washing machine, power surges in the electrical network, etc., from which, unfortunately, no one is insured.

This means that in order to prevent damage to your washing machine, you must carefully study the instructions for its use, which is attached to the washing machine, and follow it clearly. You also need to install the machine on a flat and hard surface, in order to avoid increased vibrations, and take care when loading the drum with things to prevent problems in load distribution and avoid blockages with various foreign objects.

How to protect the heater from scale and whether it is necessary at all?

Normal operation of the heating element is threatened by the formation of a large amount of scale, which is possible under the following conditions: you have very hard water, you use the washing machine almost daily for washing, you often use the washing mode in which the water temperature reaches 60-70 ºС and higher. If at least 2 of the conditions listed above are suitable for you, it means that your machine is in the group with the greatest possible occurrence of scale on the heating elements.

How to independently determine which water is hard or soft? In general, those people who have hard water at home do not need special tests, because they are constantly confronted with an incredible amount of scale, limescale in the kitchen, toilet and bathroom - wherever there is water. You can also understand what kind of water you have, according to how quickly soap is washed from things or hair. If you have to rinse the clothes washed in powder for a long time, and it still remains soapy, it means that your water is soft. The simple fact is that hard water contains a sufficiently large amount of magnesium and calcium ions, which prevent the formation of foam. These calcium and magnesium ions “envelop” the powder molecule, prevent normal foam formation, and the molecule therefore stops working, i.e. soluble in water. Because hard water often causes scaling. If you have soft water, then you can not worry about the possible formation of scale on the heating element of the washing machine. By the way, if you are very interested in exactly what level of hardness of your water, then you can call specialists (employees of the organization that provides your house with water) who will determine how hard the water is.

Since we have a little decided on the softness / hardness of water, we can now proceed to discuss the temperature regimes of washing. Of course, this is a matter of taste and personal preferences. But you still need to look at the labels on the clothes, where it is indicated at what temperature the thing should be washed. It's just that a lot of things were spoiled by housewives who prefer to wash everything exclusively in hot water.

Jeans, for example, can not be washed in water whose temperature is above 40ºС. Woolen clothes are also desirable to wash in a little warm water. White linens, on the contrary, it is better to wash at a temperature of 90ºС, but is it necessary to do this very often? This laundry is well washed and at a water temperature of 60 ºС. If the results of washing do not suit you, then, most likely, the reason for that is laundry detergent. Leading manufacturers of powders and other various household chemicals now began to produce products for both white and colored things.

Also, if you have hard water at home, then try to wash it in water whose temperature does not exceed 60-70 ºС, otherwise the heating element of your washing machine faces the formation of such an unpleasant scale. Or maybe you should still wash in hot water, but use "Calgon" to protect against scale?

Will Calgon be able to protect the washing machine from possible breakage?

The ads claim that only Calgon will protect. And if you do not use it, the formation of scale on the heating element can be a serious problem and in the future may lead to malfunctions in the work and even breakdown of your washing machine.

Most people watch television, and advertising on a subconscious level creates an opinion among them that Calgon is needed so that the car does not break. But "Calgon" does not protect against possible damage and does not dissolve the scum that already exists, but only prevents its further formation. Means such as “Calgon” simply soften the water, but do not give a guarantee that they will rid your machine of the appearance of scale by 100%. This means that if the water is already very hard, and the washing of things takes place at a high temperature of water, then Calgon will not be able to provide complete protection.

If the scale in the typewriter has already formed, then it is too late to do something and no household chemicals will help much here. And if the washing machine worked well for you for 3-5 years and without various water softeners, then you don’t need to change anything. It will just be much cheaper for you to clean the heating element than to use Calgon for every wash. Somehow journalists of Komsomolskaya Pravda calculated that for 5 years, the average-sized family on Calgon takes as much money as a new washing machine costs! Duck whether to use it? You decide.

In addition, now almost all laundry detergents are added to soften hard water. That is, if you pour Calgon into a good powder, it is almost the same as adding sugar to honey with tea. Although there are not so many water softeners in powders, this is even for the better - most manufacturers of washing machines think so. They declare that the funds that are aimed at softening water, protect against the occurrence of scale, but at the same time have a negative effect on other elements of the machine.

Recommendations that will help protect your washing machine from damage

  1. After each wash, the door of the machine must be left open in order for its internal parts to dry out well.
  2. The drawer, where the washing and washing products are placed, should be regularly cleaned. For most models, this container is completely removable and quite easy to clean. It is also necessary to regularly clean and groove for detergent containers. If this is not done at least sometimes, then a plug of hardened particles of the conditioner and powder may appear, which interferes with the normal intake of water from the poured powder.
  3. It is advisable at least once a year to push the washing machine and check the flexible eyeliner, drainage (drain) hose, pipes for various damage. By the way, the drainage hose and flexible eyeliner need to be changed from time to time, as a raid appears over time, which causes a very unpleasant smell from the machine and even contamination of things.
  4. It is regularly necessary to clean the filter of the drainage pump of the washing machine. How to do it correctly is described in the instructions for using each specific machine.
  5. Also, sometimes Antinucipin can be used to descale the heating element and drum. You can do it this way: instead of the powder, pour “Antinakipin”, leave the drum empty, close the door, turn on the “boiling” program. After this procedure, the drum may begin to shine, and the heater will be partially cleared. Although it is possible that various rubber parts of a washing machine may suffer somewhat, which will result in small leaks. By the way, the drum may not shine at all, but acquire a dull whiteness. Be careful and in any case, use only the "Antinakipin", which is intended solely to remove scale from the parts of the washing machine. This cleaning should be done no more than several times a year.
  6. Sometimes it is worth using various disinfectants to clean the washing machine. For example, you can mix 1 cup of chlorine bleach with 2 cups of laundry detergent. Pour this mixture into the drum, then close the door of the machine and start the “idle” wash, using hot enough water. This self-cleaning washing machine does not harm the parts, but the machine and the drain hose will be cleaned from a variety of bacteria. This cleaning with chlorine bleach is an effective measure if there is an unpleasant smell from a washing machine or from a drain hose. By the way, you can try to disconnect the drainage hose and wash it well inside or replace it with a new one to get rid of the bad smell.

If you follow all the above recommendations, you can significantly extend the life of your washing machine.

Cleaning the washing machine

According to statistics, the main causes of failure - the formation of scale on the heater and filter clogging. Regular cleaning of the washing machine from scale and dirt will allow it to work much longer.

How to clean the heater from scale

TEN (tubular electric heater) performs the function of heating the water in the washing machine tank to the operating temperature. If the amount of impurities in the water exceeds the norm - the risk of failure of the heater is very large. With each wash, the layer of scale becomes more and more, and in the end the machine stops working.

Cleaning with citric acid

Scale consists of metal salts, and to clear it, you need acid. The easiest way to use citric acid. A washing machine with a drum capacity of 5 liters may need 100–120 g. We pour the acid into the powder tray and start washing at 60 degrees for 1 hour or more. In addition to heating elements, this method will help to descale the washing machine drum.

Vinegar cleaning

To do this, pour 200–250 ml of 9% vinegar into the powder tray. Vinegar is able to quickly clear the heater, but because of its aggressiveness can damage the rubber parts. To clean the car with vinegar or not - you decide.

Some masters offer when washing regularly add soda powder. Soda helps to soften water, eliminates unpleasant odor and slows the formation of scale.

Cleaning the drain pump filter

If the filter is heavily soiled, the water from the drain can go up and break out. To prevent this, it is recommended to regularly clean the filter. Make it easy. The filter is usually located on the bottom of the front surface of the housing.

Open the flap, pre-spread something on the floor: can pour out to a liter of water. After that, unscrew the cover counterclockwise and remove all the accumulated debris. It remains to wipe the hole, tighten the lid and install the decorative panel in place.

Cleaning the removable powder tray from detergents

Over time, dirt, mold and even fungus form on the surface of the tray. In the process of washing all this is in contact with the drum and our laundry. It is easy to clean the tank, as it is removed from the washing machine.

We will need an old toothbrush, soap and a toilet bowl cleaner. Dirt and mold can be removed with a brush and soap. To remove plaque, use the tool to clean the toilet. Pour 20-30 ml in the compartment and leave for 1-2 hours. The procedure is simple, so you can repeat it after every 5th wash.

Cleaning under the gum sealing

Mix the bleach with warm water in a 1: 1 ratio, moisten the cloth and wipe all the internal surfaces. If the contamination is very strong, leave the cloth moistened in the solution for half an hour. After this, we process it again with a toothbrush.

On the Net you can find numerous videos with tips on caring for a washing machine. Here are some of them.

A simple way to clean the washing machine with citric acid. Drum and heating elements will be like new!

Master recommends adding soda to laundry detergent to prevent scale formation.

How and how easy is it to clean the washing machine? Detailed instructions.

Regular implementation of these simple instructions will allow you to improve the quality of washing and extend the life of the washing machine.

Do not forget to share these secrets with your friends, they will be grateful for them!

External care

It is imperative to keep the case clean. It is recommended to wipe the machine on all sides, using a damp sponge and detergent that does not contain alcohol. After you remove the dust and dirt, take a dry rag, wipe and wait until the moisture has completely evaporated. Well, if you will perform these actions at least once in 7 days. The machine should not get moisture or any liquid substances, as it threatens with corrosion. It happens that the ingress of water leads to an electrical circuit. In this situation, you can not cope without the help of the wizard, because the CM will not turn on.

Important! If you do not want to damage the washer, install it away from water sources!

Do not forget that the electrical cable and the automatic machine connection hose must remain complete. It is better to hide it so that it does not break, does not bend, and is not subjected to high loads, otherwise the washer will fail.

Internal care

Caring for the inside of the washer is an equally important stage. It is especially important to pay attention to the powder receptacle, on which traces of detergents remain. So, how to care for the powder container:

  1. Take out the drawer.
  2. Add warm water and add detergent. Rinse the container in solution.
  3. Having noticed the hardened formations in the corners, remove the lumps by rubbing them with an old toothbrush.

Try to clean the container at least once every 2 months. The drum of the washing machine should also be cared for, as various small parts can get stuck in it, which can lead to the formation of rust. Try to regularly check the drum for foreign objects.

For washing the internal parts of CMA, it is recommended to prepare a solution from 1 cup of bleach and 0.5 kg of powder. Dissolve the product and pour it into the drum or powder receptacle. Turn on the washer on the mode with a long cycle and a temperature of 60 degrees. After half an hour, touch the case. If the machine is not warm, then one of the reasons may be the breakage of the heater. Let the mode end: if necessary, you can repeat this procedure again.

Rubber compressor

The rubber cuff also needs care, as hair, animal hair, and moisture accumulate in it. All this must be removed immediately after the end of the wash. Use warm water and ordinary soap. Moisten a rag in the solution and wipe the cuff from all sides. If this is not done, an unpleasant musty smell may appear in the drum.

There are some other factors that affect the normal operation of the washer. Therefore, if you have a question about how to care for your washing machine, you should know that regular cleaning of the pump filter is required. It gets small items, leading to poor discharge of water. This affects the normal operation of the pump.

Scaling occurs due to salt deposits. Her presence adversely affects the washer - an unpleasant pungent smell from the drum can appear. One of the reasons for the formation of scale is frequent washing at high temperatures and hard water.

To clean the machine from scale, you can use a solution made from citric acid or vinegar. Soda ash is also suitable for cleaning.

Useful recommendations

You have learned how to care for a washing machine. Now we will give some tips that will help you to prevent damage to the SMA.

  1. Do not forget to check the pockets of clothes before loading into the drum. Remove from them any items: coins, buttons, matches, and more.
  2. Wash bras only in a special bag.
  3. Use a powder that is machine washable. It should be marked "Automatic".

Choosing care products for the washing machine-automatic, rely on quality. Do not use dubious powders - they will clog the powder receptacle. Poor quality powder is practically not washed off the tray after washing. Use only products from proven manufacturers, in which there is no doubt.

If you want to figure out how to care for a washing machine, see the video:

Now you know everything you need to know about the care of a washing machine. Compliance with simple rules will help to avoid breakdowns and extend service life.