Tonight we moved the clock an hour ahead - the Sun began to rise earlier, and therefore we will wake earlier. And before that, around the time of the autumnal equinox, that is, half a year ago, we transferred the time to an hour ago and slept an hour longer, since then the Sun rose later. If you draw a three-dimensional model of the Earth in four different key events - the spring equinox, the summer solstice, the autumn equinox and the winter solstice, then you will find that
1) during the vernal equinox, day and night are equalized - that is, on the Earth rotating around its axis, we, moving with it at our latitude, make half the way during the day, and half at night - the shadow cast by the Earth (and there will always be night) during its rotation around the Sun throughout the year, it will close the same amount of our spiral movement in time and space (ether / vacuum) for a day, that is, one revolution of the Earth around its axis.
2) When the summer solstice comes, then only 1/3 of the day is night and 2/3 of the day is day. That is, in space and time, we, together with the Earth, are already making 1/3 more of our daily journey than in the 1st case - that is, 2/3.
3) During the autumn equinox, the day, gradually decreasing, begins to equalize with the night, as in the 1st case.
4) And finally, at the time of the winter solstice, the day for us is only 1/3 of the total daily journey, and the night is 2/3 days.
In other words, in winter and summer time for us goes in different ways - due to the biochemistry of the human body: the hormone serotonin is produced during the day by the light of the Sun, is responsible for energy, vigor and joyful state of the body, and melotonin is formed at night from serotonin when there is no light and irritating sounds - in a dream. Melatonin is responsible for rest, recovery of the body, recovery from ailments.
Since in winter, serotonin is produced least of all, you have to wake people an hour later when transferring hours. While in the summer it produces a maximum of serotonin - you can wake up earlier. The sun rises earlier. But in this way, we fool our body by knocking down natural solar biorhythms 2 times a year.
Manipulations with time can also be found in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, counting 12 months a year with a different number of days in each and a shift of 13 days. From an astronomical point of view, it would be correct to consider 13 months a year, since The moon makes one revolution around the Earth - a month - in 27-29 Earth days, more precisely - in almost 28 days. During the same time, the moon makes one revolution around its axis - But the moon also rotates around its axis - did you not know? Not for nothing, the period of 7 days is called the week and in the monthly cycle of 4 weeks - during this time the phase of the moon changes to 1/4. For a full lunar cycle - a month - the Moon passes the 4th cycle from the new moon to the 2nd quarter, to the full moon and vice versa - the 3rd quarter to the new moon.
Winter and summer time
Delve into the terms. So what is summer and winter time?
Winter time, in fact, is correct from an astronomical point of view, that is, it corresponds to the one that operates on a particular belt. That is, in principle, the definition of "winter time" from a scientific point of view is not entirely correct. It would be more correct to say "normal time".
Summer time differs from winter time (that is, astronomical) by one hour in a large direction (that is, to switch to summer time, the clock is moved one hour ahead). Such a calculation helps, as many believe, to rationally use energy resources and replace them with daylight sunlight.
Many consider the transition to winter time unjustified. The fact is that summertime allows you to spend mostly daylight, which undoubtedly leads to savings and reduces energy costs.
But the return to winter time is only necessary so that people feel more comfortable. If the transition did not take place back, we would be forced to wake up and see the darkness outside the window, and this is for many very, very painful.
In some countries, they still cannot decide on time and decide which calculation will be more convenient for the people and correct from the point of view of economy.
A bit of history
The history of the transfer of time goes back to the beginning of the last century. So, for the first time, the watch hands were translated in the UK in 1908. And, in general, the idea itself occurred to Benjamin Franklin.
Why was this needed? The main goal of all manipulations with watch hands was the rational use of energy resources and their economy. So, if it gets dark later in the winter, people will turn on the lighting later, and the energy consumption will decrease. In the US, the transfer of time began in 1918.
As for Russia, for the first time the transition to summer time was made in 1917. But in the same year the transition to winter time was made. Then several more attempts were made to adjust the time, but all of them, as the government considered, were unsuccessful.
Then in 1930, the arrows decided not to disturb, and everyone lived on the decree time, which is correct from the point of view of dividing into time zones. But the idea of saving resources appeared again in 1981.
How was it done before?
Are there any rules for translating hours that are mandatory for all countries of the world? No, there are none. Each country sets its own rules. Usually, the transition to summer time is carried out in spring, and in winter - in autumn. But the specific numbers for different parts of the world are different.
It is worth noting that not all countries translate time. Only about a third make the transition twice a year. The rest do not bother themselves and live like they used to live without worrying about saving.
In Russia, the transition to summer time until recently carried out on the last Sunday of March. The transition to winter time was made on the last Sunday of October. Similarly acted in Ukraine. Approximately in the same way acted in other countries, there were only differences in dates.
Many could not remember exactly where and when it was necessary to translate the arrows. Some residents of Russia, for example, knew a small, but very useful trick that helped to quickly navigate. Thus, the word “autumn” (the transition to winter time was made in autumn) begins with the letter “O”.
At this time of the year we translate the arrows back. The word "back", as we see, also begins with the letter "O". Now we deal with summer time. The transition to it is carried out in the spring. The first letter of the word "spring" is "B." Arrows translate forward. The word "forward" also begins with "B."
Bills on the abolition of transitions were created and considered more than once, but each time they were rejected. In Russia, it was so until 2011. On February 8 of this year, Dmitry Medvedev, who at that time was the president of the Russian Federation, instructed the government to stop switching the switch and transitions from summer time to winter time and back.
A corresponding law was prepared, which entered into force on August 6, 2011. Thus, the transition to summer time was carried out on March 27 of that year, and he was the last. And this led to the fact that in Russia the time differs from the lap time by 1 hour (in some regions by two hours).
In Ukraine, too, attempts were made to cancel the transitions. In the same 2011, the deputies proposed to cancel the transfer of hours. The Verkhovna Rada adopted the relevant resolution, but canceled its action in the same year.
On the one hand, the abolition of transitions - it is very convenient, because you do not need to remember when they transfer the time to winter time, and then to summer time. But most of the population of the Russian Federation belongs to the middle class. Working people are forced to wake up early. And with this calculation, every morning of winter is incredibly dark.
And the human body is a unique system. Biological clocks work in such a way that in the dark time of the day all systems function slowly. So many have expressed dissatisfaction. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, who is currently the president of the country, has repeatedly been approached by those who spoke in favor of switching to normal time, that is, winter time.
The amendments were planned to be made in 2013, but because of the planned Olympics, this did not work out. The fact is that if a transition were made, then the program would have to be changed, which would entail huge fines for penalties.
The President of Russia took into account the majority opinion (about 50% of respondents reported that the condition worsened due to the transition to summer time) and decided to make amendments. On July 21 of this year, he signed and approved the law “On the calculation of time”, according to which summer time, according to which everyone lives at the moment, will actually be canceled.
So, on October 26, 2014, in most regions of the Russian Federation, the arrows will be moved back an hour. In some regions, such a transition will not be, since there time so corresponds to the zone time. And in the Magadan region and Trans-Baikal Territory, a 2-hour translation will be made.
In Ukraine, they also decided to change the calculus. But they will live there by summer time. On the last Sunday of March 2014, everyone will translate the hands of the clock an hour ahead. After that, no manipulations with the clock will not be carried out. What number will all need to do? On the night of March 29-30.
It remains only to wish everyone well-being. And let it be independent of time!
Dates change the time by an hour back and forth in 2018
Europe switches the clock to summer time one hour ahead of 03/25/2018. This does not apply only to Belarus, Russia and Iceland, which have canceled the change of the mode of time. The conversion of the clock hands usually occurs between 1:00 and 4:00. Such a change in time allows an increase in the “length of daylight in the evening” and, accordingly, has a positive effect on labor productivity, although this fact is controversial .. Since this happens on the last night from Saturday to Sunday of the month, dates change every year.
28.10.2018, at 2.00 am, the transition to winter time will be carried out. The clock hands must be moved back an hour. In order to remember exactly where to translate the clock hands - forward or backward, there is a saying: “forward in spring, back in autumn” (spring forward in spring, fall back in fall).
At the moment, only 100 countries out of 192 translate the clock hands twice a year. For example, on the African continent, only 3 countries change the hourly mode. The rest consider it inexpedient to change the hourly mode, and the governments of others have never even thought about whether or not to switch the clock. In Australia, Canada and the United States, watches translate only partially, some regions or cities.
Russia in 2014 stopped changing the hourly mode, this practice now applies throughout the Russian Federation.
How does time translation affect a person?
In the spring, when time is reduced by an hour, a person automatically lacks 60 minutes. In winter, on the contrary, everyone has an extra hour of sleep. Until now, there are discussions all over the world regarding the extent to which hours are translated per person.
So, supporters of the translation insist that the transfer of hours in the winter time can reduce the number of accidents on the roads and save electricity, which is important in the cold season.
Some hypersensitive to the slightest personality changes suffer from a lack of sleep, especially when they switch the clock to summer time. But, as a rule, it passes after a day or two. In winter, this does not cause significant inconvenience, as there is an extra hour to devote it to your favorite business, or do morning exercises or soak once more in a warm bed.
There are also opponents of this idea, who every year insist on the inexpediency of transferring hours, since this negatively affects both the person and his activity. Due to these reasons, many countries abolished the hourly change in 1992. These include Belarus, Moldova, Azerbaijan.
In order to avoid the negative impact of modification and the amount of time in days, it is necessary to prepare your body for this process in advance. So, a week before the spring time transfer it is worth getting up 30 minutes earlier than usual. Thus, the organism will gradually be reconstructed by the new time. Going to bed is also worth it early. This will allow the whole body to relax more, and then the person will wake up full of energy and strength.
Does the clock translate automatically on modern gadgets?
All gadgets, including phones, smartphones and computer equipment that has an Internet connection, automatically time-out. Therefore, the question: “What is the date for switching the clock to summer time?” - is purely informational. Modern technology does it all for the person. In 2018, the transition to summer time will occur on March 25, and in winter - on October 28.
On the eve of the transition to summer time, many Russians are confident that in 2018 the transfer of time will definitely return to Russia. So far, in response to this question, as every year, at the level of discussions, the authorities have not officially declared anything.
Who first proposed to transfer watches?
The idea of when to transfer clocks and why it is needed was first put forward in 1784 by Benjamin Franklin. The essay “Economic Project”, written by Franklin at 78, was considered amusing, although he clearly explained his proposal and confirmed it with facts. In his opinion, the summer time translation was necessary for people to spend less on expensive candles and artificial lighting, and could simply continue their work in daylight. Benjamin confirmed all his conclusions in the essay by averaging numbers that clearly indicate cost savings. Then no one took this idea into account, as he considered it a funny trick of a “sick and aged” person.
Subsequently, the transfer of hours forward or backward, depending on the season, was proposed by William Willett in 1907. Relying on his research, Willett suggested shifting the clock 80 minutes ahead in April and 80 minutes back in September. But for the first time the translation of the clock, as it is now, took place in 1916. During the Second World War, the clock was transferred only on May 21, since they forgot to do it in April.
Why do clocks still translate and how to protect yourself from the effects of time shifts
An extra hour for sleep and a week of stress for the body! This Sunday, Ukraine switches to winter time. The hands of the clock now translate more than 110 countries of the world. Next year, almost 28 European countries will stop changing time. Ukraine still can not make such a decision. Why the clock hands are still being translated and how to protect themselves from the effects of changing time - see Snidanko right now.
Many people around the world complain that the transition to summer time has a negative impact on their physical condition and mental health. In the fall, the body is again under stress. After all, it rains and cold, the reduction of daylight hours and the lack of vitamins is difficult to survive.
Studies have shown that in the first days after switching the hands to winter time, the number of heart attacks, suicides and accidents on the roads increases sharply. Doctors recommend in the first days after the transition to winter time to avoid stressful situations and important matters. Will help to adapt a healthy sleep. A full breakfast and morning walk will help the body "turn on" the right time. Also during this period, doctors recommend avoiding daytime sleep and not drinking coffee in the afternoon. Some people may need a week to adapt after changing the clock.
In Ukraine, the time is changed twice a year - on the last Sunday of March, they switch to summer time, and on the last Sunday of October - to winter time. In 2011, there was an attempt to cancel the transition to summer-winter time., but then this decision was canceled due to complaints from residents of Western Ukraine (they say, in the morning when you have to go to work, to school or kindergarten, it’s still very dark outside), and also because of the holding of Euro 2012 football in Ukraine.
Translation of hours 2018 - when we transfer time in 2018:
Since the universal establishment of Soviet power in 1919 until the collapse of the Soviet Union, and later on the territory of modern Russia, the time on the clock was transferred twice a year. In the spring, the hands were moved by one hour to make the time summer, and in the fall they carried out a reverse translation operation, so that time would become winter again.
However, now (and in 2018, too) the RF law on the transfer of time twice a year has been repealed. Translate the hands on the clock (and change the time on electronic devices) in 2018, the Russians do not need. Therefore, the answer to the question "When we translate time in 2018 in Russia "- NEVER.
* В 2018 году время в России не переводится!
(Исключение составляет город Волгоград и Волгоградская область, где на референдуме 18 марта 2018 года большинство жителей проголосовало за перевод стрелок на 1 час вперед. Перевод часов в регионе утвержден Госдумой и будет осуществлен в конце октября 2018 года, в ночь с субботы 27 октября 2018 года на воскресенье 28 октября 2018 года).
Когда переводят время в 2018 году в остальных странах:
If the time transfer in hours in 2018 is not carried out in Russia, in some other countries (for example, in Ukraine), this must be done twice during 18 years.
Translation of 2018 hours in these states will be made in late March and at the end of October.
* daylight saving time in spring on the last Sunday of March - on the night from Saturday, March 24, 2018 to March 25, 2018.
* autumn clock will be changed to winter time on the last Sunday of October - on the night from Saturday, October 27, 2018 to October 28, 2018.
The transition to the new time (summer / winter) is made manually in the interval from two o'clock in the morning to four in the morning. A number of modern devices automatically change the time, however, on Sunday morning, it is necessary to check the correctness of the amendments made.
Why in Russia in 2018 do not switch the clock to winter and summer time:
Seven years ago, in 2011, in Russia, legislatively abolished seasonal time. As a result, there is no need to change the time twice a year. In the spring of 2011, the time was shifted 1 hour ahead for the last time (as it was then believed), and the Russians "happily" healed in constant summer time.
But as it turned out, the majority of Russian citizens did not like the decision to live in constant summer time, which led to widespread discontent. It turned out that in most regions of Russia, local time was significantly different from the astronomical time comfortable for humans (also called lap time).
The Russian government listened to the wishes of citizens, and after three and a half years, a law was passed on the universal return to permanent winter time. And in October 2014, the hands of the watch were once again transferred (now an hour ago), and time became a comfortable waist (“winter”).
Since then, time in Russia is no longer translated and remains constant winter time.
However, in some regions of the Russian Federation, a one-time transfer of the watch hands was made on the basis of the wishes of citizens, separately from other subjects. In 2016-2017, this was done:
* In the Saratov region, where the time was transferred 1 hour ahead.
* In the Novosibirsk region, where the time was also transferred 1 hour ahead.
* In the Tomsk region (also shift forward an hour from Omsk to Krasnoyarsk time).
* In the Magadan region (plus 1 hour).
* In the Ulyanovsk and Astrakhan regions, which added an hour and left the Moscow time zone to Samara.
* Also, the clock was moved one hour ahead in the Sakhalin Region, the Trans-Baikal Territory, the Altai Territory and the Altai Republic.
* In Volgograd and the Volgograd region, the hands of the clock are only to be moved one hour ahead. Since such a wish was expressed by the majority of the inhabitants of the region in a referendum held simultaneously with the election of the President of Russia on March 18, 2018. The results were considered by the regional Duma and received approval in the State Duma of the Russian Federation. Time transfer in the Volgograd region will occur on the night of October 27-28, 2018.
One for all
The way out was found by a Canadian communications engineer named Sandford Fleming (Sandforf Flemming), who worked on the railroad for many years. He proposed introducing Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and dividing the globe into 24 sectors of 15 degrees in each, setting their own single time in each of them. This solution made it possible to significantly simplify the calculation of temporal corrections: the difference between the two time zones always remained a multiple of an entire hour. In this case, the deviation from the natural solar time should not exceed 30 minutes. The United States accepted the idea in 1883, and a year later an agreement on time zones was signed by another 26 states. It was decided that the boundaries of the belts do not have to pass strictly along the meridians - for convenience, they are consistent with state and administrative boundaries. Therefore, in some regions living in zone time, the deviation from solar time may reach an hour or more. Nowadays, most of the world lives precisely in standard time — simply because it is convenient.
The next step was the idea of summer and winter time. It was first expressed by London contractor William Willett in the article “The Waste of Daylight”, published in 1907. Willett suggested shifting the time to 20 minutes ahead every Sunday of April, and then playing the difference back to September, and argued that this would allow the country to reduce lighting costs. He reasoned in the following way: it so happened that in the summer time, city dwellers get up and go to work when it is already daylight, and lie down after dark, which is why they have to spend extra money to cover their homes in the dark. Why not move the arrows forward a little in the summer, so that the rise time shifts closer to dawn? The idea of Willett was implemented by the British government in 1916. Pretty quickly the British came to the scheme with a one-time switch of arrows at one o'clock. After the end of the First World War, their experience began gradually to be adopted by other states, which saw a good opportunity to save money in the seasonal transfer of arrows.
Meanwhile, our country, as usual, went its own unique way. Before the revolution, the whole of Russia lived in solar time - simply because the possible transition to the belt system was perceived by the tsarist government as “shaking the foundations” and “trampling on holy identity”. In 1918, the Soviet government introduced a standard time in the country, allocating 11 time zones in the USSR. In 1931, a decree was issued, shifting the time 1 hour ahead relative to the zone time - in order to save electricity. In 1981, in addition to the “eve time”, the summer transfer of the hands was set another 1 hour ahead. In 1991, the decree time was canceled throughout the Union, but after a few months, it was restored along with the seasonal transfer of arrows. This order remains with us today. Given that the average person gets up at 7 am and lies down at 11 pm, he may seem quite reasonable. However, the reality is somewhat more complicated than it looks at first glance.
Indeed, the summer translation of the shooter reduces the direct costs of lighting, but how exactly, no one really knows. In the summer, the consumption of electricity is in any case less than in the winter - primarily because it takes significantly less energy to heat. Therefore, to assess the economic effect of summer time is very difficult. According to rough estimates made by RAO UES, the switch-over of the hands makes it possible to save about 4.4 billion kilowatt-hours per year. In fact, this figure is very small - for each inhabitant it is 26 kWh, or 3 W per hour - less than the permissible error in measuring the power of an incandescent lamp. And in terms of money, it turns out that each of us saves no more than 2 rubles on lighting. per month.
Meanwhile, the transfer of arrows in itself is associated with very significant spending. Take at least passenger trains, which once a year have to stand on the stage for an extra hour to arrive at their destination exactly on schedule. This hour is wasted by both passengers and the railway. In connection with the violent violation of a well-established biological rhythm, in some people, after the transfer of time, sleep worsens and performance decreases. All this leads to significant losses, which should more than cover the direct savings on sanctification. In general, from a medical point of view, summer time is an absolute evil. Within a few days after the transfer of arrows, physicians have noted a significant increase in the number of heart attacks, strokes, suicides and various accidents, which means that we have to pay with human lives for the very dubious savings of electricity.
Interestingly, the practice of translating arrows is not at all as common as is commonly believed - summer time exists only in 29% of the countries of the world. Almost all countries that emerged on the site of the former USSR (including all Baltic countries), as well as such industrial giants as Japan and China, refused it. Apparently, we should have done the same for a long time. Another thing is that an extra bright hour in the evening itself should play a completely positive role, because it leads to a more complete coverage of daylight hours, and therefore brings us closer to a more natural biological rhythm. Therefore, the best solution is to return to the decree time, which would be one hour ahead of the belt time - both in summer and in winter, without any translation of the hands.