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What to do if you are bleeding from the nose: tips

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The nose is a very vulnerable part of a person’s face. Any careless movement or collision with something that can cause bleeding. Also, this phenomenon can be a sign of disorders in the body. In this article we will look at why there is blood from the nose, what to do in such a situation.

Causes of nosebleeds

Before understanding what actions need to be done to avoid a repetition of this situation, it is necessary to find out what has become a provocateur. So, the main reasons for which the nose can bleed:

  • Vitamin C deficiencyresponsible for the structure of the blood vessels. Such a problem is faced by people who eat irregularly or incorrectly, as well as children. Is there blood from your nose? What if there are not enough vitamins? Balance nutrition and diversify citrus diet.
  • Poor blood clotting.In a person with such an illness, even the most inoffensive wound can cause a large loss of red fluid. To stop the blood from the nose in such a situation will be quite problematic.
  • Prolonged contact with toxic substances. For example, at work, if we are talking about any production. As a result of exposure to aggressive substances, the mucous membrane is thinning, which leads to the appearance of bleeding.
  • Body overheating. Long stay in direct sunlight can cause a general change in the human condition. Blood from the nose, temperature - all this is inherent to heat or sunstroke.
  • Viral infections and colds. As in the previous case, in adverse conditions, namely when in contact with microbes, the nasal mucosa begins to burst.
  • Bad heredity. It is believed that if close relatives had similar problems, then they could easily be passed on to a person from another generation.
  • Hypertension. Increased pressure negatively affects the vessels, especially small ones, and they begin to crack and burst, which causes bleeding.
  • Liver and kidney problems may be the root causes of poor blood clotting.
  • Mechanical damage, bruises.

What to do?

So, in that situation, when there is blood from the nose, what to do?

Remember, in no case can we throw our heads back, which is what we used to do in such a case. Why, you ask? The answer is simple: if the flow of blood from the nose is strong, then there is a risk that a person may choke, since the liquid with the head thrown back will flow exactly down the throat. This can provoke gag reflexes, which obviously significantly worsen the patient's condition. Bleeding from the nose, what to do?

  1. A person who has nosebleeds should either sit on a chair so that the head is slightly bent forward, or lie down and turn the head to the side to avoid red fluid flowing along the walls of the throat.
  2. If the bleeding is small, then we pinch the wings of the nose with our fingers and for a few minutes we are in this position. Otherwise, cotton swabs moistened with hydrogen peroxide should be used. We put them in the nasal passages and wait 1.5-2 hours.
  3. At this time, you can also bring something cold to the nose, such as ice, which will contribute to the narrowing of the vessel walls.

If the blood from the nose does not stop for a long time, then it is worth calling an ambulance.

What can be done?

More often begin bleeding completely unexpectedly. Blood can appear from one or two nostrils at the same time. And the intensity is different:

  • blood flows slowly, and it can stop itself,
  • a constant stream, and a long time. Independently does not stop.

If bleeding is caused by any local cause, it often recurs, which leads to a general depletion of the body, modern medicine fights them with various methods. If, for example, the culprit is the superficial vessels located in the septum, they are cauterized. To do this, use a laser, current, liquid nitrogen.

For general reasons, a complete examination should occur, first you will need laboratory tests of blood and urine. On their basis, conclusions should be given by many specialists, including a hematologist, an endocrinologist, an infectious diseases specialist.

If a person was given first aid from passers-by, he should not ignore such a problem, since if the bleeding becomes permanent, anemia develops, the protective properties of the organism decrease significantly. This means that the causative agents of any disease can attack any organ without hindrance. In addition, oxygen starvation occurs, and this leads to irreversible changes.

How to help stop bleeding

Naturally, giving help, you need to try to stop the blood. And only after that advise the person to go to the hospital.

Often, the affected person has fear in this state. There is a strong heartbeat, pressure changes, leading to greater blood loss. Therefore, the patient needs to be reassured, to explain that nothing dangerous happens, and others are ready to assist.

  1. A person must be in an upright position, and, sitting down, you need to maximize the back of the chair. The head should be tilted slightly forward so that the blood does not remain in the nose. It is completely unacceptable to advise to tilt the head back, because the termination of the discharge will be imaginary, the leakage into the throat will begin. Instinctively, a person will begin to swallow blood, which often leads to coughing and vomiting. And these actions will cause more bleeding.
  2. Then you need to unbutton your clothes. These actions are necessary in order for a person to gain access to fresh air.
  3. A cold scarf should be put on the nose area. Use a piece of ice or a cooled object. But at the same time the legs need to wrap.
  4. It is necessary to ensure that the victim breathed like this: he inhaled through the nose, exhaled through the mouth. All these measures contribute to slowing blood circulation in the nasal area, help to quickly stop the flow of outgoing blood.
  5. If we take into account that almost all nasal bleeding is caused by the choroid plexus, which is located in the nasal anterior part of the septum, this method helps to calm the blood: the wings of the nose are clamped with a hand, they come into contact with the septum, and the pathological process appears in a short time is terminated.

If this measure turned out to be ineffective, you will need to make a sterile swab to install it in the nasal passage. It is usually made up to 3 cm long and 0.5 cm thick. It is advisable to saturate it with 3% hydrogen peroxide solution or any nasal remedy that has the function of narrowing the vessels. For example, "naphthyzine", "galazolin", etc.

If the bleeding is not so abundant, such measures will be sufficient. The main thing is to control the state of a person in trouble all the time, to measure his pulse, pressure and degree of consciousness.

Important! After this incident, you can not lift weights, be subjected to excessive physical exertion, blow your nose at least for 24 hours, since the body has not yet recovered, a relapse may occur.

After the bleeding is stopped, it is advisable to nasal the inside of the nose thoroughly, but very carefully, with a swab soaked in vaseline oil. This procedure will protect the mucous membrane from drying out.

If the cause is a foreign body, and it has advanced too far, you should not try to get it. If it moves even deeper, there is a danger of it falling into the respiratory tract, which can cause suffocation in the victim. The extraction procedure can only be performed by a specialist.

If the cause of the bleeding was too dry in the room air, you need to ventilate the room constantly, preventing such a state. In this case, it is desirable to drip the nose after cessation of bleeding with drugs that contain sea water. For example, Aquamaris.

When it fails to stop the blood under any influences, and it still flows for more than 20 minutes, causing damage to the body, or after a short period it resumes again, flowing out in a single stream without clots, then urgent medical intervention is necessary. If it is not possible to deliver the person urgently to the hospital, an ambulance team must be called in, and he will receive qualified help on the way to the hospital.

Hospital care procedures

But, if the cause is caused by changes in the posterior sections, then in these cases the blood flows differently - along the back of the nasopharynx. A man has to swallow it. In this case, this process provokes vomiting with a large admixture of blood. To stop a threatening process, doctors are faced with the task of establishing the true cause. It happens that it is not possible to establish the true cause very quickly, and the bleeding increases, the person feels worse. Then the doctors use the following method: they introduce a gauze swab into the nasal cavity, the length of which can be up to 25 cm. At the same time, a person receives drugs that can stop the blood.

If there is too much blood loss, therapy is needed to restore it.

Causes and types of nosebleeds

When a person suffers from certain diseases, such as damage to the walls of blood vessels, high blood pressure, liver disease, spleen or circulatory system, he often bleeds from the nose. In hypertensive crisis, rupture of the walls of blood vessels may occur.

Often this malaise happens after sunstroke or heat stroke. The reason may be a strong physical exertion. Sometimes this happens when a person is in a room with very dry air for a long time, he feels that it is difficult for him to breathe through his nose. The mucosa at the same time dries out, loses its elasticity and adheres to the walls of blood vessels. In this case, it is worthwhile for the person to sneeze or blow his nose, the mucous membrane cracks, injures the blood vessels, and bleeding occurs.

In inflammatory processes in the nasal sinuses, such as rhinitis, sinusitis, or sinus, you can observe the discharge of mucus from the nose with bloody clots, which are mistaken for blood. Often, nasal bleeding leads to the use of certain drugs - aspirin, heparin, antihistamines or nasal sprays. This leads to such indisposition and low platelet count in the body. When a person takes warfarin pills, they can also cause a bleeding disorder, so it’s best to stop treatment with these pills and consult a doctor.

Excessive bleeding can be caused by blood disorders, such as anemia, leukemia, or hemophilia. In severe liver damage, a bleeding disorder may occur, which also leads to frequent nosebleeds. In such cases, it is very difficult to stop the blood on your own; medical intervention is necessary.

Often, blood from the nose flows after injury, even minor. It can damage both the nose itself and its mucous membrane. In young children, such an injury can result from a fall or bruise. Often the child introduces various foreign objects into the nasal passages that cause mechanical damage to the mucous membrane and bleeding.

Sometimes blood from the nose flows in pregnant women who suffer from a lack of vitamins in the body, which are actively involved in blood clotting. Pregnant women in such cases dramatically increase blood pressure, there is a severe headache, dizziness is possible. If such a problem occurs very often, then a woman should definitely consult a doctor.

Nosebleeds are distinguished by their intensity. If a few drops of blood appeared from the nose and the discharge stopped quickly, it is insignificant. With moderate bleeding in humans, a rapid pulse can be observed, a sharp drop in pressure, in rare cases even bloody vomiting is possible.

With severe bleeding, blood loss can be significant, blood pressure drops sharply. Against the background of a rapid pulse, a person becomes very weak, his sweating increases. This stage of intensity is the most dangerous, you must immediately call for help from doctors.

First aid

If you see that a person is bleeding from the nose, you need to help him stop it. To do this, the victim should quickly sit down and tilt his head forward so that blood flows from the wings of the nose. If the patient cannot be seated, he should be turned over onto his side so that the blood does not get into the nasopharynx. In case of nosebleeds, it is impossible to tilt the head back and pinch the nose. Otherwise, the blood in this case will drain into the nasopharynx, and this will only worsen the human condition, causing him nausea and vomiting.

Something cold can be applied to the nose, for example, a piece of ice, a bottle of cold water or frozen meat. If this does not help and the blood does not stop, you can press the nostril to the nasal septum, so the damaged vessel will overlap. You can moisten a piece of cotton with hydrogen peroxide and insert it into the nostril; periodically, a cotton swab needs to be changed until it is clean.

In the case when the blood runs hard or even hits the fountain and does not stop for 10 minutes, while the person is very weak, you must immediately call an ambulance. In this case, you can not panic, you must be calm and do not stop trying to stop the bleeding.

Medical treatment

If the blood from the nose flows abundantly and does not stop quickly, then you should seek help from a medical institution. The doctor will insert into the nostrils a gauze swab treated with hemostatic preparations. If necessary, cauterization of the blood vessels or their stitching can be carried out.

When frequent bleeding associated with the presence of polyps in the nose, the doctor prescribes an x-ray examination of the patient or tomography. If an infection is detected, the nasal cavity is rinsed with special solutions. At the same time it is necessary to take drugs that will help reduce the swelling of the mucous membrane, it is possible the appointment of antibiotics.

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To identify the reason for which blood from the nose is very often, the patient is offered to donate blood for analysis, this will help to detect blood clotting disorders. Examination of the nasal cavity with the help of an endoscope will accurately determine the place from which blood flowed.

After stopping the blood for several days, one must behave carefully so that such a case does not happen again. It is advisable not to clean the nose, especially if there are pieces of dried blood left. It is impossible to strongly strain, sharply bend down and lift weights. If possible, do not take aspirin or ibuprofen, these drugs can thin the blood.

Folk methods and prevention

Small bleeding from the nose, not caused by serious diseases, can be stopped with the help of folk recipes.

Pound in the hands of fresh leaves of yarrow, 2 leaves inserted into each nostril for about 10 minutes. If you can squeeze the juice from this plant, you need to drip 4 drops.

You can cook a decoction of yarrow and take it for 5 days. To do this, 3 tablespoons of chopped grass is poured with a liter of boiling water, it is necessary to insist about an hour. Then the broth is filtered and taken in the morning for an hour before meals.

The recipe with nettle helps well: you need to squeeze the juice from the plant, moisten a cotton swab in it and insert it into the nostril for about 5 minutes.

In order to further prevent bleeding from the nose, it is necessary to keep the mucosa moist. To do this, it is useful to drink enough liquid, to moisten the air in the room. You can lubricate the mucous with vaseline or periodically irrigate it with saline.

With frequent bleeding, to strengthen the walls of the capillaries, it is necessary to take vitamin C daily. Reception of grape seed extract or pine bark also helps. The doctor will help determine the dosage after examining the patient and will tell you how to treat this ailment.

It is necessary to prevent injuries, especially for small children, they are very active, they run around a lot and break their noses.

In any case, you need to remain calm and do not panic.

In most cases, the blood from the nose does not represent a great danger, and it is easy to stop.

The blood supply to the mucous membrane in the nose is very active: there is a network of small vessels in the tissues. Damage to the capillaries can cause severe bleeding. If blood often flows from the nostrils, it can be a symptom of the disease. However, the cause of the discharge in adults and children are often not pathology, but, for example, injuries. How to stop bleeding from the nose? Для этого необходимо посоветоваться с врачом в медицинской клинике и правильно выполнять алгоритм действий.

Как помочь ребенку при кровотечении?

If you donate blood, you will need first aid at home. When blood comes from a child from the nasal cavity, the following actions (algorithm) should be taken:

if the blood does not stop and the baby is restless, crying, he must be quickly brought to his senses - this will help reduce the discharge when the blood is flowing, the child should hold his nostrils for 10 minutes, take this position - lean forward a bit, after complete cessation of abundant bleeding should not be allowed to breathe through the nasal cavity, be blown out for a two-hour period, prevent petroleum jelly from drying out of the nasal mucosa; blood often flows due to insufficient air humidity when the In case of bleeding, you should go to the pediatrician.

When do you need medical help?

In some cases, you will need medical care.

In some cases, medical assistance will be needed to help save an adult or child. Call a doctor if:

the cause of heavy bleeding becomes damage (for example, the front wall in the nasopharynx is affected), the blood goes for more than 15 minutes. and does not stop, the blood is released constantly or at a certain frequency (for example, several times a week).

Emergency and treatment methods

Medical methods. If the position of the patient has not improved, and the nostrils are bleeding, hemostatic drugs (hemostatic) should be taken to assist. As a rule, it is enough to take one or another type of product. It is better that the medicine is prescribed by a doctor, but if you have drunk the drug, call a doctor or visit an otolaryngologist. If nosebleeds occur frequently, doctors prescribe medication drugs that strengthen blood vessels. These drugs include calcium gluconate, etc. Among the hemostatic drugs that help eliminate bleeding for a variety of reasons, the products of Vikasol and Ditsinon are widespread. "Vikasol" is a synthetic agent and of the same type of vitamin K, able to normalize clotting. "Ditsinon" also often prescribed for damage to the mucous membrane. To strengthen the blood vessels, it is advised to take special medicines. These include "Askorutin." It contains vitamin C (ascorbic), rutin, which makes the capillaries strong. It is necessary to take in parallel other vitamin complexes, for example, with vitamins of group B. In addition, physicians often advise the use of aminocaproic acid. Aminocaproic acid effectively suspends blood. Aminocaproic medicament reduces the processes that thin the blood. Burning of the nasal mucosa with a laser.

Cauterization of the nasal membrane. When weak capillaries become the cause of bleeding, they can be treated with cauterization tactics. This procedure does not cause pain and does not take much time. The therapeutic method is indicated for the recurrence of bleeding, the absence of a result of therapy. The provision of such assistance can be carried out in the following ways: electrocoagulation, coagulation using a laser, cauterization with trichloroacetic acid, cryodestruction, exposure to ultrasound. Treatment with acid and other methods is carried out using local anesthesia. Before the procedure, in which these methods are used, the walls of the nasopharynx and mucosa are treated with a special solution. Before cauterization, blood clots are removed, the area of ​​bleeding is detected, then it is affected.

Oxygenotherapy. To stop bleeding in the nose and nasopharynx, which is characterized by a different clinic, apply the tactics of oxygen therapy. During the procedure, the patient inhales oxygen through the nasal cavity, which comes from the pillow. The patient must breathe slowly and quietly. Due to this, bleeding caused by various reasons can be prevented. Nasal tamponade. It happens back, front tamponade. Emergency care should be done only by a specialist. It can be held with gauze tampons or hemostatic sponge. Anterior type of tamponade should be used if there is no result from using simple methods to stop the blood after 15 minutes. Help with nosebleeds is provided with tampons that are made from a bandage. Surgical therapies. In the absence of proper effect as a result of cauterization and other methods, physicians may prescribe a surgical intervention. There are various methods of surgery. The easiest types of operations include the introduction of a solution with novocaine or quinine dihydrochloride into the bleeding area of ​​the nasal cavity under the mucosa of the septum. Possible cuts of the shell without peeling or with him, the removal of the septum in the nose, cleaning of granulations. If the patient suffers from heavy bleeding with relapses several times a week (for example, when the cause is the Rendu-Osler disease), it is common to apply more complex types of emergency surgeries. If necessary, make a ligation of blood vessels (most often the external, rarely - the carotid and internal arteries). Endovascular treatment. Endovascular techniques are innovative in medicine. The intervention is carried out by a special, miniature catheter equipment, which is introduced into the puncture in the vessel. The process is monitored by x-ray television. For this manipulation is not required to make a cut. The intervention is carried out under local anesthesia. Endovascular therapeutic method of profuse bleeding from the nose does not traumatize the mucous membrane, does not provoke complications after operations, the person does not experience acute painful sensations and fear before the intervention. After the procedure does not form suppuration. After completion of therapy of profuse profuse bleeding, there is no need for hospitalization of the patient for a long time. It is worth paying attention to such an important feature as the price of the procedure. It is less than the cost of other methods ten times. Through the use of new technologies, modern developments, researchers were able to develop a method of endovascular therapy. The method of embolization is effective, its application helps to achieve a significant slowing of blood flow, and this is necessary in the treatment of passive types of bleeding. During the procedure, substances are introduced into the vessel, devices that cover the lumen of the capillaries.

ethnoscience

The above methods of treatment are traditional, but with the permission of the doctor you can use traditional methods at home:

Lemon juice. You can try to drip the nasal cavity with fresh lemon juice (a few droplets in one nostril). It is advised to dip the bandage into the juice, and then insert it into the cavity for a few minutes. If necessary, the bandage should be replaced. Nettle. The bandage is soaked with nettle juice and inserted into the nose. Salt solution. Wash the cavity with a weakly concentrated salt solution. For the preparation of a teaspoon of sea salt is dissolved in a glass of heated water. Vaseline oil. When crusts form in the cavity, they can be softened with oil. Thus, the removal of crusts will not cause damage to the mucous membranes and new bleeding. Vitamins of group B. Useful for strengthening the walls of capillaries. Contained in citrus fruits, currants, hips. Drinks. Effective green tea, cranberry juice, because they contain vitamin C. In addition, cranberry contains interferon, which increases resistance to infectious diseases. Tempering. Contrast water procedures are a good way of hardening, because when taking a shower, the walls of blood vessels are strengthened. The composition of the bark is a lot of vitamin C. To prepare the broth, you need 10 grams of bark, 200 milliliters of boiling water. Infusion take under Art. spoon three times during the day. Su-jok system. The presence of certain skills will help in the shortest possible time to stop the blood. To begin with, bandage your thumb around the middle of the nail plate and wait 10 minutes. According to this technique, in this area is located the reflex zone, which corresponds to the point of the nose.

How to stop nosebleeds when nothing is at hand?

Blood can flow from the nose on the road, in transport, etc., when there are no medicines or bandages nearby. First, doctors recommend blowing his nose. However, this should be done very carefully, as enhanced blowing of blows can increase bleeding. Blown nose is recommended for cleaning the passage in the nose of clots that block it. After their removal, the fibers of small vessels will close the lesions in the mucous membrane.

Then try to press the wings of the nose. If the bleeding did not occur after the stroke, this is enough to stop the blood from flowing out. Find a cold object and attach one to the bridge of the nose so that the vessels narrow. You can sit down and then let go of the head - after a few minutes the bleeding should stop. If you have nose drops (for example, Naphthyzin or other drops that narrow the vessels), you can use them.

With all the recommendations of the doctor, the prognosis is in most cases favorable.

How to stop bleeding

Slight nosebleeds may begin spontaneously or after a slight trauma of the nose. As a rule, they do not pose any danger.

To stop slight bleeding, follow these steps:

  1. Sit down and keep your head level. No need to tilt it back. Blood should not drain into the throat.
  2. Hold the soft part of your nose firmly with your fingers and do not let go for 10–15 minutes. For the first 10 minutes, be patient and don’t check if the bleeding has stopped.
  3. If after 10–15 minutes the blood does not stop, continue to pinch the nose for another 15 minutes.

To stop bleeding faster, you can use a remedy for a cold with a vasoconstrictor effect, such as xylometazoline solution.

If the bleeding does not stop within 30 minutes, consult a doctor.

Signs of dangerous nosebleeds

Relatively rare Guidelines to the management of epistaxis. nasal bleeding begins due to damage to the large blood vessels that are in the back of the nose. It can be dangerous due to the risk of large blood loss.

Call an ambulance if:

  • A large amount of blood flows into the mouth or into the throat.
  • Blood clots are formed.
  • The bleeding began several days after the operation in the nasal or throat cavity, for example, after the removal of nasal polyps or adenoids.
  • Bleeding started after a bounce.

The doctor can stop the blood with a tamponade of the nasal cavity. This is a procedure during which gauze tampons soaked with vasoconstrictor preparations are injected into the nasal cavity.

Cold and long runny nose

If frequent nosebleeds appear during a cold or during a long cold head:

  • Try to blow your nose more carefully.
  • Open your mouth when you sneeze.
  • Do not pick your nose.
  • If your nose is stuffed up, before you blow your nose, drip normal saline or a weak salt solution into your nose.

Nasal sprays

If a person regularly uses nasal sprays, for example for treating allergies, the wrong technique can be a possible cause of bleeding.

In the area of ​​the nasal septum is a lot of fragile vessels. To avoid damage, the tip of the bottle should be directed toward the wing of the nose. For example, when injecting medicine into the left nostril, hold the bottle with your right hand and direct it to the left - away from the septum.

Increased fragility of small vessels

In some people, frequent nosebleeds due to increased fragility of small vessels in the front of the nasal septum.

Blood vessel fragility may be congenital or may occur in old age.

To solve this problem you need to consult a doctor. He may suggest cauterization of the mucous membrane with silver nitrate or a special surgical instrument. This procedure is called cauterization Epistaxis: an update on current management. .

Other causes of frequent nosebleeds

More rare causes of the frequent appearance of blood from the nose can be:

  • Congenital blood clotting disorders.
  • Chronic liver disease.
  • Alcohol abuse.
  • Medications that reduce blood clotting.
  • Curvature or perforation of the nasal septum.
  • Tumors in the nasal cavity.
  • Cancer of the blood.

In all these situations, the treatment strategy depends on the disease.

If at the same time with frequent bleeding you have any other symptoms, you should consult a doctor.

Prevention

To avoid bleeding from the nose, moisten the room air with a steam generator, you can also put wet towels on the battery, spray the room with a spray gun, start a lot of houseplants in the house.

If crusts form frequently in the nose, it is impossible to pick them up, it is better to periodically bury 2-3 drops of sea buckthorn oil or rosehip oil in your nose.

For the prevention of bleeding from the nose, a course of ascorutin is recommended (1 month), which strengthens the walls of the capillaries.

When do you need help from a doctor?

Abundant and often repeated bleeding - a reason to contact a therapist or otolaryngologist. If the problem is a defect in the vascular wall, as a rule, cauterize the vessel with liquid nitrogen, laser or radio wave surgery.

Bleeding caused by high blood pressure, the more you can not be ignored, they signal an increased risk of stroke.

Classification

The amount of blood leaked from the nose can be from a few milliliters to half a liter.

  1. It is considered insignificant blood loss of a few milliliters. Such bleeding is not dangerous for health and does not lead to any consequences. The only negative point may be fear, hysteria or fainting in young children.
  2. Blood loss is assessed as moderate if its volume does not exceed 200 ml. Such blood loss causes mild weakness, dizziness, rapid pulse and flashing flies before his eyes. Possible blanching of the visible mucous membranes and skin.
  3. Massive blood loss is referred to in cases where up to 300 ml of blood flows in total or in one step. It is accompanied by more severe symptoms in comparison with a mild degree: weakness, tinnitus, dizziness, headache, thirst, shortness of breath.
  4. Profuse bleeding is characterized by a large volume - 500 ml and above. Massive blood loss leads to hemorrhagic shock, expressed in a sharp drop in blood pressure, lethargy, various impairments of consciousness up to its loss, insufficient blood circulation in the internal organs.

Also, nosebleeds can be divided into local and general. Locals are those that cause blood for localized damage to the nose, and common ones that cause bleeding in general.

Why an adult is bleeding from the nose: causes

Drops or trickle of blood emerging from the nasal passages are a consequence of vascular damage. This happens as a result of either mechanical stress (trauma to the nose) or internal processes in the body.

Let us consider in more detail the main reasons why an adult can bleed from the nose, and what to do in this case:

  1. Injury - most often, various injuries to the face area lead to injury to the nose, which can be accompanied by a fracture of its septum with the development of marked bleeding. In childhood, the habit of picking at the nose with a finger or other objects (pencil, pen) leads to injuries of the nasal mucosa.
  2. The impact of external conditions. Long stay in the sun, overwork, physical exertion - factors that can cause spontaneous nosebleeds. This is a solitary phenomenon, it is not a reason for going to the doctor, the blood quickly stops, and the incident is forgotten.
  3. Sunstroke and overheating - one of the main factors of nosebleeds, especially in the summer. Due to high temperatures, the nasal cavity becomes dry and the vessels become fragile. They burst easily and because of this, blood from the nose. To protect yourself from heatstroke, you need to wear a hat or a hat, be more in a shady place.
  4. Drying of mucous membranes can also cause bleeding from the nose, since the capillaries become fragile. Drying of the nasal mucosa can be the result of prolonged exposure to dry air or frost.

The second group of nosebleeds is caused, as a rule, by much more serious reasons, consisting of systemic disorders. In this case, nose bleeding is not a separate pathological condition, but a manifestation of the symptoms of diseases of any organs and physiological systems, most often respiratory and circulatory. This group includes diseases such as:

  1. Hypertension. Increased arterial or intracranial pressure can also cause nosebleeds. But this is more of a blessing than a misfortune, for it is better to lose some blood and reduce pressure than to earn a stroke By the way, most often pressure drops occur from 4 to 6 o'clock in the morning. Этот факт объясняет, почему у некоторых людей кровь идёт из носа утром.
  2. Воспалительный процесс слизистой полости носа (ринит) или его пазух (гайморит, фронтит) – воспаление ослабляет стенки сосудов, делает их более ломкими. Acute respiratory viral infection, allergic rhinitis, bacteria (streptococci, staphylococci, E. coli) can lead to the development of the inflammatory process.
  3. Papillomas in the nose - growths on the mucous membrane. Are the result of a viral infection, dangerous mutations in malignant tumors. Polyps put pressure on the vessels, make breathing difficult, cause frequent bleeding in the morning.
  4. Vegetative-vascular dystonia - accompanied by weak brittle vessels, often causes blood from the nose in an adult or child diagnosed with IRR. Additional symptoms - watery discharge of blood, pain in the head, tinnitus.
  5. Atherosclerosis - changes in blood vessels, loss of their elasticity, frequent damage with the occurrence of various bleeding (internal and external).
  6. Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal glands, which increases the level of stress hormones. Because of this, the pressure rises sharply and blood is constantly flowing from the nose. Signs of this tumor are frequent nasal bleeding and dryness in the nose. With such symptoms should contact the clinic.
  7. Reception of medicines. As a rule, bleeding causes drugs to prevent blood clotting. These include heparin, aspirin and others. Blood from the nose can flow with prolonged and uncontrolled use of nasal sprays that dry the mucous membrane.
  8. Oncological diseases. Epistaxis occurs in malignant and benign neoplasms in the nose. In addition to bleeding, there may be an ulcer on the nasal mucosa, swelling of the nose, a change in its shape.
  9. Disorders associated with bleeding disorders, such as hemophilia.
  10. Vitamin C deficiency. As you know, vitamin C strengthens the walls of blood vessels. If it is missing, the vascular walls become friable and brittle. This fact may be the answer to the question of why blood is often noseged.

In adults, the most common cause of blood from the nose is damage to the vessels of the anterior part of the nasal septum (Kisselbach site), densely penetrated by a network of small arterioles and capillaries. Such bleeding, as a rule, does not pose a threat to human health. The blood from the nose flows out drops or a thin stream and, with normal coagulation, quickly stops on its own.

The situation is worse when the vessels of the upper and posterior parts of the nasal cavity are damaged. The arteries are noticeably larger here than in the anterior section, and therefore the bleeding is stronger, can cause significant harm to health and even be fatal due to very heavy blood loss. In this case, the blood flows in a bright red non-foamy stream, may appear from the mouth, and practically does not stop on its own.

What to do when blood flows from the nose?

There is no point in treating the symptoms exclusively, since the underlying disease must be eliminated. Causes frequent nasal bleeding sets the doctor. It is necessary to visit a therapist or pediatrician and otolaryngologist. For the diagnosis will need to pass a complete blood count and check its clotting.

Bleeding from the nose may not be so harmless. Many do not pay enough attention to this. If the blood from the nose is disturbed in rare cases and then due to mechanical stress, then there is no need to worry.

If the blood from the nose is disturbed often, it is jetting or the bleeding is abundant and prolonged - all this is a signal for the prompt request of the help of a specialist.

How to stop bleeding from the nose?

If the blood is leaking from the nose as a result of mechanical damage and a little, as well as a small headache, there are no signs of serious illness, you can deal with the problem yourself. The sequence of tasks is as follows: first, stop the bleeding, then with the help of analgesics, you can reduce the intensity of pain.

Take a sitting position and tilt your head back slightly. Loosen the tie knot, unbutton the collar. Do not tilt your head forward - this will cause a rush of blood to the nose and increased bleeding. It is also impossible to tilt the head back - blood will enter the nasopharynx and lead to vomiting.

On the nose you can put a piece of ice or a towel moistened with cold water - briefly, for ten minutes. A cold-moistened wipe can also be applied to the back of the neck. It is advisable to press the nostril from which it is bleeding for 5-10 minutes until the bleeding stops. If the bleeding is intense or does not stop, then use tampons. Cotton swabs moistened with hydrogen peroxide are suitable for this, they need to be inserted into the nose, but not too deep, and sit for 10-15 minutes.

If there is no tampon and hydrogen peroxide, then insert a bandage into that nostril from which blood is flowing, leaving at least 10 centimeters outside so that it can be easily removed from the nostrils. This is done to prevent the flow of blood from the nose. Also, if you have vasoconstrictor preparations for instillation of the nose, then put a few drops on a tampon and insert it into your nose. These drops will help to tighten the damaged vessel, which caused the bleeding. Afterwards, place the person in a cool, quiet and dark room. It happens that these measures are already enough.

If the bleeding is abundant and cannot be stopped quickly enough at home, the head hurts badly, speech, vision or consciousness as a whole is disturbed - call an ambulance immediately.

Types of nosebleeds

The nose is an olfactory organ, richly innervated and equipped with a huge number of vessels. Injured or weak vessels sometimes give a leak, which is characterized by varying degrees of intensity: in some cases only a few drops follow, in others - moderate or severe (profuse) bleeding develops.

Nosebleeds are distinguished by the following features:

  • Localization
  • Frequency of occurrence
  • The mechanism and the type of damaged vessels
  • The volume of blood loss.

The set of data obtained by the doctor during the examination (examination) of the patient, allows you to determine the nature of the bleeding, the causes, as well as to evaluate the possible risks and provide first aid. If necessary, further treatment is prescribed.

Localization of nasal bleeding

Most often, bleeding occurs from the Kisselbach zone - the vascular plexus in the anterior section of the nasal septum. They are harmless and are easily stopped even by a non-specialist - for this you just need to know how to stop the blood from the nose without the intervention of a health worker.

More often, front nosebleeds stop on their own - especially if their volume does not exceed a few drops.

The situation is more complicated and dangerous with bleeding from the posterior parts of the nose: blood volume is usually significant. The danger is that outwardly the situation may look like a small blood loss, since the main volume of blood does not flow out - it gets into the throat, so a person has to swallow it all.

Swallowed blood causes nausea and bloody vomiting: vomit may be scarlet (when fresh blood enters the stomach) or brown (when the blood has coagulated). Here, without medical assistance can not do.

Frequency of occurrence

Bleeding from the nose can be both rare and recurrent. Rare bleeding, which quickly and spontaneously ends, does not cause any concerns - they are considered as a small nuisance, no more. This is indeed the case: a small vessel bursting during blowing out is unlikely to seriously undermine health.

Recurrent nasal bleeding is a definite reason to be wary and to be examined to find out why your nose began to bleed. If blood flows from the nose frequently, it can be a symptom of some disease or a transient condition.

Spontaneous and traumatic mechanisms of nasal bleeding are distinguished. Spontaneous bleeding occurs as if by itself, and traumatic - due to damage to the nose with a blow or surgery (for example, removal of the adenoids).

Blood flows from damaged vessels - arteries, veins or capillaries. The most insignificant discharge of blood occurs when small vessels are damaged - capillaries, the most intensive - when arteries are damaged.

Blood loss

The amount of blood leaked from the nose can be from a few milliliters to half a liter.

  • Considered minor blood loss of a few milliliters,
  • How moderate blood loss is estimated, if its volume does not exceed 200 ml,
  • Massive blood loss is referred to in cases when up to 300 ml of blood flows in total or in one step,
  • Profuse bleeding is characterized by a large volume - 500 ml and above.

Minor blood loss does not require the intervention of specialists, in all other cases, you must immediately call a doctor or an ambulance brigade.

Serious causes of nosebleeds

If you or someone who is nearby, bleed from the nose - the reasons should be clarified quickly and accurately, as this will depend on further tactics of behavior.

This may be self-help or call for specialists and further examination and treatment.

Traumatic nasal bleeding is always clear, since it begins immediately after a bruise or stroke. Everything is clear and with postoperative bleeding - there is never a way out of blood here.

But what to do if there were no injuries, operations on the nose, too, and the blood flows, and it flows often and for no apparent reason?

Causes of blood from the nose may be associated with the following conditions:

  • Vascular diseases
  • Diseases of blood, blood-forming organs,
  • Infections
  • New growths in the nasal cavity,
  • Avitaminosis.

In diseases of the blood vessels, their walls quickly wear out, becoming brittle and permeable, so hypertensive crises are often accompanied by nosebleeds.

By nature, weak capillaries break every time, and the nose begins to bleed when blowing your nose or sneezing.

Blood diseases (Verlgof's disease, hemophilia, chlorosis, leukemia, some types of anemia) also cause frequent and sometimes profuse bleeding from the nose, which can be difficult to stop without medical intervention.

With hepatitis and cirrhosis, coagulopathy occurs - a violation of blood clotting. One of the manifestations of these severe liver lesions are nosebleeds.

Viral and bacterial infections, which people so often get sick in the offseason, cause swelling of the nasal mucosa and vascular irritation, so a little blood can flow out when you blow your nose and sneeze. Such minor bleedings themselves go away when the diseased recover.

Exacerbation of any form of sinusitis can also cause nosebleeds, especially when trying to blow nose.

Polyps, angiomas, papillomas and adenoids are benign neoplasms in the nose, which often cause sudden bleeding, because tumors are equipped with vessels that are also subject to ruptures when blowing your nose, snoring or sneezing.

Vitamin deficiency caused by a deficiency of vitamins C and B3, affects blood clotting. If nosebleeds are observed, pay attention to how you eat.

Each of the above conditions can cause nosebleeds at any time of the day - even at night, so the morning spot of blood on the pillow has the same explanations as daytime or evening bleeding.

When not to worry

Nasal bleeding occurs during pregnancy or other periods of restructuring of the body, when significant changes in the hormonal balance occur. With the stabilization of the hormonal background, nosebleeds stop.

A hike in the bath, a long flight, ascent high in the mountains causes sharp fluctuations in blood pressure, so a small bleeding is normal and not worth worrying about.

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