If you think that you fall asleep and sleep sweetly all night, you are greatly mistaken. In fact, the dream may be different, and it consists of several phases. Scientists have long tried to figure out their sequence and duration, and one of the researchers identified the following steps:
- Falling asleep At this stage, there may be some hallucinations or images that are usually associated with the events experienced during the day. It seems to a person as if he “falls” into a dream, plunges into it.
- Next comes a light sleep, which can last from ten to thirty minutes. In this stage, it is quite easy to wake up a person, because his brain, in fact, has not yet switched from wakefulness mode completely and completely.
- The first stage of slow sleep.
- The second stage of slow sleep. This phase is considered the deepest, the person is completely unaware of his actions and does not realize what is happening. And so it is during this period that some people begin to talk or show physical activity: getting out of bed or even moving.
- Next comes the REM sleep stage, which some scientists call “REM”. At this stage, the muscles are completely relaxed, the body is immobilized, only periodic involuntary contractions and flinches are likely. At this time, the sleeper has very vivid and sometimes incredibly realistic dreams. And if you wake him up at such moments, he will remember everything clearly and tell the dream in the smallest details. But waking up at the stage of slow sleep will remember almost nothing about their night adventures.
From the moment you fall asleep to the start of fast sleep, it usually takes about 50-70 minutes, and then this phase repeats approximately every one and a half hour.
Its duration in the first half of the night is usually no more than ten minutes, but then it gradually increases (the duration of slow sleep at the same time, respectively, is reduced) and reaches 20-30 minutes, and by the morning it can reach up to an hour. So the longest and brightest dreams most often dream just before awakening.
REM sleep takes about a fifth of the total sleep period, that is, we can conclude that a person relaxes and fully sleeps only about six hours per night (with eight hours of sleep).
Our brain night classes
So what does the brain do when a person is sleeping?
- Making decisions. Yes, the brain in a dream processes all the information received in a day and systematizes it, which helps, upon awakening, to quickly find the right solutions.
- Memorization and structuring of information. Usually, all data received per day is stored in the so-called short-term memory. And therefore such information is soon forgotten. But in a dream, the brain as it moves it into a long-term memory, and therefore we remember many important things, moreover in a dream. In addition, the brain sort of parses all the data, puts them on the shelves, as if creating an archive. And he connects the new information with the old, obtained earlier. So if you don't get enough sleep, then your ability to memorize can be reduced by as much as 40%!
- Getting rid of toxins. Yes, in a dream, the brain as it were cleaned up in our body, getting rid of everything harmful and unnecessary. And such an amazing feature was discovered in the process of observing the mice. During sleep, they got rid of substances that could damage nerve cells. This is achieved by increasing the space between the cells, so that toxins are easily eliminated.
- Strengthening muscle memory. Since during sleep the data is stored in long-term memory, this allows us not only to memorize the data, but also to fix and bring to the automatism some motor skills, such as dance movements, strikes in sports, and car driving.
- Creative information processing. Proved that sleep can stimulate creative activity. While a person is sleeping, completely unexpected and interesting associations and connections can form in his brain, which allows him to make creative decisions, look for new alternatives, and also see unusual scenarios. And no one would have thought of all this while awake.
Some interesting facts about the brain during sleep:
- The saying “Morning is wiser than evening” actually has scientific substantiation, since over night the brain processes, assimilates and systematizes information. Therefore, in the morning we get up with a fresh and sober head, we remember a lot, we understand and rethink.
- Mendeleev saw his own table of chemical elements in a dream, and this is more proof that the brain actually works at night.
- With age, dreams usually become more complex, their plots sometimes resemble convoluted stories from films. And this is due to the fact that a person gains experience, and often some images and emotions are blocked by his brain during wakefulness, but at night they begin to emerge in the subconscious.
- Sleep is a reflection of reality. And it can be quite strange, since the brain in its own way interprets and modifies what is happening. And sometimes in dreams, what happened a few days or even months ago comes up. In addition, analogies can be made that are not associated with a real relationship, but with emotions. For example, if you dream that you are taking an exam on a subject that you have not learned, then you probably endured an unpleasant situation related to the inability to achieve something or make the right decision.
- Before an important event you definitely need to sleep! So nightly preparation for exams or conferences is not the best option.
- Scientist Kelvin Hall did research and found out that in dreams many more often face failures and troubles than victories and success. And with age, dreams are filled with negativity and even aggression. That is why often good dreams only children dream, and up to transitional age.
Now you know that sleep is not only pleasant, but also useful and productive activity.
The skin self-repair
The top layer of skin consists of compacted dead cells that are shed during the day. During sleep, the metabolic rate of the skin increases, and many cells in the body exhibit increased production and reduced protein breakdown. Since proteins are essential for cell growth and repair of damaged skin from factors such as UV rays, deep sleep can really be called the “beauty dream”.
The brain forgets unnecessary information.
“Throughout the day, we get a lot of information, and most of it, fortunately, is forgotten,” says sleep specialist Christopher Colwell from UCLA (UCLA School of Medicine) medical college. “If you remember everything that you have learned or heard for the whole day, then the brain, in order not to overflow with information, will start the process of sorting during sleep, screening out the excess.”
The immune system is at its peak.
It has been proven that lack of sleep affects the immune system. One study found that people who had been vaccinated against the flu and were deprived of sleep the next night could not produce the antibodies necessary to protect against the flu. Therefore, as soon as a person has the first signs of infection, you should sleep only as much as the immune system will need to fight the disease.
Man can grind his teeth
It is estimated that around 5% of people suffer from a strange condition known as bruxism. This parafunctional activity is manifested in the excessive gnashing of the teeth and may ultimately lead to their damage. Scientists are not sure what exactly causes such a condition, but believe that this may be a form of stress relief.
A person can walk in a dream
Scientifically known as parasomnia, sleepwalking, and other activities during sleep include behaviors, emotions, sensations, and dreams that usually occur during transitions between certain phases of sleep. Parasomnia is mostly harmless, but there have been cases when people were injured during sleepwalking.
Oh this flatulence
It is unlikely that anyone will be happy to find out about this, but at night the muscles of the anal sphincter relax slightly, releasing the gases that have accumulated in the intestine. The good news is that the person’s sense of smell is not as acute during sleep as during wakefulness, so the release of gas at night usually goes unnoticed.
A person can hear explosions.
Exploding Head Syndrome is a rare non-hazardous condition in which a person hears a loud sound of imaginary noises (such as a bomb blast, a shot, a blow to a musical cymbal, etc.) or feels like an explosion when falling asleep or waking up. It is painless, but scares the one who suffers from it.
What does the brain do at night?
When we sleep, our brain continues to act. This activity, the activity of the brain due to the peculiarities of its structure. The list of his tasks at this moment is as follows:
- Making vital decisions. Studies have shown that the brain is able to make operational decisions on any issues and tasks. The source of Current Biology published the results of studies in which respondents were asked to sort words into categories by pressing a button, while still being able to fall asleep. The experiment continued in a dream as the participants' brains demonstrated the ability to make decisions even after the body fell asleep.
- The classification of memories. Studying the question of what happens to our brain during sleep, it can be noted that he is engaged in the processing of memories and the loss of connections with the old moments. He sorts human memory in such a way that the right moments are not forgotten. According to Dr. M. Walker, who works at the University of California, if a person after a healthy sleep visits a piano lesson and wakes up the required amount of time the next night, the material will be learned and reproduced 20-30% better than in knowledge testing immediately after how the lesson ends.
3. Disposed of toxins. As soon as the body sinks into sleep, the brain continues to work actively, ridding it of harmful substances. This fact is confirmed and supported by a series of research activities. But an increased number of these elements can entail many pathological conditions, so the use of the brain in this direction is indisputable.
4. Training in physical labor. During the phase of REM sleep, information is transmitted on motor options from the cerebral cortex to the temporal region. This phenomenon allows you to carefully think through and perfectly perform tasks related to physical labor. Now it is clear which part of the brain is responsible for performing physical exercises and daily activities.
As can be seen from the above, the functioning of the brain in a dream continues, and he, even when we sleep, performs a large number of tasks.
The work of the brain in cycles
The whole process of a person’s night sleep consists of several “slow - fast process” cycles. According to popular theory, we sleep to ensure the processing of information obtained during the day or the previous day. Classic sleep includes 4 stages of slow and 2 stages of REM sleep. Information is transmitted in a reorganized form only at the end of the third cycle. But the brain does not turn off in the next 1-2 cycles, but continues to work.
In the process of immersion in the world of Morpheus, the brain structures temporarily lose the functional interconnections that promote wakefulness. This phenomenon can be traced on electroencephalograms. Each of these structures is locked in itself, and then tuned to the desired mode and is subject to regulation, which cannot be done during wakefulness, when the gray matter is in active interaction with the environment. The sleeping head works a little differently.
At the stage of slow sleep, regulation of internal rhythms with respect to each brain structure occurs, while at the stage of the fast process, harmonious interrelations between these elements are observed. In general, sleep has one main task - to adjust the biorhythms of the body to the optimal mode, which is different for each person. This standard is created in the process of wakefulness, and this or that behavioral program laid down at the genetic level serves as a base. If the model is formed and works well, a small amount of sleep is enough for rest. If there are failures - the person sleeps longer.
It is interesting that the need for sleep has an inverse proportional relationship with the amount of information received: the more it enters the gray matter, the less sleep is necessary. This may be due to the fact that in the process of obtaining enhanced mental load a person sleeps less than if he spends most of his time at the TV.
Brain rest during sleep
Does our brain rest during sleep? The issue is a subject of controversy among many people. And this is not unreasonable. In fact, as soon as a person goes to the world of dreams, the brain is rebuilt to a different mode of operation. If, during his wakefulness, he did not have the opportunity to analyze events and classify thoughts, then when a person fell asleep, she appeared. Therefore, in the first cycles, the brain deals with these tasks, and upon completion of this work (as a rule, closer to the morning) has a little time to rest. But this does not mean that he is completely “disconnected” along with the body, one can say that he simply turns on the “economy” mode. Therefore, from the side of the brain, sleep is perceived differently than from the side of the body.
Brain work and dreaming
When brain structures are functioning, they forge mutual ties, as if talking to each other. This fact is fully proved by various dreams. Also in this process, an active training of the nerve centers takes place: the cells that are inactive while awake begin to perform a kind of functional gymnastics in order to maintain an optimal form. It is for this reason that after stress a person sleeps “as if he was killed”, because his cells have already received a shake and do not need additional information in the form of dreams.
Our dreams depend on what information our brain processes.
Slow phase of dreams
In total, the slow stage accounts for about 75-85% of total sleep, and it includes several conditions:
- a nap,
- sleepy spindles
- delta sleep
- deep dream.
As a person plunges into sleep, many functions of the body change. In the first stage, called drowsiness, and also in the second stage, the pulse becomes more rare, the blood pressure is to be reduced, and the blood flows more slowly. As soon as the sleeper sinks into a state of delta sleep, his pulse noticeably quickens and the pressure rises. Slow sleep is the phase responsible for regulating the internal rhythms regarding each brain structure and each organ.
How fast sleep differs from slow
There are several points that distinguish one phase of sleep from another, and you should take them into account.
- The number of stages in a slow dream is 4, and in the fast one 2.
- In the process of slow sleep, eye movements are smooth at first, and at the end of the stage they stop altogether. In the fast phase, the opposite is true - the eyes move continuously.
- The state of the vegetative nervous system also differs: in the first case, the person grows faster, as more growth hormone is produced.
- Dreams are also different. When it comes to the fast phase, the pictures are full of different actions, have a bright color. With slow sleep, the plot is calmer or may be missing.
- The process of awakening. If you wake up an individual in the process of fast sleep, he wakes up much easier, and later will have a much better state of health than a person awakened in the phase of slow sleep.
- The temperature of the brain on the way to the slow phase of sleep gradually decreases, and in the fast phase due to blood flow and active metabolism, on the contrary, increases. Sometimes it can exceed the normal rate observed during wakefulness.
Another important question is what part of the brain is responsible for sleep. Indeed, until recently it was not known in which area of the brain work related to dreams takes place. Scientists from the University of Wisconsin as a result of the study were able to make a sensational discovery. The experiment was proposed to take part 46 people who have made the registration of electric waves. In order to isolate the areas of neurons responsible for dreams, regardless of the sleep phase, a high-density EEG was used. Испытуемых несколько раз будили и спрашивали о снах. А затем производилось сравнение полученных ответов с электрической активностью.
Полученные в ходе исследования данные показали, что в процессе сонного состояния снижение активности в задней части коры было непосредственно взаимосвязано с возникновением снов. Conversely, when an increase in low-frequency activity was observed in the same area, the subjects said that there were no dreams, that is, at that time nothing was dreaming.
American scientists in the course of some studies have found that sleep is also needed to cleanse the brain of toxic elements. According to their observations during sleep, the brain consumes as much or even more energy than during the waking period. During tests in rodents, experts found that during sleep activity is not reduced, but only goes into a different direction. At night, when the internal organs are cleared of accumulated toxins with lymph, the brain is also cleared.
A doctor from the New York Medical Center reported that the brain resource implies certain limitations. Gray matter is capable of doing one thing: either actively processing thoughts, or to ensure the removal of toxins. If this process were observed in the daytime, no one person would have the opportunity for normal decision-making. And if there was a gradual accumulation of toxins in the brain, there would be a tremendous likelihood of Alzheimer's disease.
What conclusion can be made
Thus, we studied how the human brain works during sleep, how much energy it consumes, and in which mode it functions as soon as we fall asleep. Our "gray matter" - the object of observation and controversy of many scientists. When we are in the arms of Morpheus, he begins his work, unknown to us, solving a large number of problems. While awake, he also activates, but acts in other directions. The human brain is a complex structure that requires detailed study and research.
9 unusual facts about sleep and dreams
As you know, the name of this great group is decoded as the rapid eye movement, that is, “rapid eye movements”. This phenomenon was discovered back in the 30s by an American scientist Eugene Aserinski, who, using electrodes attached to the head of his own son, studied the work of his brain in a dream. Prior to this, it was thought that the brain was practically turned off for the whole time of sleep, but Asserinsky discovered regular short flashes of activity, and then noticed that it was at these moments that the subject's eyeballs moved noticeably under closed eyelids. Every time when Aserinsky woke his son in these moments, he said that he well remembers what he had dreamed of. So for the first time science was able to catch the moment of sleep physiologically. After this discovery for a long time it was believed that people see dreams only during the REM phase.
Freudians vs. Neuroscientists
Further study of dreams became a controversy between the camp of the Freudians, who assert that dreams have a deep psychological significance and reflect the unconscious experiences of a person, and more “technically” minded biologists who see this as an exclusively chemical and physiological process. At some point, the latter seemed to be able to prove that dreams are born in the brain stem, in a rather primitive part of it, which by definition is not capable of generating complex images. And what we see as a result, only the processing of these visions by the cerebral cortex, which clumsily tries to give them some meaning, is often bizarre, since the mechanisms of logical thinking in a dream are blocked. It seemed that evidence was found that no hidden childhood experiences in a dream appear, but further research still showed that the truth is in the middle: sleep is a random process in general, but the cerebral cortex and deep memories hidden in it are also involved.
Often, vivid and memorable dreams happen on weekends when people sleep longer than usual. There are two explanations for this: firstly, the longer a person sleeps, the longer and longer his periods of long sleep, and secondly, if the body continues to sleep at a time when it is usually awake, the brain gradually wakes up on its own and behave more actively - as manifested in dreams. This phenomenon in science was informally called super-sleep.
Studies of sleeping children have shown that children's dreams are very different from adults. Up to five years, they see only the usual, and mostly static images - animals, familiar places, usual actions, and the child himself is never a hero of his sleep. By the age of eight, dreams become more complicated, but only by 11–12 truly detailed plots appear in them, and the sleeper himself takes an active part in them and experiences emotions. All this corresponds to the cycle of personal development, only by about 12 years a person acquires full self-awareness, feels himself a separate person and can evaluate his emotions from the side. Exactly this skill and manifests itself in dreams.
Dreams are seen not only by humans, but also by other mammals. It was the study of the REM phase in animals that helped find the key to the biological meaning of sleep. Apparently, his main purpose in nature is to select the experience received by the brain in order to place the most important of it in long-term memory. Animals learn survival in a dream - hunting and, on the contrary, salvation from predators. That is why in human dreams there is also often an element of anxiety and the motive of the chase: this is how the primitive experiences of our ancestors manifest, which for hundreds of thousands of years have been practicing in a dream to survive alone with wildlife.
Despite the fact that animals also have dreams, they do not remember them, because biologically there is no need for this, dreams and so fulfill their function and then immediately fall out of memory as unnecessary ballast. The fact that people have learned to memorize dreams is, in general, an accident, which we are obliged to completely with dreams not connected with the ability to speak and describe. If people did not have the language to fix their dreams, they would hardly have remembered them.
Rats in the maze
The question may arise, how do we even know that an animal dreams? Of course, it is impossible to look into their dreams directly, but indirectly - it is quite possible. So, a group of scientists from MIT set up an experiment on rats that were trained to run through the maze in search of food. Repeating the exercise time after time for many days, scientists used sensors to capture impulses of neurons in the brain of rats, and the same combination of impulses corresponded to the same route. A few days later, running around the labyrinths exactly the same impulses in rats recorded during REM sleep. That is, it is quite possible to say that the rats at that time dreamed of how they were running through the maze. This amazing discovery not only proves that one can penetrate into other people's dreams, but also that from the point of view of the brain, dream and reality are not much different, because the processes in it were the same.
Dreams and creativity
The current level of the science of sleep allows with good reason to say that between dreams and creativity there is quite a direct connection. Since in a dream the logic does not work, the internal censor is removed, as it were, and the flight of fantasy can become truly limitless. It was in the dreams of their creators that not only Dali's paintings appeared, but also the song “Yesterday”, and even some medicines.
The stories about dreams, during which people realized that they were dreaming but did not wake up, were always there, but for a long time science thought it was simply impossible. However, when some of the honored researchers of sleep themselves suddenly began to see such dreams, in which they not only understood that it was a dream, but could control it, the study of this unusual phenomenon began. In the end, this fact was proved: the subject, who entered a state of conscious sleep, was able to give a pre-agreed signal to the outside world that he was sleeping, he understood that he was sleeping, and he did not wake up. This signal can only be given by eye movements, since all other motor functions in a dream are blocked. Currently, there are whole manuals on how to learn to see lucid dreams and manage them at will.
To see dreams is to work. How does the human brain
We spend a third of our lives in a dream, and for some it seems like terrible waste. However, you can not give up sleep, as you can not refuse food. It is still not known for certain why we need to sleep, but research shows: sleep is not at all a waste of time, as it seems to be very busy people. While we sleep, our brain works to its fullest.
During sleep, the neural connections in the brain are as active as during wakefulness. Just the brain at this time solves special problems for which it does not have time, when we are not sleeping, we work and get impressions. So go to bed without regrets: while the body is resting, we really are.
1. Make decisions
The brain processes information, makes decisions and prepares for action while the body is asleep: recent studies confirm this.
An article published in the journal Current Biology states that complex brain processes do not stop during sleep: the brain processes the information that will be needed to make decisions after waking up. During the described study, scientists asked to divide the words proposed by him into two categories: the names of animals or objects, as well as real words and invented ones. Depending on the category, you had to press the right or left button. When the test subjects got used to and began to act automatically, they were asked to lie down and sleep (the experiment took place in a dark room).
Asleep participants in the experiment continued to call the words, and, judging by brain activity, the sleepers continued to categorize the words, and the body was preparing to press the buttons according to the task.
The truth is worth noting that after waking up, no one remembered a word of those that they read.
“The test subjects did not simply process the complex information that came in from the outside, but also did it unconsciously,” say researchers Thomas Andrillon and Sid Coulder. “Our work shows that during sleep the brain is really actively working, although we are not aware of this.”
2. Remember and structure information
While we sleep, our brain is busy creating memories, putting them in memory, connecting new information with the earlier one. In general, the brain is engaged in memory cataloging. Lack of sleep has the most negative effect on the hippocampus, the brain region that is directly responsible for memory.
Thus, sleep is an integral part of the learning process, it helps us to place new information in memory so that it can be easily recalled later.
“We found that pre-training sleep prepares the brain to perceive and remember information,” said Dr. Matthew Walker, a sleep researcher from Berkeley, California. - "But the dream after the learning process helps to preserve and keep in mind the knowledge gained, so the likelihood that we forget it is significantly reduced."
So think twice before deciding to "teach all night before the exam." If you don’t sleep, your ability to remember new information will be reduced by 40%.
3. We are engaged in creative processing of information.
Sleep stimulates creative activity: while we are sleeping, completely unexpected connections are formed in our brain and creative decisions are made that we would not have thought of if we were awake.
A study at UCLA in 2007 shows that during sleep, the brain creates complex associative connections, which then lead to insights, that is, sudden insights. The people who have just woken up (of course, if they slept) generate new ideas by 33% more successfully and find creative solutions.
4. Getting rid of toxins.
A series of studies in 2013 proves that one of the most important functions of sleep is to enable the brain to tidy up a bit.
Researchers at the University of Rochester found that in the process of sleep, the mouse's brain gets rid of substances that can damage nerve cells. The space between the cells becomes wider, and toxic substances formed during wakefulness are removed from the body.
“We need a dream,” says Dr. Nedergaard, the project manager. - "He cleans the brain."
If we do not sleep enough, the brain does not have enough time to get rid of toxins, which in the future can lead to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's.
5. Strengthen muscle memory
Information is fixed in the long-term memory in the process of sleep, during its active phase. This process helps not only to memorize clean information, but also to fix in the memory and bring to motorism the motor skills: driving a car, hitting tennis, dancing steps. During the REM phase (the sleep phase, during which we see dreams), information passes from short-term memory to long-term memory and is fixed there forever.
“When you learn some kind of sport or other movement, sleep will help you achieve success faster,” says James Maas, a sleep researcher at Cornell University. “Want to play golf better — sleep more.”
Swaying while sleeping
Rocking during sleep. . I find it difficult to choose a section. Children's medicine. Child health, illness and treatment, clinic, hospital, doctor, vaccinations. Rocking during sleep. Tell me, a 11-year-old child is swinging while sleeping. Do I need to see a doctor?
Sleep. A child from 1 to 3. Raising a child from one to three years old: hardening and development, nutrition and disease, daily routine and development of household sleep. I have already exhausted the boy with my dream. 2 years, but still wakes up: (Reason - crashes into the head of the bed, and I do not know what s.
Brain rhythms. popularly. Delta.
Section: Diseases (delta brain activity in a child). Brain rhythms. popularly. "It is not surprising that the electrical behavior of the brain reveals similarities in children and adults only in a dream," we say, "Sleeps like a baby."
The fact that rhythmic stimulation lulls us, we know from the cradle. And everywhere, where the irritations, following in a certain rhythm, lull, their termination awakens. Who, during a long night trip in a sleeper car, did not have to, waking up at some station from a sudden silence or a quiet hiss of steam, be surprised that the awakening came in connection with the TERMINATION of the train noise? We can see the corresponding phenomena on the EEG of the sleeping brain: constant sound or rocking movements do not leave a mark on the EEG with the dominant persistent delta activity. Immediately after their completion, one K-complex appears. If the constant sound resumes, a picture inherent in deep sleep reappears on the EEG. But if silence continues, the K-complexes no longer appear, the EEG pattern within a few seconds will move to a more superficial stage of sleep, and the sleeper will suddenly wake up (See: Walter, p. 245-246).
Back in 1938, Walter suggested that delta rhythms "reflect true changes in the natural cycle of the activity of cortical neurons and that these ominous changes may disappear if the cause of their causes ceases. Neurons involved in delta activity cannot perform useful work. The magnitude of the delta waves, sometimes very significant, suggests that they can paralyze the cortex by electrically affecting it. It can be assumed that this paralyzing effect is their special function a cation similar to the function of pain, sometimes resulting in immobilization of the injured part of the body. To explain the large amount that slow waves may have, it is necessary to allow the presence of a consistent connection of cortical cells, just as it does in electric fish cells evolved from muscle tissue.
As already noted, slow rhythms are found in healthy children and in adults with organic diseases or brain damage. Slow components of electrical activity become very noticeable also in epileptics in the interictal period and during seizures with loss of consciousness, but without seizures. In all these cases, the brain needs to be protected from the complexities of its own activity. How serious are the consequences of loss of control and lack of protection can be seen in cases when a patient with epilepsy develops a large convulsive fit. In this state, very fast electrical discharges dominate, and the whole system falls into a state of chaos. By the end of the seizure, slow waves reappear, and fast convulsive discharges occur only during slow wave falls. Such observations allowed us to create a hypothesis about the protective effect of slow electric rhythms, according to which these rhythms are guardians of brain functions, protecting it from the effects of excessive or poorly coordinated activity. In this light, sleep K-complexes take their place among the slow waves observed in children, in epilepsy and in other conditions in which control over brain activity is imperfect. At the same time, slow waves act as censors, checking all news coming from other parts of the body. And, if these controllers fail to maintain order and discipline, they go to cause apathy and indifference (See: Walter, p. 248-249).
Вместе с тем, новейшие исследования ЭЭГ музыкально одаренных людей, обнаружили большую синхронизацию биопотенциалов в разных отделах мозга, преобладание деятельности правого полушария и высокую частоту в диапазоне дельта-ритма.
Как мозг засыпает
Ранее, когда физиология человека еще была совсем не изучена, считалось, что работа мозга во время ночного отдыха постепенно снижается, а потом вовсе приостанавливается. Сейчас, когда было изобретено ЭЭГ, эту теорию оспорили. It turned out that brain activity does not stop even when a person is resting.
This body is responsible not only for dreams, but also many other important functions that are performed in a dream.
Brain work during sleep
A person gets a huge amount of information per day. After falling asleep, brain activity does not stop. He begins processing this information, its distribution and rethinking. In addition, the body performs other functions:
- Making decisions. When a person relaxes and falls asleep, the information in his head begins to be systematized, and this pushes him to the right decision.
- Memorization. The brain department responsible for memorization has a long and short-term memory. Everything that happens during the day is kept for a short time and is stored for a short time, and is forgotten over time. At night, knowledge is divided into departments, and that information that is important is transferred to a long-term memory.
- The elimination of toxins from the cells of the body. This is an important process by which non-beneficial proteins are derived from the extracellular space. Due to this, it is possible to prevent the development of a number of diseases.
- Muscle memory. People involved in sports or dancing at night can memorize all movements in order to perform them automatically.
- Creative thinking. The department of the body responsible for non-standard thinking is actively working during sleep, when it is relieved from pressing problems.
Which part of the brain is responsible for sleep
Night rest is divided into fast and slow phases. They alternate between each other. The first, fast phase, in which the maximum brain activity in a dream, lasts only 5-10 minutes. Slow at the same time significantly longer, but closer to the morning, it is gradually shortened, thus preparing the body for awakening.
Sleep phase activity
Depending on the phase of sleep, the brain sleeps and behaves differently. Immediately after falling asleep, neural oscillations decay, nerve fibers and muscles relax, the heartbeat slows down, pressure and temperature decrease. The hypothalamus is responsible for immersion in a slow sleep. It has a group of nerve cells that suspend the synthesis of neurotransmitters. These are transmitters that promote the propagation of impulses to the nerve endings.
During REM, the thalamus is excited by cholinergic receptors. Due to this, the brain performs the same functions as in wakefulness. The work of the brain stem begins, but the monoamine transmitters bound for it remain passive. Accordingly, information from the thalamus to the cortex of the body is not received.
Detox in a dream
In the course of research, scientists found out that during a night's rest, brain activity promotes the elimination of toxins. This is due to the activation of the glymphatic system, which works up to ten times more actively if the person is dormant.
When a slow sleep comes, one hemisphere falls asleep, neuronal vibrations subside. Cells that support the activity of neurons, while decreasing in size. Due to such changes, the extracellular space increases, and the brain fluid begins to flush toxins.
Biological clock run
Biological clocks are regulated by various psychophysical and natural factors. Their course is affected by the change of night and day, fatigue, various pathologies, the environment.
In the course of a series of experiments, scientists found that closer to 7:00 pm, intensive production of serotonin begins in the body, which calms the nervous system and prepares the body for a night's rest. An hour later, there is an improvement in memory and stabilization of the state. At this time, it is recommended to take a walk in the fresh air.
Closer to 21:00 the concentration of leukocytes increases, the protective functions of the body are activated and the cells are intensively updated. It is necessary to go to bed at this particular time. It will be easier to disconnect the brain from thoughts, to find peace and tranquility during this period.
At 22:00, all processes begin to slow down, and there comes a slow sleep, periodically alternating with a fast phase. By awakening the body is prepared closer to five in the morning. It is recommended to get out of bed at seven o'clock.
With prolonged wakefulness, lack of rest at night, chronic fatigue and the development of pathologies, certain disorders are observed. Sometimes at the same time a person sleeps with his eyes open, often wakes up or cannot sleep at all. To eliminate such problems, you need to identify the factor that provokes such changes.
Insomnia (insomnia) is considered to be the most common disorder. Because of its appearance, the body can not recover overnight, and the brain does not perform its functions to the proper extent. Therefore, problems with falling asleep need to be addressed.
Helps to normalize sleep proper organization of the regime of the day, herbs and drugs.
Brain activity is observed during the day and at night. During rest, the body performs a number of important processes. Due to this, a person remembers information better, becomes active and feels awake after waking up.