Flowers decorate any home and garden. They create a festive atmosphere around us, give spring mood and pleasant aroma. Marigold perennial are not an exception, the landing and care of which do not require special time and material costs. The name of the flowers has gone from their velvet outflow. In some countries they are also called Chernobrivtsy.
How to get seeds for replanting
Of course, when you once see the fruit of your efforts - a whole field of flowers outside the window, you will want to plant marigolds next year. Planting and care, the types and varieties of plants will become a real hobby that will completely capture you in early spring. During this period, the plant can be planted in a warm room. With the arrival of April-May, they can be transplanted into open ground or can be done immediately, but not before the time when frosts and cold rest.
If you want to plant marigolds and next year, then leave a few flowers on a bed until they are completely dry. Then, carefully remove the seeds from the cup, dry them a little and set aside until the next spring. Just know that Chernobrivtsy obtained in this way will not always look like last year’s. They may differ in shape and color, since the most popular varieties are usually hybrids. Their hereditary characteristics appear sometimes through several generations of plants. Professionals usually advise planting seeds a maximum of two years ago, because older samples lose their ability to grow quickly and bloom.
What land love marigolds
As we already understood, these flowers can be grown in two ways: in the form of seedlings and directly in open ground. Each gardener chooses the method that suits him best. In any case, the land should be as loose as possible. Better when you keep the proportions of humus, peat, turf and sand. It is necessary to take the last component by half less than other components. Flowers also need good drainage. This is easily achieved by sprinkling the soil on three centimeters with a mixture of rubble, sand and expanded clay. Fertilizers can be applied before planting, but not fresh manure.
If you planted marigolds in open ground, they will ascend in a week, and bloom in 2-3 months. With this method, the seeds are thrown into specially prepared grooves, the depth of which is one and a half to two centimeters. If you choose a seedling method, the seeds should be planted in boxes. The first shoots should appear in about 10 days.
How to deal with pests and avoid diseases
This is usually not difficult. Endowed with a specific smell, marigolds scare away harmful insects, protect themselves from fungi and nematodes. Moreover, gardeners plant them along the edges of the site, so that they become a shield for other plants that are inside. And it is rational, as marigolds, sowing, care, varieties of which have an unpretentious nature, are at the same time very aggressive to external stimuli. The Colorado beetle bypasses them, other bugs also do not particularly like to bask in the leaves of this plant.
If a spider mite started on flowers during a drought, then it is easy to get rid of it by spraying and watering. At the same time, excessive rain threatens the flowers with the appearance of fungi and rot. We fight this by drying the ground and providing access to the bushes with a lot of sunlight. Usually this plant affects gray rot - it is easy to recognize it by dark brown spots. Sick marigolds need to be quickly removed.
No matter how simple and of the same type this plant is, there are 60 varieties of it. Most of them are hybrid, grown by crossing and during experiments. The most popular species are erect, thin-leaved, and rejected marigolds. Variety description, growing conditions, care, the use of fertilizers for all of them usually do not differ much.
But there are varieties that are not similar to others. For example, a variety of flowers grown in Latin America helps with constipation, and it is also an excellent emetic and diuretic. Seasoning, known in the world as Imereti saffron, is also made from this plant.
There are carnations, terry, semi-double and other varieties of marigolds. Usually they have a yellow or orange color, but there are also plant varieties with white and burgundy buds. Any marigold perennial, planting and care for which are not too expensive, are very colorful decoration of the dacha, city beds or balconies in the high-rise building.
Flowers not only decorate flowerbeds and beds, but are also actively used in traditional medicine and cooking. Tincture of this plant improves metabolism, calms the nervous system and relieves stress. Marigold - an excellent choleretic agent that helps in the initial stages of diabetes, providing a decrease in blood sugar levels. With problems with the pancreas, baldness, poor eyesight, psoriasis, they are also indispensable. Our ancestors used them to treat colds and flu.
As for cooking, then marigolds are used in pickles and marinades as a spice. They contain a whole bunch of essential oils and coloring components. Dried and ground to a state of powder, the plant is stored in glass containers and used as a seasoning. And fresh leaves of flowers are suitable for making salads. In short, the marigolds are perennial, planting and caring for which do not cause much trouble, will not only become part of the landscape design, but also help to cure a number of diseases, and also make the dishes more spicy.
Marigolds can be both annual and perennial plants. Their homeland is considered to be South America. Presented in the form of a bush with a height of 30 to 130 cm, consisting of erect sufficiently strong stems. The root system of the plant is fibrous, the leaves are pinnately dissected.
Marigolds bloom with luxurious round baskets of various shades of orange, yellow and brown.
Remarkably, plant seeds can produce self-seeding and retain their germination for several years.
Marigolds - very unpretentious planttherefore, it is possible to grow them not only at home, but also in open ground.
Since the marigolds are well tolerated by cold and even frost, they can be planted immediately to a permanent place, without sheltering, because young sprouts of marigolds do not need protection at all.
Determining the optimal time for planting, you should be guided solely by weather conditions: when planted in open ground, the air temperature at night should be above +5if plants “live” at home, they can plant throughout the spring.
When growing marigolds at home, provide the plants with enough sunlight. Immediately after sowing / planting, marigolds should receive not only natural, but also, if necessary, additional lighting. They are very fond of sunshine, so do not be afraid to leave the plant in the open sun: it will only be happy for this and will surely respond with lush flowering.
Marigold loves nutritious light neutral groundtherefore, it is desirable to plant in such a soil. If it is not as fertile as necessary, it will be necessary to increase the number of feedings.
Since in most cases marigolds are annual, after the end of flowering, they are simply pulled out of the ground. If you want to use them for growing next year, carefully collect the seeds and leave them in storage (with the arrival of spring you can plant them again).
At home, it is best to cultivate the marigold seed method. For this, first of all, you need to collect seeds from previous plants: you will need a flowering bud (or you can buy ready-made seeds).
- The soil for sowing seeds must be thoroughly heated. First, mix it with a small amount of sand and pour it into a container for growing (it must have a drainage layer). Put it in a very warm place (you can even have a battery) for a good warm-up.
- Before sowing, seeds are soaked for 15 minutes in a weak manganese solution, and then dried thoroughly.
- In the heated ground, small grooves are made with a depth of about 1 cm. Seeds are sown at a distance of about 2-3 cm from each other. Since the seeds are very small, you should gently sprinkle them on the ground and sprinkle them with water from a spray bottle. Then cover the pot with plastic wrap and place it on the window sill in a room with a temperature of at least +22 degrees.
- In a few days, the first shoots should appear. Immediately after that, you can remove the film and rearrange the pots in a cooler place with a temperature of about +18 to strengthen the young seedlings.
- When the height of the marigolds reaches 4 cm, it is possible to pick them into separate pots. Immediately after transplanting plants gently watered with warm water.
- A couple of days after transplantation, be sure to feed young plants with minerals (root dressing), and after a couple of days - with fertilizer for the green part of the plant. Before the appearance of the first flower ovaries try to periodically spray the seedlings with warm water.
How to grow marigolds from seeds in open ground or in pots at home, you can learn here, and from this article you will learn about when and how to plant seeds for seedlings, and then plant in your summer cottage.
In order for the marigolds to delight you with their beautiful flowering, it is necessary to provide them with proper care, which is most often represented by the following procedures:
- Watering. Watering should be of high quality and regular. If the plant is grown at home, you should water it daily (in especially hot weather - twice a day) but you should not fill it with an earthy lump so that there is water. During the flowering period, watering stops, otherwise it is possible to provoke rotting of the root system, which will lead to the death of the plant.
- Feeding. Since the soil in pots and any other closed containers is quickly depleted, it is necessary to provide the plant with high-quality, timely top dressing (you can find out how to feed marigolds for abundant flowering here). Marigolds respond well to complex fertilizers for flowering plants. The first time the fertilizer is applied when the plant reaches 10 cm in height, the second time - when the first buds appear and, finally, the last time - with the beginning of flowering.
- Ground treatment. The marigold root system loves to "breathe", so it is important to provide access to the roots of the oxygen plant. To do this, at least once a week, loosen the top layer of soil in a pot with a small spatula, chopsticks or a cultivator. Believe me, the plant will respond only positively: it will start to grow faster and, possibly, will bloom earlier.
- Crop. If the bush grows bulky enough, you can prune some stems, giving the plant the desired decorative appearance. It is also desirable to promptly remove faded blossoms: this will stimulate the rapid emergence of new ones.
On the proper care and planting marigolds in open ground, read here, and from this article you will learn about
features of growing marigolds in pots or drawers at home.
Diseases and pests, possible problems
Marigolds very rarely get sick, but in some cases they may still be adversely affected by pests or various ailments (how to detect the disease and pests of the Barkhais and how to treat a bush, read here). So, the plant can strike gray rot, having revealed in the form of a white raid on stalks and leaves, turning in time into gray fluffy spots. To fight the disease is extremely difficult. The simplest option is to immediately remove diseased plants so that they do not infect the rest.
In very dry summers a spider mite can appear on the marigolds. You can eliminate it by spraying the plant periodically with onion or pepper vodka (an infusion of red hot pepper). To avoid the appearance of a pest on marigolds, it is possible, at least several times a week, to increase the level of humidity in the room with marigolds (spray water from a spray bottle near the plants).
It is also important to properly care for the plant in order to avoid possible problems.
Do not "overfeed" marigolds in the spring, combining this process with rather high temperatures in the room: this can lead to a rapid growth of green mass and poor flowering.
That's all the subtleties that you should know for growing marigolds at home. Follow the simple rules of care, and you can grow a strong healthy plant. Good luck!
The root system is fibrous, the leaves are pinnately dissected or pinnoid-separated, alternate or opposite, the color of the green can be light or dark green.
Baskets inflorescences from yellow to bright orange or brown shades. Flowering begins in June and can continue until the first frost. It is worth paying attention that marigolds can be sown independently. Germination of seeds trapped in the soil lasts up to 4 years. A pleasant smell does not come from the buds, but from the greenness of the plant.
In addition, a flower bed with marigolds on the site, this is a priceless home pharmacy.
Flowers help in the treatment of the following diseases:
- cataract prevention,
- spleen inflammation,
- a cold.
Also, a decoction of dried flowers is recommended to drink during intoxication, to cleanse the blood.
How to grow at home and on the site?
Marigolds have a small growing season and can begin flowering as early as the second month after sowing the seeds. Due to the fact that the plant is unpretentious to weather conditions and transfers small spring frosts, it does not need covering material when sowing seeds directly in open ground or in boxes on the balcony.
It is necessary to plant marigold seeds at a time when a stable temperature is established outside +5. The planting dates are directly dependent on weather conditions, if in regions with a warm climate, seeds can be sown in the ground already in April, then in the middle lane it will be the end of May. Flowering, respectively, occurs in late June and early July.
Marigold seeds are oblong sticks of black color with white tips, which are formed in the center of the flower after it dries. Because seeds retain their germination for more than 4 years, the flowers may be self-growing.
American breeding varieties germinate later than the French, and hybrids cannot be grown from seeds at all, they may not grow or the parental properties of the new plant will not.
How to breed marigold seeds? Seed collection begins in September, in the second half. The main sign for this is wilting of the bushes, especially if the stem has dried near the head - the seeds have ripened. To collect the seed need a dry, windless and sunny weather - the seeds collected during bad weather can dampen and germination will be reduced.
Seeds are harvested as follows.:
- cut off the testicle and put it in a ventilated place for drying,
- Then gently open the head with the seeds and shake them on a newspaper.
There is another way to collect seeds:
- collect flowers in a bunch and hang in a ventilated and dry room above the paper,
- as soon as the boxes ripen and open, the seeds themselves can get enough sleep.
Then the seeds are placed in a paper bag and stored until spring sowing.
In open ground and on seedlings
Flowers are grown by sowing seed in the soil in the following terms:
- In the winter, after the weather is set steadily cold. The beds must be formed in advance and prepare the ground, which until the time of planting will be in a warm place. As soon as the time of sowing comes, warm earth is poured into the grooves, seeds are sown and powdered with soil. After this, the beds are mulched with compost, rotted sawdust, or old foliage. In the spring, as the snow melts and warm weather sets in, the mulch is removed to quickly warm the ground.
- In the spring, around mid-April, the beds are prepared, which should be shed with warm water before and after sowing. It is also desirable to warm the crops, covering with any material.
- In May marigolds can be sown directly in the ground to a permanent place. As soon as shoots appear, they are thinned, leaving at least 10 cm between plants. As soon as 3-5 true leaves appear on the plants, the seedlings are planted, since the optimal distance between adult plants is 30 cm.
It should be understood that in order to obtain good seedlings fresh seeds are needed, which have not yet turned two years old, and the soil needs to be prepared fertile and very light.
Before sowing the seeds should be prepared - to germinate, then the seedlings will be quick and friendly. Seeds are placed in cotton fabric, which must first be wetted with warm water. Уложить на блюдце и завернуть полиэтиленовой, пищевой пленкой, для создания парникового эффекта. Поставить блюдце в теплое место и через 2 дня проверить семена, если они хорошего качества, то основная масса посадочного материала уже проклюнется. Семена готовы к посадке.
Требования к составу земли
The following soil composition will be optimal for sowing marigolds:
- garden soil - 1 kg,
- washed river sand - 500 g,
- peat - 1 kg,
- humus or compost - 1 kg.
Planting seeds carried out as follows:
- on the beds to make grooves, between which there should be 2 cm,
- spread the seeds at a distance of 1 cm from each other
- depth of seal no more than 10 mm,
- to shed the grooves with warm water
- fall asleep seeds
- Cover the beds with covering material before germination.
As soon as the seedlings appear, the film is removed. This will help to harden the plant for further favorable development and growth.
Marigolds: landing and care
Therefore, the best place is considered to be open, sunny areas, with rich, nutritious soil, having a neutral reaction. If the soil on the site is poor, then a few weeks before planting it is necessary to improve the quality of the soil by applying nitrogen or complex mineral fertilizers. It is not recommended to make organic fertilizers, since in the future the bushes of plants can affect “black leg” or “gray” rot. Grow marigolds can in shady places, but in such conditions it is very difficult to achieve lush and abundant flowering.
As a rule, marigolds are planted from pre-prepared seeds, and this is only necessary for the first planting. In the future, you can get the seeds after the first flowering. To do this, after flowering already on a dried bush, it is necessary to leave a few inflorescences, from the cup of which, only in dry weather. Seeds must be properly stored until next spring.
Seeds in open ground are planted in pre-prepared pits, keeping the distance between them from 2 to 3 centimeters. Too close arrangement of saplings can lead to rotting of the root system, and the bushes themselves will be weakened and elongated. Next, the seeds sprinkled with a thin layer of soil and gently watered. The first shoots can be seen after a week.
The sooner marigolds are planted, the sooner they will bloom. Seeds can be planted in early spring, but you need to keep the seedlings in a warm and bright room until the end of May. A week before the planned transplantation of seedlings in open ground, boxes or containers with young seedlings are taken out to fresh air. This is necessary in order for the young forms to quickly adapt to the new conditions. After which they can be safely transplanted to a permanent place.
Caring for plants of this type is reduced to regular watering, especially in dry weather, especially it sways young seedlings. In the summer it is best to water the seedlings either before sunrise or late in the evening. Top-dressing with complex mineral fertilizers is carried out once a month. You also need to regularly loosen the soil around the bushes and carry out weeding from the weeds. In order for the bushes to have a beautiful shape and look magnificent - in the middle of summer they spend pruning. Do not forget about the removal of flowering inflorescences.
In order to grow potted plants, seeds are planted in late autumn. Already in early spring, the first shoots will appear, and soon young seedlings will bloom.
Diseases of the marigolds
The healthy appearance of your plants depends on the care. Marigolds are also prone to disease. For example, if the weather is too dry, a spider mite may appear, wet weather may provoke the appearance of gray mold. Therefore, at least several times during the season, plants should be treated with weak solutions of insecticidal preparations. If you find diseased plants on a garden bed, you should immediately dig them up before the infection of healthy shrubs has occurred.
Depending on the shape and height of the bush, try to plant low-growing plant species closer to the base of the flower bed or flower bed, and tall to the center. Marigolds can be planted even on the edge of a vegetable bed or garden beds. It will look very original and fun!
It is advisable to plant marigolds in open light areas, however, without intense sunlight. Permissible to place them in the penumbra. Marigolds prefer nutritious loamy or sandy soils with neutral acidity. Frost these plants can not tolerate.
Marigolds are considered drought-resistant, but they need to be regularly watered at the beginning of growth and during dry periods. At the same time, it is not allowed to overmoisten the soil, since an excess of moisture leads to the development of fungal root diseases in flowers. Marigolds need additional feedings (1–2 g of complex fertilizer per 1 liter of water). It is not recommended to apply fertilizer for them in the spring, as it causes increased growth and delayed flowering.
Marigolds are propagated by seeds, which are sown in March-April in a greenhouse or film greenhouse. Shoots appear on the 4–10th day after sowing. Seedlings dive in a greenhouse at a distance of 6 × 6 cm. In the open ground, seedlings are transferred after the cessation of spring frosts, in late May - early June. Marigolds easily tolerate transplants at any age and even during the flowering period. When transplanted into the ground around the roots of a bush, they keep an earthy lump. Between plants stand an interval of 20 cm (for low varieties) or 50 cm (for high varieties).
Marigolds rarely suffer from diseases and insect pests, but sometimes they are affected by gray mold.
Tip Marigolds are plants that repel harmful insects. It is useful to plant them in beds with vegetable and green crops. You can plant them around the perimeter of the plot where potatoes are grown. If you can not spend much time caring for flower beds, plant marigolds rejected. This is the most unpretentious view of all the marigolds. They grow on any soil without dressings.
Planted in flower beds, grown for pruning. In a vase of water, they can last up to three weeks. Also grow in indoor pots and used for interior decoration. Do not grow these flowers in the shady corners of the garden and near the reservoirs. Fragrant tobacco, sage, zinnia and dahlia are good partners for marigolds. Marigolds are used to create rabatok, beds and mixborders. They are good in the garden next to petunias and on the balcony in containers.
Care of the cetas
Once the seedlings have grown and planted in a permanent place, the main care will be as follows:
- watering regularly, while in hot weather twice a day - early in the morning and late in the evening,
- constant weeding,
- the formation of a bush with the removal of dried flowers and damaged leaves,
- loosening the soil is carried out 1 time in 7 days, the roots should breathe.
Marigolds love moisture, especially during the active growing season.. But in watering it is necessary to observe not only the uniformity, but also the rate of water.
It is worth remembering that if watering is abundant, with the stagnation of water, the roots of the plant will begin to rot. With a lack of moisture, the flower may not bloom, or form small, ugly flowers.
During growth, watering should be moderate, and later it will need to be reduced so that there is no stagnant moisture, from which the plants get sick, rot and do not bloom. In the summer heat is better to water in the evenings..
Try not to overfeed the plant with nitrogen fertilizers, as the flower will give a lot of greenery and bloom much later.
The main feeding on the advice of experienced gardeners is carried out three times per season.:
- as soon as the height of the seedling reaches 10 cm,
- with the formation of the first buds,
- at the beginning of flowering.
You can feed the plant and the fourth time during the period of rapid flowering, this will increase the growing season. Top dressing is made by complex fertilizers for the blossoming plants.
The result is to say that marigolds are a photophilous plant, and they should be planted on bright, sunny areas. This culture easily tolerates temperature extremes and lack of moisture. These characteristics allow the plant to be used in decorative floriculture. The same cut plant can stand in a vase without losing its beauty for almost three weeks. But you should not plant a crop near water bodies or in heavily shaded areas - they may not bloom or die.