Antiseptics are substances that inhibit the reproduction and growth of pathogenic microorganisms or destroy them. Why do we need such funds? Any tissue damage is always associated with the risk of infection, that is, the ingress of bacteria or fungi. And to avoid inflammation associated with the activity of harmful and sometimes even dangerous microorganisms, antiseptics are used.
Should I buy antiseptics?
Antiseptics should occupy a special place in the first-aid kit, as wounds, abrasions, cuts and burns are the most common injuries that cause tissue damage and increase the risk of infection, which, for example, can lead to serious diseases and even sepsis (blood infection) .
If in nature your child falls or gets hurt, he will probably touch the wound with dirty hands. And to avoid the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms, you need to use any antiseptic. To protect the offspring, parents should always carry with them such a remedy, because the earlier they start to apply it, the lower the risk of complications, that is, infection.
What funds to buy?
The most popular antiseptic ointment:
- "Betadine". The active ingredient is povidone-iodine. Such a remedy can be used for fungal or bacterial lesions of the skin, various skin lesions (abrasions, wounds, scratches), ulcers, burns, bedsores, and infectious dermatitis. There are contraindications. So, it is necessary to exercise caution in diseases of the thyroid gland (iodine can enter the systemic circulation and enter the body).
- "Dioxidin". The active ingredient is dioxidine - a substance with antibacterial properties against most microorganisms. The application is indicated for any wounds, bacterial infections, phlegmon, ulcers, as well as infection of internal organs. Both local use and intracavitary administration are possible.
- "Miramistin". The main active component of this ointment is Miramistin. The indications include burns, postoperative stitches, wounds, as well as some dermatological diseases. Means is applied on the damaged surfaces or is used in the form of turunds and compresses.
- "Vishnevsky ointment". Ingredients such as birch tar, xeroform powder (it has an antiseptic effect) and castor oil. This tool is used for any damage to the skin, frostbite, calluses, bedsores, furuncles, lymphangitis, lymphadenitis. But you can begin treatment only according to the testimony of a doctor, as there are contraindications.
- "Ichthyol ointment". The active ingredient is ichthyol. This remedy is used for streptoderma, erysipelas, eczema, sycosis, furuncles, rosacea, as well as for arthritis, neuralgia and even prostatitis. Use the ointment can be applied to the damaged areas, or in the form of lotions. Contraindications include only intolerance to ichthyol.
- "Levomekol" - It is a combined agent containing at once two active components: methyluracil and chloramphenicol. Indications: boils, ulcers, burns, ulcers, wounds, purulent skin infections. Contraindications: hypersensitivity to the components.
- "Zinc ointment". Zinc also has antiseptic and disinfecting effects, so that this tool can be used for wounds, eczema, dermatitis, bedsores, herpes infections, burns, streptoderma. Ointment is contraindicated only in case of hypersensitivity to the components. Possible side effects: burning, hyperemia, rash.
- "Resorcin". The active component of this ointment is resorcinol. Indications include viral, fungal and bacterial lesions of the skin, dermatitis, eczema, neurodermatitis, sycosis. This remedy is contraindicated in deep wounds, thermal or chemical burns, in childhood, during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as well as in case of individual intolerance.
- "Boric ointment". The effect of this tool is based on the antiseptic properties of boric acid. This local drug is indicated for skin diseases and even some gynecological ones, as well as for parasitic lesions (for example, for pediculosis). Sometimes the ointment is used for external otitis and even conjunctivitis (most often as part of complex therapy). Contraindications include age up to one year, renal failure and acute skin inflammation.
- "Salicylic ointment". The main active ingredient is salicylic acid. This ointment is indicated for skin lesions, dermatological diseases (for example, psoriasis or eczema), calluses, warts, and so on. Application is contraindicated in infancy and in acute renal failure.
Be sure to purchase one of the above tools so that it will always be in your first-aid kit.
Vata. Bandage. Gauze napkins. Patch. Elastic bandage. Gloves. There are always difficulties with these basic necessities. Everyone knows that they should be at home. But, when they are urgently needed, they can not be found. And if cotton can still be found in a beautician, then everything is bad with a bandage and napkins. When you get hurt, you have no time to remember where that lies. You need to take a dressing and stop the blood, so provide a first-aid kit with a stock of the necessary funds.
Think boot covers are not needed? Even as needed. “They called the doctor, but he didn’t take off his shoes”, “The paramedic trodden in the hallway” - you either heard such complaints, or you yourself even pronounced them. Give the doctor and ambulance staff boot covers, this is a penny solution to a painful problem.
4. Painkillers and antipyretics
Paracetamol, ibuprofen, nimesulide are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In the first aid kit you need to add all three drugs. They differ in time of action, anti-inflammatory activity. Practice shows that if the temperature does not fall from paracetamol, then ibuprofen helps, if ibuprofen does not cope, it will save nimesulide. As a remedy for headache and toothache, the drugs help in different ways, depending on the individual tolerance. It is important not to get carried away and not to use all the drugs with an interval of half an hour, and follow the instructions in the instructions and the dosage.
A sharp attack of aching pain can be a symptom of smooth muscle spasm. Most often suffer the head (with tension of blood vessels) and the stomach (with a spasm of the abdominal cavity). One of the safest drugs to help in this case is drotaverine. He has few side effects, the main of which is uncontrolled reception by patients who suppress pain instead of curing the cause of its occurrence.
Stop smearing yourself with green, this is the last century. It is possible to treat a wound so that nothing plucks and leaves no trace of the dye, you can use good antiseptics. For example, chlorhexidine. Antiseptics have many more uses. In the summer, feet and armpits can be treated so that there is no unpleasant smell of sweat. Treat mucous membranes (even with sore throat). Treat surfaces and various objects if they need to be sanitized. Unlike favorite hydrogen peroxide, special antiseptics do not dry the skin. Blood also does not stop, but wounds that are treated without medical intervention will heal this way (with a tight bandage), and if you need stitches, peroxide will not save.
7. Wound healing drugs
Panthenol should be in the form of a spray spray at home. Contrary to popular advice, burns categorically can not be oiled, fat, and all that they love to use grandmothers. A burn is one of the most dangerous injuries that can be healed with great difficulty. And even a special ointment to cause pain. Say thanks to the modern forms of release, which will cope with minor burns and help wait for the doctor if the injury requires the supervision of a doctor.
Panthenol or solcoseryl in the form of ointments and gels will cope with minor household injuries, cuts, abrasions. Even better, as part of panthenol combined with an antiseptic, the same chlorhexidine.
8. A set of medicines "for cold"
Most often, we are ill exactly this way: the nose is stuffed up, we have a sore throat, cough, temperature. The NSAIDs (described above) cope with the heat, for the remaining manifestations of ARVI, symptomatic treatment is used. A set of fixed assets is needed so that you do not have to run to the pharmacy when you most want to lie down under a blanket and just sleep. So, how to escape during the epidemic of acute respiratory infections.
Interferon. Many drugs ending in "-feron" help the body to quickly connect antibodies to the fight against the virus. Store candles and sprays in the refrigerator, otherwise they do not make sense.
Vasoconstrictor nasal drops with oxymetazoline. Have you heard about drug dependence and the perpetual cold, from which only a permanent instillation will save? These are consequences of the use of drugs of the old generation. Modern options allow you to hold out for 5-7 days, burying the drug only twice a day. Result: the virus retreated, the addiction did not appear.
Remedies for sore throat with antiseptics. Tablets and lozenges are taken to numb the pain a bit and relieve swallowing. Some contain antibiotics that cannot be used without medical supervision. Keep your home drugs with antiseptics and enzymes, such as lysozyme. Read the instructions and do not eat for two hours after administration, so that the medicinal substances have time to act.
Antihistamines are used not only to combat allergic reactions. They also help to relieve swelling in case of catarrhal diseases (and at least use vasoconstrictor drops in the nose) and get rid of the itching after insect bites (if you apply ointment with the drug to the bite site). Now there are a lot of means that do not cause drowsiness, made on the basis of suprastin, dimetinden, cetirizine, in convenient forms and in various dosages for children and adults.
Activated carbon - a means, no doubt, time-tested. It helps when they ate something wrong or picked up an intestinal infection. And about the benefits of coal in the excessive use of alcohol tell stories. And still they do not know how to apply it. Drink two black pills a little, drink coal packs! Pleasure is dubious. Meanwhile, intestinal sorbents based on smectite and lignin, which are used one tablet each, appeared.
11. Remedies for constipation
The best remedy for this problem is diet. But the diet will work sometime later, and constipation happens here and now. The problem is solved elementary. On the inside, lactulose syrup acts (which is attributed to infants, but which works best on adults), on the outside - candles with glycerin. No addictive, no side effects.
12. Means for oral rehydration
These are true friends of sorbents and antipyretic drugs. In case of poisoning, diarrhea, vomiting, or at very high temperatures, the body needs to restore the water-salt balance. Problems begin when in this state you do not want to drink. To make an effort and drink one glass of the solution, which will restore strength, is easier than trying to pour compote in liters.
13. Medications for hypertensive patients.
The most dangerous medicine in the home medicine cabinet is captopril, which is now recommended to be used instead of the popular nitroglycerin. If you do not have problems with pressure and blood vessels, captopril should still be: this is a drug that can be given to a patient in case of a hypertensive crisis (one of the most common causes of death in the world) before an ambulance arrives.
Before you buy medicine, study the symptoms of hypertensive crisis.
Algorithm of actions: noticed the symptoms, called an ambulance, laid the patient down, provided him with air flow. If he takes any medications to lower blood pressure, give them. And only if there are no such drugs, put a captopril tablet under the tongue. Important: Tell the ambulance staff that you used. Remember that this is not green and not coal, just like that with “front sight” it is strictly forbidden to distribute captopril.
And what always lies in your first-aid kit "just in case"?
Antiseptic drugs: how they work
Antiseptics - a type of drugs from the group of antibiotics, that is, their main task - to fight against pathogenic bacteria. A really effective medicine from the group of antiseptics is able to cope with various microorganisms perfectly, but they are applied with a few exceptions locally, that is, they are applied to the surface of the skin.
A number of antiseptics prevent bacteria from multiplying, but most of these drugs change various cellular structures of microbes, which leads to their rapid death.
Antiseptics - not harmless drugs. If used incorrectly, they can burn a wound and even cause a painful shock. Therefore, for each of these drugs has its own indications.
Effective drugs from the group of antiseptics
Antiseptic drugs are presented in a very wide list. Among them are very popular among the population (iodine, brilliant green, ethyl alcohol), and those that are known only to medical workers (formaldehyde, mercury solutions, etc.). What medicines from this group are most commonly used in everyday life, and what are the main indications for their application?
- Medicines based on iodine (Iodinol, iodine alcohol solution, iodoform, Lugol solution).
They are used to treat skin diseases in which the process of suppuration is expressed, for the treatment of bedsores, trophic ulcers. Alcohol iodine solution is an effective medicine for treating the edges of the surgical field, but you need to know that if it gets into a deep wound, it can cause tissue necrosis, which means it will heal much longer. Drugs based on iodine are used to treat purulent tonsillitis (it is applied topically to the tonsils with small cotton buds), purulent otitis media (buried directly into the ear canal).
Also, preparations based on iodine are used as such a traditional method of treating various diseases of the muscles, joints and bones, as the “iodine reticulum”. Considering its superficial effect, it is impossible to expect that it will be absorbed deeply into the tissue of muscles and joints, therefore, in this case, its role is rather distracting and annoying. When iodine gets on the skin, it promotes dilation of blood vessels and enhanced blood flow to the site of injury. Thus, microcirculation is improved in this area of tissue, which helps to accelerate recovery.
This is one of the most effective drugs for treating wounds of any size. Unlike iodine, its impact on the affected tissues does not cause burns and necrosis, so you can confidently take it with you on any journey. This drug is suitable for rinsing the mouth with sore throat and viral diseases. Chlorhexidine is widely used in hospitals, both for treating wounds, for disinfecting the hands of medical personnel and for sterilizing instruments.
It is also an excellent remedy for the antiseptic group. Despite the desire of individuals to use it inside, local application of this solution to the skin is much more useful, since it contributes to the rapid destruction of various microorganisms. In addition, in hospitals it is used as a disinfectant for materials and tools. Alcohol sprays are an excellent preparation for antiseptic treatment of hands during an epidemic of viral infections in cases where it is not possible to wash them with soap (at work, in transport, on a trip).
It is used to treat wound edges, minor scratches or abrasions. This is a favorite medicine for many people to use on rash with chicken pox. Numerous studies have shown that the treatment of greens rash with this disease does not affect its prognosis, that is, by and large, it can not be lubricated at all. However, for parents and doctors, the absence of new rough green elements from the morning indicates that the fallout and the transition to the last stage, healing and recovery, cease, and this is a very important fact from the point of view of epidemiology.
An effective medicine that is widely used for treating wounds and burn surfaces, washing the mouth and throat. Unlike most other antiseptics, this drug is used for internal use (gastric lavage in case of poisoning, douching in urology and gynecology).
This medicine can also be applied orally, it is suitable for the treatment of various mucous membranes (respiratory and urinary tract, eyes, oral cavity and pharynx).
For topical application to the skin, it is practically not used (with the exception of insect bites). Однако он может быть крайне полезным для лиц, обладающих повышенной эмоциональной чувствительностью, так как является лекарством первого выбора при обмороках. В больницах это лекарство применяют также для обработки рук хирурга перед операциями или перевязками.
Это эффективное лекарство для обработки ран, особенно если они загрязнены. Its ability to foam allows the wound to quickly be cleansed of earth, sand, shavings or dust, and this helps to quickly remove them from its surface, which has a positive effect on healing. In addition to the skin method of application, hydrogen peroxide is used for washing the organs of the urogenital system, for the treatment of purulent wounds in hospitals.
What drugs from the group of antiseptics should be in the first-aid kit
The question of which drugs from the group of antiseptics need to be stored in your home first-aid kit is very important. Trauma is never planned, so these drugs are almost always urgently needed. If the wound occurred at night, then there is a high probability that all the nearest pharmacies will be closed. Therefore, the availability of these drugs should be taken care of in advance. So, what kind of medicine you should always have on hand:
- Hydrogen peroxide,
- Iodine-based drugs,
- Potassium permanganate,
- Brilliant green,
Other antiseptic drugs are prescribed by doctors for certain diseases, so their long-term storage at home is undesirable. Be sure to follow their shelf life and storage conditions. Sometimes initially effective medicine can be completely useless if it is stored incorrectly.
Probably the most frequent ailments that happen to us are various pains. It should be remembered that we are all different and we have different sensitivity to pain, therefore, for example, with menstrual pain the same drug helps one person and another does not. Also, there is probably no such drug that would help with all types of pain. Therefore, in a home first aid kit, you must have several types of painkillers.
The most common and familiar painkillers for many are analgin and aspirin. which possess besides anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties. But these drugs are the drugs of the old generation and have a lot of negative side effects, so it’s best to use paracetamol or his analogue efferalgan. which has a loading dose of paracetamol.
In addition to these drugs:
- Spazmalgon applied for various pains caused by spasms, including headache and menstrual pain.
- Citramon and other caffeinated drugs help with headaches and low blood pressure.
- Smecta and Espumizan used for pain in the abdomen.
But it should be remembered that the use of painkillers for abdominal pain is possible only when we know the exact cause of the pain. What if it is appendicitis or other similar disorders? Then, it is impossible to do without surgery, and it is impossible to take painkillers.
- No-shpa is an old drug of complex action and is used for cramps in the intestines, liver, kidneys.
- Ketanov, Buscopan helps with menstrual pain.
- Tempalgin, baralgin - with toothache.
- Drugs have a comprehensive analgesic effect. wobenzym and no-spa forte .
Experts advise to have painkillers with a different active ingredient in a home first aid kit, as it is sometimes necessary to use them together or alternately to achieve the best effect.
In addition to the listed drugs, it is good to have in your first-aid kit painkillers and anti-inflammatory drops :
- Apizartron, viprosal (with venom of bees and snakes), as well as finalgon, fastum gel, final-gel, etc. in the form of ointments and gels relieve the condition for back and joint pains, are used for bruises and sprains.
- Otinum, otofa is used for inflammation of the middle ear and earache.
Remedies for colds and flu
Another group of diseases that often occur in the family is a variety of colds, flu, sore throat, bronchitis, etc. Here it is also necessary to have in the home first-aid kit a number of drugs of different directions.
- Paracetamol (Panadol, Efferalgan, Coldrex), Analginum with aspirin (Upsarin Upsa, Askofen P) - antipyretic drugs.
- Ibuprofen and nimesulide have anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effects.
- Pinosol is the least harmful remedy for rhinitis. Also for these purposes already known naftizin, sanorin, etc. are widely used. By the way, the last two drugs are also used for allergic rhinitis.
- Stoptussin, Bromhexin, Zedex, Ambrobene help with various types of cough. Also for these purposes, you can buy a chest collection, which includes herbs.
- Mukaltin, Ambroxol are used for better sputum discharge, in severe cases, ACC can be used.
- Lollipops Faringosept, Strepsils relieve sore throat.
- Theraflu and anti-flu are drugs that relieve cold and flu symptoms. Of course, it's great when you get such relief, and the tormenting symptoms of a cold go away. But do not forget that only the symptoms have passed, and for a while, and not the disease itself. Therefore, with the relief of the state in no case should not run to work.
In addition to all of the above, in the home first aid kit should be put:
- several gauze masks to avoid infection during patient care,
- inhaler for inhalation,
- Flupferon or oxolinic ointment, so as not to get the flu during an epidemic.
Heart and sedatives
In the home first aid kit must be present sedatives. Usually this:
- Corvalol / Valocordin - can also be used as a sleeping pill,
- motherwort or valerian tincture,
- Novo-passit - a modern drug, relieves anxiety.
By the way, Valocordin or its analogue Corvalol is not a heart drug, as many people think, its effect is rather sedative, although the heart and nerves are often known to be interconnected.
In case of pain in the heart in the home kit should be put:
- tincture of valerian,
- tincture of lily of the valley,
Nitroglycerin, aspirin cardio, etc. are also used to relieve angina attacks.
Although many scold validol that it is already outdated and does not help at all, from my own experience I can say that it relieves well the spasms of the blood vessels of the head, and also helps to better endure strong heat and high humidity.
For many, even completely healthy people, the pressure may rise. The most harmless and gentle remedy is raunatin. More powerful drugs for the relief of hypertensive crises are captopril and nifedipine. But if you are worried about the pressure, your doctor must pick up the pills!
Means for the stomach and intestines
In order to not have an upset stomach or heartburn, it is also necessary to equip the first-aid kit with some drugs for the most common ailments of the stomach and intestines.
- Festal, enzistal or mezim forte - after a rich meal to improve digestion.
- Smecta, enterodez, ultra-adsorb or activated carbon - adsorbents, are used in various poisonings, as well as in indigestion.
- Reglan or regidron eliminate nausea and vomiting, help with severe diarrhea.
- Phosphalugel, Maalox, Reni, Gastal, etc. - for heartburn. On the means of traditional medicine, with which you can relieve heartburn attacks, you can read in my article Treatment of heartburn at home. Folk remedies for heartburn.
- Atselakt, espumizan help with disorders, as well as bloating, rumbling in the stomach and gas.
- Ersefuril or Intrix - with a bacterial infection.
- Senade, bisacodyl, regulac - with constipation.
- Linex, Linex Bio or Hilak Forte help to improve the condition of the intestinal microflora.
Funds for wounds, burns
In the home first aid kit, a set of tools is needed for use in various injuries, wounds, burns, etc. which happen always unexpectedly.
- Iodine (5% alcohol solution) or 1-2% alcohol solution of brilliant green is used to treat wound edges and minor scratches. You can replace iodic pencil.
- Chlorhexidine, Miramistin can serve as a more modern replacement for iodine and brilliant green, do not stain the skin and do not cause burning.
- Hydrogen peroxide 3% is used to stop bleeding, in the form of a solution for various rinses and washes.
- Boric acid, drinking soda (0.5-2% aqueous solution), potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) are also used as a solution for various rinses and washes. In addition, potassium permanganate is used to wash the stomach in case of poisoning.
- Panthenol (D-Panthenol, dexpanthenol) is used to heal various wounds and burns. You can supplement it with acerbine in the form of a spray or sulfargin.
- A set of corn patches.
- Eye drops of the “artificial tear” type are used when drying, as well as when a foreign body enters the eye.
- Sulfacyl sodium (30% solution) is used for infections, injuries of the eye, when a foreign body enters the eye.
- Saline - a universal remedy, can be used for various washes, including eye wash.
In addition, complement the set with the following essential components:
- cotton wool (sterile and non-sterile),
- bandages of various widths (sterile and non-sterile),
- individual dressing packages,
- napkins gauze sterile,
- bactericidal and simple adhesive plaster
- cotton swabs for treating wounds with antiseptics,
- spatulas for lubrication,
- hemostatic sponge to stop bleeding,
- elastic bandages,
- rubber fingertips.
The kit of home remedies can be supplemented with the following drugs:
- Traksevazin gel, hirudo, detralex relieve fatigue and swelling of the legs. The drug hirudovenes is composed of leech saliva extract. You can read about the benefits of leeches in my article Hirudotherapy. Treatment with leeches.
- Teymurov's paste is applied from sweating feet.
- Klenzit C ointment is used to eliminate acne and acne.
In addition to the composition of the home kit should include the following components:
- mustard plasters - are used not only for colds, but also for angina,
- compress paper or polyethylene - used for compresses,
- rubber gloves,
- medical alcohol (96%),
- ammonia - used for syncope,
- a tonometer (apparatus for measuring pressure) is recommended to everyone after 40 years,
- a thermometer, including a bathroom (if necessary),
- various disposable syringes,
- pipettes (including ophthalmic),
- medical banks,
- syringes of various sizes,
- measuring cups for taking medicines of various sizes,
- petroleum jelly,
- hot-water bottle with rubber tubes and tips,
- oilcloth litter,
- ice bubble
- medical tweezers,
- blunt scissors.
The first-aid kit for drugs. What else you need to pay attention
If any family member suffers from any chronic disease, then the composition of the home first aid kit must be supplemented with appropriate medications.
When planning a trip, creating a first aid kit for a holiday or a summer residence, pay close attention to the availability of the pharmacy and include additional medicines in your home first aid kit.
For children, you need to have a special children's first aid kit.
Do not forget from time to time to do an audit of your first-aid kit and check the shelf life of drugs in its composition.
For the soul, we will listen today ERNESTO CORTAZAR - Les Feuilles Mortes (Autumn Leaves) A famous theme, as Ernesto Cortazar sees it ... Magically ...
Our husband is in charge of the first-aid kit. And we have it more than full, unfortunately. I believe that it would be better to get rid of a number of drugs, switching to traditional medicine, and it’s best to do without any drugs at all, working on your own states of consciousness. The world has already received the first patent in the field of medicine "Changes in states of consciousness-the impact on health" (patent obtained by the Academy of Consciousness Development (St. Petersburg, genodrevo.ru)
How many things. I do not have half. It seems only paracetamol and then it may be expired. Activated carbon is in case of poisoning and I drink it so for prevention. Zelenka and iodine course there. Plaster and bandage with cotton wool. And we buy medicines by necessity, but this is rare. Why buy them for the future, if you can at any time buy fresh from the pharmacy? They are now very expensive. I do not do stocks.
I still have a first-aid kit, which I always carry in my purse. Let not always I need it, but there are situations when medicines are needed by someone else. There I always have heart, painkillers, antispasmodics, medicines for diarrhea and high blood pressure, a plaster.
And I was all right, just as it coincided with the article. All drugs and components turned out to be in my first-aid kit. Straight proud! What a good mistress I am!
Thank you for the article! You inspired me to reconsider your first-aid kit home - what’s missing in it and what time it is time to throw it away!
Thank you Irina for such a useful article ... it’s good that everything is in one place so ... From my personal experience I’ll add, or rather, I’ll share my opinion: when I have children, I drank amoxicillin for children and, of course, herbal teas with honey it goes without saying, the disease quickly retreated for 2-3 days ... And this medicine was always in the first-aid kit, And you know, it really saved that the disease did not take a long time. And now it’s a pity that such antibiotics are sold only by prescription, and until you reach the doctor, the disease can already be overcome with full force, and it will be harder for medicines to deal with the disease ... and not always help. Therefore, I think he also does not interfere in the first-aid kit.
Of the antibiotics, I advise only one to buy - this is Doxycycline. This is the most-most reliable and without side effects, besides the cheapest (a pack of 20 capsules of 100 mg costs only 25 rubles).
And also in the first-aid kit it is absolutely necessary and necessary to have contraceptives Both male and female.
Doxycycline is very good to take (it constantly helps me in the winter), when the root of the teeth is inflamed, swelling, bleeding gums ... There are its analogues, which are mainly prescribed by dentists, but they are expensive ... But we also have those and others in pharmacies Now they are sold strictly by prescription ...
And at the expense of amoxicillin, its effect is a bit different, and we take it exactly at the beginning of a wave of a cold disease ... And for little children, the same thing, just another name - flemoxin solyutab.
As for male contraceptives say. This is my trick. Therefore, I am glad, Anna, that you have also touched them here. My stable mandatory standard of condom consumption - 10 pieces daily (daily), no less! We include them in your home kit
What are antiseptics?
Antiseptics are often confused with antibiotics. Indeed, according to the main indications, these substances are similar, and both are used to suppress the vital activity of pathogenic microorganisms. The division between them is very conditional, but still it is wrong to consider them analogues.
Usually, antiseptic substances are those that are used only externally in the form of solutions, gels or ointments directly in the focus of inflammation. Antibiotics can also be used both inside and outside.
Basically, antiseptic ointments are prescribed:
- For the treatment of any inflammation on the skin, including purulent nature.
- When infected, inflamed wounds, burns or frostbite.
- With poorly healing lesions of the skin and mucous membranes, for example, with trophic ulcers or bedsores.
- For the treatment of postoperative sutures.
In addition to the main effect, most antiseptic ointments relieve inflammation, swelling, have an analgesic effect and help damage to the skin to heal faster.
The composition of antiseptic ointments can be very different and include both synthetic and natural components. Most of them can be purchased at the pharmacy on their own, but there are also those that are strictly on prescription.
For minor injuries, these drugs can be used independently, for severe injuries, they can be used as an adjunct to the main treatment. Conventionally, the whole variety of the range of ointments can be divided by its composition into two large groups.
With one component
Most antiseptic ointments belong to this group, that is, it contains one active ingredient. The list of such drugs is quite extensive, but ointments such as are most often used:
- Naftaderm - contains naphthalan oil. In addition to anti-inflammatory and wound-healing effects, it also has antipruritic effect. Contraindications during pregnancy and lactation in this ointment is not, but it is better to use it in these situations after consulting a doctor.
- Miramistin - contains in its composition a substance that affects not only bacteria in the activity phase, but also their spores. It has antifungal activity, making it effective for mixed infections caused by bacteria and fungi. It is used to treat wounds and burns, including severe ones.
- Dioxidine is an ointment that has bactericidal activity against bacteria that are insensitive to other antibiotics. It is used to cleanse purulent-necrotic wounds and burns. It is contraindicated for pregnant women, as it has teratogenic and embryotoxic effects, as well as during lactation.
- Salicylic Ointment - contains salicylic acid. In addition to the anti-inflammatory effect, it has the ability to soften the horny skin particles. Поэтому используется не только для лечения воспалений на коже, но и при жирной себорее, псориазе, ихтиозе и отрубевидном лишае.
- Zinc ointment - contains zinc, which is a good antiseptic, and additionally has an astringent and drying effect. Typically, this ointment is used to relieve a small inflammation on the skin, especially when diaper rash, as well as for minor household cuts and wounds. Contraindications for ointment is not, it can be used even in infants.
- Betadine as an active ingredient contains polyvidone iodine - an antiseptic, which is effective not only for infected wounds and burns, but also for fungal infections. However, it has many contraindications. In particular, it cannot be used for problems with the thyroid gland, with some types of dermatitis, during late pregnancy, during lactation and in newborns. The ointment is incompatible with other antiseptic agents.
- Argosulfan (Sulfargin) - contains a compound of silver, which has a bacteriostatic effect on bacteria, and also stimulates the healing process even in the case of purulent and trophic wounds. Use at pregnancy, during feeding and to children since two months is possible.
Such medicines contain in their composition two or more main active components. Usually one of them is antiseptic, and the second is a substance that is able to accelerate the healing process of damaged skin. The most popular combined antiseptic ointments are:
- Bepanten plus contains two active ingredients: chlorhexidine, which has an antiseptic effect and dexpanthenol, which speeds up the healing of skin lesions. It is used for minor injuries as well as for the treatment of postoperative or chronic wounds, trophic ulcers and bedsores. Allowed for the treatment of pregnant and lactating women and young children.
- Eplan - an ointment which also includes two active ingredients: bacteriostatic ethyl carbitol and glycol, which enhance regenerative functions. The drug has no contraindications and can be used for quite a long time without any restrictions.
- Vishnevsky ointment is an antibacterial, astringent that contains xeroform, birch tar and castor oil. It is used to treat wounds, burns, suppurations and skin ulcers. Not suitable for use in people with impaired renal function.
Most antiseptic ointments can be purchased at a pharmacy without a doctor's prescription. However, for severe, poorly healing injuries, especially those accompanied by inflammation of the skin, it is better to first consult with your doctor.
In order to maximize the effect of the ointment, you need to apply it correctly. Of course, if this is a small cut, then no difficulties will arise. In this case, you can simply apply ointment to the wound and close with adhesive tape or bandage. If the wound is deep, but still contaminated, then in this case:
- Before applying the ointment, the wound should be treated with an antiseptic solution, for example, Chlorhexidine.
- If the wound bleeds, then before applying the ointment, it must be treated with hydrogen peroxide.
- The product can be applied in a thin layer directly on the wound, or it can be impregnated with a sterile gauze cloth and applied on top.
- The bandage must be changed in accordance with the instructions, from one to three times a day.
Some ointments require special storage conditions. Keep them in a cool, protected from sunlight exposure place.
What is an antiseptic?
Immediately turn to the Greek translation of the term: anti - against, septikos - putrid. And an antiseptic is really called any agent that can fight bacteria caused by decomposition processes, and also serves as a preventive measure against their reproduction.
Antiseptics were known in antiquity. Embalming of corpses was carried out with means preventing rotting, otherwise some finds would not have survived to contemporaries. But antiseptic agents became popularized only from the middle of the 19th century, when the first trials of carrying out operations with carbolic acid began.
By the way! Antiseptics are not used to heal wounds, but to disinfect them, i.e. to destroy the infection and prevent inflammation.
Today antiseptics are used not only in medicine, but also in other spheres. For example, in the woodworking industry to soak the wood in order to avoid the development of putrefactive processes. Logs for the bath, which will constantly be in a humid environment, will definitely need pre-treatment with antiseptic impregnation. So, what are antiseptics?
9 best antiseptics
Carbolic acid, which was first used as an antiseptic for the body, is not used today because of its danger. In fact, it is a harmful phenol, which in large quantities can cause poisoning. But for 150 years many different antiseptics have been invented that meet all the necessary requirements, namely:
- wide spectrum of action (against microbes, parasites, fungi),
- small latent period of action,
- no irritating effect
- not absorbed into the blood,
- do not inhibit the regenerative properties of tissues,
- optimal organoleptic properties (do not cause unpleasant and painful sensations).
At least 9 antiseptics that are considered the most effective and affordable, meet all these requirements to varying degrees.
Medical solution containing 95-96% ethanol (ethanol) is considered a universal antiseptic and is used to prepare various antiseptics. The mechanism of action of alcohols is the destruction of cells of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as most fungi and parasites.
The antiseptic effect of ethyl alcohol does not last long. As soon as the alcohol evaporates (30-40 seconds), the action stops. But usually it is enough to destroy the most active microbes. Small fresh wounds and cuts are primarily treated with ethanol, but it cannot be used constantly. Alcohol dries the skin and with frequent use can cause microtraumas. The cost of one bottle of ethanol (100 ml) is small: about 30 rubles.
Furatsilina aqueous solution
Furacilin is a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent. Apply it more often in the form of an aqueous solution, although it is possible to prepare it with alcohol. Furatsilina aqueous solution is good to use for the treatment of wounds and sores on the mucous membrane: in the mouth, nose, vagina. But as a skin antiseptic, it works fine (ulcers, burns).
Furacilin is sold in the form of ready-made solutions (60-70 rubles per 100 ml), tablets that need to be ground into powder before dissolving (80-90 rubles per 10 pcs.), As well as effervescent self-dissolving tablets (110-120 rubles for 10 pcs. ).
This is the so-called antiseptic antioxidant, which when in contact with the skin releases oxygen. This is indicated by bubbles that appear when the peroxide is applied to the wound. The more bubbles, the stronger the pollution. Wound treatment with hydrogen peroxide is very effective in postoperative sutures, since the foam that forms is automatically washing away dirt without requiring rubbing of the wound.
Despite the apparent aggressiveness of hydrogen peroxide, it is a rather mild antiseptic, which can also be used for mucous membranes. For example, they can moisten a cotton swab and enter into the nostril to stop bleeding and treat the damaged vessel. At the same time, it is an excellent drying agent. The cost of a bottle of peroxide (10 ml) is about 40 rubles.
Potassium permanganate solution
Possesses antimicrobial and disinfecting action, thanks to the oxidizing ability of manganese. Potassium permanganate is used to treat wounds, ulcers, burns. But it is important to prepare just a weak solution, because a highly concentrated can cause a chemical burn of the skin.
At home, it is not recommended to use potassium permanganate because of the lack of knowledge of the exact concentration for certain wounds and non-compliance with the technique of its preparation. But a little pink water is suitable, for example, for wetting a dried dressing. In the pharmacy, potassium permanganate is sold as burgundy crystals and is called “Potassium permanganate”. The cost of a five-gram bubble is 60-70 rubles.
Good old antiseptic, which is in almost every home. A 5% solution is used to treat wounds, although in some cases it is necessary to dilute it to a less concentrated one. Iodine well handle fresh cuts and shallow wounds.
It is not recommended to use iodine solution for treating wounds received more than 5 days ago, as well as acne, pressure sores and thermal burns. Also, iodine should be used with caution to people suffering from endocrine diseases. 10 ml of iodine costs only 10-15 rubles.
Brilliant green solution
Or simply brilliant green, which is so disliked in the United States, believing that it is toxic. But in Russia this antiseptic is the most popular. Perhaps, there is no person who never faced brilliant green. It has an excellent antimicrobial effect, but it does not damage tissue and does not cause burns, such as iodine. The content of ethyl alcohol in Zelenka makes the antiseptic even more effective to use for both fresh and old wounds.
The solution of diamond greens is able to fight not only with gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, but also with dangerous Staphylococcus aureus and diphtheria bacillus. Another plus green stuff: the ability to stimulate tissue regeneration. And this is the cheapest antiseptic: the cost of a bottle (10 ml) is 10 rubles. Against the background of all the advantages, there is only one minus: a rich green color that washes off for a very long time. And in order not to soil oneself and everything around with green paint, you can use a special pencil, not a standard bottle. It costs 50-60 rubles.
Otherwise, it is called “red zelenka”, although its properties are somewhat different from the properties of a brilliant green solution. In the composition of Fukortsin there is also ethyl alcohol, and also there is boric acid and phenol. Therefore, it should be used with caution.
Fukortsin is used for disinfecting wounds, preventing their suppuration and stopping the process that has already begun. Suitable for the treatment of purulent and fungal skin diseases. It is used for abrasions, erosive wounds, pimples on the face. The cost of a bottle of Fucorcin (25 ml) is about 40 rubles.
Antiseptic, which is rarely found in the home first aid kit, because it is not universal. Chlorhexidine digluconate (or as it is called more simply - Chlorhexidine) is prescribed by a doctor, and in a certain concentration.
For example, for rinsing the throat and washing the nose, 0.05% is used, and for treating wounds on the skin a more concentrated solution is needed: from 0.1 to 0.5%. Chlorhexidine is good for purulent wounds and burns. It is suitable for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (a solution of 0.1% can be treated genitals).
Important! For open wounds and mucous used an aqueous solution of chlorhexidine. Alcoholic surgeons use the same for wiping hands before surgery, processing tools and instruments.
Depending on the concentration of chlorhexidine, it is able to fight certain types of bacteria and infections. The cost of a bottle of a 0.05% aqueous solution costs less than 10 rubles per 100 ml. Alcohol costs 10-15 rubles more.
Universal antiseptic, which appeared relatively recently and immediately became popular. Its basis is complex monohydrate. Those who once tried Miramistin rarely return to other means. It has a very wide spectrum of action, it fights well against infections of the throat, nose, and genital tract, and is suitable for treating sutures. Plus, the fact that it is absolutely tasteless and does not pinch, even if you treat heavy and deep wounds.
Minus Miramistin - its price. This is the most expensive antiseptic previously presented. A 150 ml bottle costs 340-350 rubles. But it is economically used, thanks to the spray nozzle.
There are also antiseptic ointments that also work effectively (Ichthyol ointment, Vishnevsky ointment, Tetracycline, Erythromycin, Levomekol, etc.) and antibacterial powders for wounds (Gentaxan, Baneotsin, Streptocid, Xeroform, Galagran).
How to treat an open wound
Antiseptic treatment requires any, even a minor wound. The cat was scratched, the burr came off, damaged during shaving - it is necessary to treat the wound to avoid infection and gangrene development. There are cases where neglect has led to serious consequences, and, for example, because of extruded and untreated pimple infection has entered the body.
After receiving a wound (any damage to the skin that caused the bleeding), you should immediately eliminate any contact with it. Then take an antiseptic and apply it to the wound with a piece of cotton or a bandage, or simply spray the tool. Then, if the damage is serious, you should consult a doctor. If it is not serious, you can stick a patch on top or tape it up.
Attention! Before treating a deep wound with an antiseptic, you must stop abundant bleeding. This is done by compressing the bandage or by pulling the vessel with a harness according to all the rules for first aid.
It turns out that of the nine listed antiseptics, it is optimal to use Miramistin, Zelenka or hydrogen peroxide. These are the three most versatile tools that meet the maximum number of requirements. They perfectly disinfect wounds, do not cause pain in the victim, do not cause irritation and toxic poisoning of the body.