When a small child appears in the family - this is a real miracle for parents. For the first time in their life, they realize that in their hands is the most important and most beloved little man in the world, and it is from their care and love that the life and health of this little one depends. Mom and dad try to create the best conditions for the baby, but sometimes their happiness can be overshadowed by allergies. And, of course, young parents have no idea what to do with it.
Allergy is a protective reaction of the body to certain stimuli (food, dust, household chemicals) that are familiar to other people and they do not react to them at all.
Most often, an allergic reaction can occur in children whose parents suffer from various types of allergies. This is because the predisposition to this disease is genetically transmitted. But this does not mean that a child 100% will be such an allergy, like mom or dad. He receives from them only a tendency to the occurrence of this disease, and can get it only after repeated contact with the allergen.
Allergies in an infant can occur under the influence of various factors. After all, the baby first encounters a new world, and everything unusual for his body can cause him a defensive reaction. According to statistics in the world, almost every fifth child suffers from an allergy. And this disease, most often, manifests itself when your baby is very small. Therefore, parents should be more attentive to their baby.
We go to the doctor
If your child has any suspicious symptoms, first of all, you should contact your pediatrician. Only a doctor will be able to tell you that your baby has an allergy or other disease, and, of course, to give a qualified answer on how to treat this disease.
It is better not to postpone a visit to the doctor for a long time, as the situation may worsen, and it will be much harder for you to cope with this disease. Moreover, there is a huge number of allergic diseases, which are characterized by their own symptoms. On your own it will be very difficult for you to figure out what to do in this or that case.
So, in order to have at least some idea about allergic diseases, they can be divided into three types. Depending on the allergens that caused the allergy, it can be: food, household and contact. Let's look at each of these types.
Most often, babies suffer from food allergies. But most of them outgrow this disease by 4 years. And only 2% of children will have such a violent reaction to certain foods for a lifetime.
Why does food allergy occur? It would seem, from where this disease can come from a baby who is breastfed, and does not eat anything except mother's milk. It is through him that the child receives not only nutrients, but also potential allergens. And if the mother does not adhere to proper nutrition - everything she ate from prohibited foods can cause allergies. What concerns products provoking this disease?
- Most often, an allergic reaction occurs in infants whose mothers drink cow's milk. The protein contained in it is very poorly absorbed by the baby, as its digestive system is not yet adapted for the digestion of such proteins. Milk causes upset stomach and colic in babies. Worst of all, mother can not always understand that it was cow's milk that caused allergies. She can drink it for a month without any consequences, and then the baby suddenly has a rash. This is due to the fact that some allergens cause severe symptoms only after their concentration in the body reaches a certain level. Therefore, it is very difficult to determine exactly what caused the allergy.
- If some fruits are included in the diet of a nursing mother, they can cause an allergic reaction in infants. These fruits include citrus fruits: oranges, tangerines, lemons and grapefruit.
- It is often heard that mothers who breastfeed cannot eat red foods. For example, strawberries, cherries, grapes, tomatoes, red apples, etc. It is all because of the red pigment contained in them. It is a potential allergen. But if you really want to eat some of these products, then you can try quite a bit. And be sure to follow the reaction of your baby for a day.
- Also, allergies can cause foods that contain various chemical additives and preservatives. These products include: smoked sausages, purchased confectionery, chocolate, mayonnaise, various sauces and food products, where there are artificial colors and other chemical constituents.
- Also, the cause of allergic reactions can be: chicken eggs, mushrooms, nuts, fish, seafood, soybeans, and honey.
In babies who are on artificial nutrition, allergies can occur due to intolerance to the cow's milk protein contained in the mixture. In addition to its composition, it also includes another 20 components, and all of them can cause allergic reactions. Therefore, it is very difficult to find a suitable mixture for the child. And often without the help of a doctor just can not do.
Types and treatment
What are the symptoms of food allergies? Most often, this disease is manifested on the skin of the baby, in the form of a rash, like a rash. First pours out the cheeks and neck, then it can cover the entire body of the child. Itching, redness, diaper rash and flaking of the skin. Also, this allergy can be accompanied by indigestion, severe abdominal pain, colic, vomiting and abundant regurgitation after each feeding. There may also be severe green diarrhea. Sometimes a runny nose is added to these symptoms.
What should be the treatment of food allergies? Only a doctor can tell you about this. When these symptoms appear, it is best to contact him immediately for help. It will help you figure out what caused the allergy and prescribe medications and doses appropriate for your child. All you can do is eliminate allergens from your diet.
In no case should not refuse breastfeeding and go to the mixture. Especially if your baby is under 6 months. Since it is at such an early age, the child’s immune system has not yet fully formed, and the baby’s health depends on the protective function of the mother’s immunoglobulins.
To get rid of this disease, mother should eliminate from the diet all foods that cause allergies (they have already been mentioned). You should also adhere to proper nutrition. It should be varied - do not eat each product more than once a day.
Remember that allergies do not pass quickly, and you need to be patient.
When you eliminate the allergen from your diet, the symptoms can go away within two weeks or even more. But if you can not independently determine what your baby is allergic to, then it is better to contact the experts. They will do a blood test and take samples for various allergens.
It is also very important to know the rules of complementary foods for children prone to allergies. It should be introduced not earlier than 6 months for babies - breastfed, and not earlier than 4 months - for babies who are on artificial nutrition. And it is best to start with a single product, and give it half a teaspoon per day. If there is no allergic reaction, then you can increase the dose.
Another type of allergy - household. The most common cause of its occurrence is house dust. This is not only dust on furniture that is familiar to us, but also animal dander, spores of various mushrooms, as well as a house mite that lives in blankets, pillows and upholstered furniture.
Symptoms: frequent sneezing, severe runny nose, cough, eyes begin to water.
In order to avoid the appearance of these symptoms, you need to do wet cleaning every day and ventilate your home, remove all things that accumulate dust from the baby’s room. Particular attention should be paid to your child's soft toys, as they are the main accumulators of dust, and they must sometimes be washed. Do not let pets into the baby's room. All bedding needs to be washed every week. For a child it is better to choose a synthetic blanket, mattress and pillow.
All things with which the baby is in contact should be washed with hypoallergenic powder. Since the use of various household chemicals can trigger the development of contact allergies. It appears due to the direct contact of the allergen with the baby’s skin. It can also be caused by the use of poor-quality children's cosmetics and personal care products.
Symptoms of contact allergies: a rash all over the body, peeling of the skin, itching.
In order to reduce the suffering of your baby and eliminate these symptoms, you need to bathe him every day in a bath with herbal decoctions, for example, with a string.
An allergic rash may occur in a newborn within a few days after birth. Do not panic. Small red pimples on a baby's face are not signs of an allergy. They are also called "miles." They occur due to the fact that during pregnancy the baby received her mother’s hormones, and after the birth his body begins to get rid of them and adapt to its own hormones, so a rash can sometimes appear.
There is no need to treat it. She herself will be held in about a month. But if the baby has other symptoms of allergy besides the rash, such as diarrhea, vomiting, it’s better to see a doctor right away.
Be attentive to the health of your baby, and then you will fully experience the joy of being parents!
What is allergy
Allergies call the body's defensive reaction to any irritants (cosmetics, food, dust, etc.), as a result of which immunoglobulin E begins to be produced. Combining with an allergen, this protein causes various allergic reactions that can appear as a rash, indigestion and other unpleasant symptoms.
Irritation may appear not only on the face, but also on the hair part of the head and other places. Externally, it may look like a small rash, red and scaly areas on the skin that appear immediately after eating or occur a certain time after contact with an allergen-like substance. In this case, the baby may suffer from itching, his skin becomes dry and tight, and the baby itself becomes restless.
Why does baby allergy occur?
Allergies in the newborn on the face, the photo of which you see, may have a food or non-food nature of occurrence. At the same time, a hereditary factor has a significant role in its appearance. And if someone in the family suffers from chronic runny nose, bronchial asthma, or other allergic manifestations, then it is not surprising if the baby’s cheeks turn red once.
In addition, the appearance of an allergic reaction is influenced by the state of the immune system of the newborn and the time at which breastfeeding was initiated.
Very often, the protein in breast milk or ready-made formulas becomes an allergen to infants. The reaction to it is manifested by skin rashes, pain in the abdomen, nasal congestion, spasm of the respiratory tract, impaired stool and frequent regurgitation. In such cases, the cause becomes:
The body of a small child may react negatively to contact with household chemicals, cosmetics, plant pollen or animal hair. Among the main causes of contact allergies are:
- Dust, household mites or bedbugs,
- Some indoor plants,
- Pets, even if they have no wool or feathers,
- Household chemicals (means by which mom washes dishes, washing powder, etc.),
- Cosmetics, including those used by the parents of the infant.
Other causes of allergies
Breastfeeding allergies in a newborn can also appear due to:
- Hereditary predisposition
- Vaccines, which may include substances that can cause such a reaction,
- Late onset of breastfeeding. This is due to the fact that dysbacteriosis is a provoking factor to the occurrence of allergic reactions. The intestine of a newborn is sterile, and its colonization with beneficial microorganisms occurs during feeding. In children who, instead of mom's milk get artificial mixtures, this process can be disrupted,
Know! Approximately 75% of babies are very sensitive to protein, which is found in cow's milk, therefore, they may also have a negative reaction to the mixture.
- Taking medicines, in particular antibiotics. Many babies in the first months of life suffer from colic, so mothers, trying to help them, give babies various medications (what you can and don’t give babies, learn from the article The medicine for colic in newborns >>>). But it turns out that even dill water allergy is possible in newborns.
Colic is the strongest anxiety in a child. He cries for hours, his belly is hard, his face is red from constant tension in crying. Drugs in the fight against colic help a little.
The best and safest “treatment” for a baby with abdominal pain is maternal nursing treatment. How to safely help a child, without the use of medicines, look in the Internet course Soft tummy >>>
How to recognize allergies
To recognize an allergy and start treating it in time, you need to know how the allergy manifests in newborns. Its main features include:
- The defeat of the skin. This may be a different rash, dryness, peeling, swelling. They usually appear in the face, neck, buttocks, in the inguinal and popliteal folds. In this case, the severity may be very different: from a slight dryness of the skin to the appearance of weeping wounds,
- Digestive disorders. In allergic children, after feeding, there may be abundant regurgitation, colic, constipation, or, conversely, diarrhea. As a rule, this is manifested by food allergies,
- Respiratory manifestations become a consequence of the reaction to the allergen that is in the air (dust, animal hair, pollen). At the same time, the larynx and nasopharynx swells in infants, it is difficult for him to breathe the nose, there is a tearing, a cough. Very often, mothers confuse such symptoms with a common cold, but in the case of allergies, the temperature of the newborn’s body will not increase,
- Anxiety. A newborn baby can not yet complain to you that something is bothering him. But, you can note that he began to sleep poorly, constantly naughty and showing anxiety.
What does a newborn baby's allergy look like?
First of all, the cheeks become red, the skin begins to peel off on the chin or forehead. This can be observed as an independent symptom or occur against the background of a violation of the gastrointestinal tract. In such cases, it is important to identify the factor that provoked the allergic reaction and eliminate it. Usually, this is enough to relieve the crumbs of unpleasant sensations.
Attention! Use antihistamines is only in the most difficult cases.
Here it is necessary to note another important point - a rash in a child can occur not only as a result of allergies. Similarly, prickly heat or the usual flowering of a baby can manifest itself.
- How to distinguish allergies from flowering in newborns? During flowering, the baby's skin becomes bright red. Acne that appears in this case may have a watery liquid inside. This is due to the malfunctioning of the sebaceous glands. All manifestations of flowering are described in the article posted on our website: Flowering in a newborn >>>,
- Prickly heat appears in places where the body of the baby is in contact with clothing or in the area of wrinkles on the skin. Acne in this case is small and does not contain liquid inside. Read more about this phenomenon in the article Pnatia newborn >>>.
A rash, in case of an allergy, can appear absolutely anywhere, and in those places where it has contact with clothing, even suppurations are possible. Such pimples are itchy, which gives the baby discomfort.
If it is difficult for you to figure it out on your own, then look at the seminar on nutrition of the nursing mother, where we will step by step analyze the different rashes on the baby’s skin. You can correctly determine the cause of the rash and quickly eliminate anxiety in the baby. The course is available at the link: Meals for nursing mothers without harm to the child >>>
This part of therapy is called the most difficult, and here you will have to try hard. Where to look for what provoked the crumbs allergic reaction? First of all, check:
- Baby food. In most cases, infants suffer from food allergies, no matter what they are fed,
- If you have an allergy in infants breastfeeding, the mother should completely revise your diet,
- Для малыша искусственника нужно обратить внимание на состав смеси, которую он кушает. If it contains components of cow's milk, lactulose or soy, then most likely the reason lies in them. Try to give the crumbs a different mixture, which will not have these components.
- Mom's food,
- If there is a suspicion that the baby does not digest lactose, discard whole milk,
- If you have an allergic reaction to gluten, mom can not eat pasta, semolina or wheat porridge, oatmeal, pastries,
- In addition, if there is an allergy in the newborn on the face, you should abandon fish, eggs, honey, cocoa, bright vegetables and fruits,
- In this case, the nursing mother is allowed to eat non-fat broths, dietary meat.
About other safe foods in your diet, see the course Nutrition of a nursing mother without harm to the child >>>
Prompt bowel movement
- It is very important to monitor the chair of the newborn. If you notice your baby’s tendency to constipation, you should definitely start analyzing your breastfeeding process. It is possible that the child receives little food, or some product in your diet has such a reinforcing effect on the baby,
- The same applies to the mother, because if the bowel movements are not timely, the toxins can pass into breast milk.
Creating a comfortable environment
- Comfortable conditions should be created in the room where the newborn is located (air temperature is within 18-20 degrees and humidity 50-70%). If the room is hot, the baby begins to actively sweat. This releases substances that can irritate delicate baby skin,
- Also the room should be clean. So that the dust does not lead to an allergic reaction, it is important to carry out wet cleaning every day, to remove various carpets and curtains that can collect dust on themselves.
In most cases, it is enough to eliminate the factors that provoke an allergy to rid the child of its manifestations. The use of drugs is usually relegated to the background. This is due to the fact that they can only eliminate the main symptoms, while not getting rid of the main cause. In addition, allergies may occur in the child and on the medications themselves.
Knowing how allergy is manifested in infants, a pediatrician may recommend the use of such drugs:
- Sorbents - drugs that are absolutely safe for the child's body. Their main function is to cleanse the body of toxins from the body and eliminate constipation,
- Antihistamines are necessary for the symptomatic treatment of the main manifestations of the disease. For babies, only those drugs that do not have a sedative effect are suitable.
- Newborn allergy cream is used for topical treatment. Usually prescribe non-hormonal drugs that have wound healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action, eliminate itching and relieve swelling,
- If no other drugs have given the desired effect, the baby may be prescribed hormonal ointments. They give a quick effect, but can only be used as directed by the attending physician.
To avoid the appearance of allergy in the infant, it is important to begin to observe prevention from the first days of his life. For this you need:
- For some time, closely monitor their nutrition during breastfeeding,
- Starting from the second month, the introduction of new products into the mother’s diet is allowed, but in small portions, with constant monitoring of the state of infants,
- Nursing mother, at any stage of feeding, it is important to avoid eating foods that can cause an allergic reaction,
- Keep breastfeeding as long as possible
- Daily carry out wet cleaning in the apartment, to minimize the contact of the baby with animals and flowering plants,
- Do not take any drugs without special need.
These simple rules will help keep the baby's skin healthy, and will protect her from the occurrence of negative reactions. And knowing what the allergies look like in babies, you will be able to react to the problem in time and help the baby.
Factors that cause allergies
The factor that can cause a negative reaction in a child is different. The most common option is food allergies. And the products can be consumed by both babies and mothers. Do not forget that with the milk every element of the food that the nursing mother ate gets into the body of the child. Therefore, it is important to monitor the diet during breastfeeding.
The following causes of allergy are distinguished:
- Abuse of the nursing mother with allergenic products (citrus fruits, chocolate and other sweets, pastries, eggs, etc.). The recommended menu for breastfeeding in the section on nutrition nursing,
- Cow protein and early transfer of an infant to artificial feeding of cows, milk mixtures or kefir with milk. When and how to introduce complementary foods, read the article “Scheme and diet of the first foods,”
- Drugs used by mom or baby
- Adverse environmental effects,
- Viruses, vaccines and vaccinations,
- Products introduced into the feed. What can and should not be given to an infant, read here,
- Cosmetics and household chemicals (creams and powders for children, soap and washing powder),
- Household allergens (animal hair and pollen, house dust and feather pillows).
Many children in the first weeks of life suffer from an allergic reaction. So, in the first 20 days after birth, the child has a skin rash. The reason for this phenomenon may be the hormones of the mother, which the baby receives even in the womb. The body adapts to new conditions, resulting in the formation of small red spots on the face and neck. Similar rash passes in three-four weeks independently.
Typical symptoms of an allergy except rashes contain reddening, roughness and an overdrying of some sites of a skin. Additional symptoms, such as green stools, coughing and sneezing, runny nose and severe itching, are also identified. Let's take a closer look at how allergies look in babies.
How does an allergy
Allergy is manifested in different ways. It depends on the type of allergen and the individual characteristics of the child’s development. Depending on the type of reaction, there are also symptoms of the disease. There are the following types of allergies:
- Atopic species affect the skin, eyes and nasal cavity, sometimes the lungs. This category includes dermatitis, urticaria, various edema and allergic diseases of the lungs (asthma, pneumonitis, etc.). Children with such problems may have uneven weight gain and increased persistent diaper rash,
- Infectious species manifest due to bacteria and fungi. Typical symptoms include cutaneous manifestations, runny nose and nasal congestion, coughing and tearing, swelling and malaise, and arthritis, joint pain and fever in the affected areas.
There are other options for how babies are allergic. After all, each child's reaction is individual. A baby can have a negative manifestation not only in the respiratory organs and on the skin. The reaction may also be manifested by the intestines. These include bloating and abdominal pain, diarrhea and other problems with the stool, regurgitation and vomiting. In this case, there are problems in weight gain.
Note that reddening of the cheeks does not always indicate an allergy. Red cheeks are typical symptoms of diathesis, which is the borderline between an allergic disease and a healthy state. As a rule, diathesis is manifested due to the use of any products.
Causes of pathology
Most often infants have food allergies. Diathesis, red crusts on the cheeks, itching, swelling of tissues - this is the reaction of a tiny organism to a certain type of food.
- nursing mother during pregnancy / lactation of foods with a high allergization index,
- introduction of prikorma ahead of time, the use of mixtures and dishes with a high content of sugar, components that cause saturation, but do not have a positive effect on the growing body. Allergies provoke ignorance of the rules of feeding, feeding the baby from the common table,
- genetic predisposition. If one of the parents suffered from food allergies, choose food for feeding more carefully, follow a special diet for nursing mothers.
Other causes of allergic reactions in infants:
- taking potent drugs (antibiotics, glucocorticosteroids),
- synthetic clothing
- reaction to a new type of cream, washing powder, bathing gel,
- mosquito bites, stinging insects,
- plant pollen, pet hair,
- inadequate care of the genital area.
Learn about the healing properties of badger oil and how to use it for children.
How to treat allergies to mosquito bites in a child? The answer is on this page.
Signs and symptoms
What does an allergy look like in newborns? The main signs of pathology is easy to recognize. The severity of a negative reaction depends on the duration of contact with the stimulus, the state of the immune system.
Typical allergy symptoms:
- rashes of a different nature: rash, red spots of larger and smaller size, crusts, redness of the skin,
- swelling of tissues, swelling of the face, eyelids, lips, cheeks, mucous membranes,
- digestive problems. Allergic reactions are often accompanied by diarrhea, pain in the intestines, stomach, abdominal distension. With a severe degree of damage, a high concentration of allergen appetite disappears, there is a general weakness, drowsiness,
- With some forms of allergy, a persistent runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing develops, the eyes redden, the eyelids swell.
A selection of effective treatments
At the first signs of allergic reactions in babies, contact your pediatrician and allergist. It is important to understand what factor caused negative manifestations.
Please note the following questions and answers:
- Does the baby get nothing but breast milk? The thing is most likely in mom's poor diet.
- Has an allergy developed after an illness? Perhaps the cause was antibiotics or other drugs.
- Irritation appeared in places of contact with clothes? Think about whether you have used a new laundry detergent, check the quality of blouses or slippers. Perhaps you bought baby stuff from low-quality material with aggressive dyes.
- Redness, crusts, rashes of red, pink or bright orange color are located on the cheeks, chin, elbows, knees, itchy? Surely the baby diathesis - an allergic reaction to unsuitable food.
- Swelling, swelling, itching appeared after the walk? Look at the tiny body: it is possible that mosquito bites caused a pronounced reaction.
- The baby sneezes, tears flow, a tiny nose, eyelids, conjunctiva of the eyes turn red? From the nasal passages emit a clear liquid? Probably develops an allergy to pollen. Another reason is house dust. If a furry pet lives at home, think, maybe you badly cleaned the wool, rarely wiped the floor? Scales of dead skin in cats accumulate, dry, fall to the floor, provoke allergies in infants.
If you detect negative reactions, act correctly:
- Think what irritant caused the allergy. If you have eaten a forbidden product, drink more water, take an approved sorbent, in order to quickly remove toxins from the body,
- stop contact with the allergen, check whether there is a mosquito bite, bee, midge on the child’s body,
- if the small body reacted violently to a new kind of complementary food, stop feeding the baby, limit only breast milk. Wait about a month until the body is fully restored, start feeding with another, softer product.
To remove negative symptoms will help the following actions:
- Give infants an antihistamine suitable for their age. Babies up to the age of fit Fenistil drops (after 1 month). For babies after 1 year old, give Zyrtec syrup, Zodak drops or Cetirizine,
- for severe rashes, grease problem areas with Fenistil-gel, Bepanten. With pronounced signs recommended drug Advantan,
- Calcium chloride, diphenhydramine will help to relieve the tension of the nervous system, to quickly cleanse the body. These drugs are administered by a doctor,
- in case of severe puffiness, give the child a diuretic (Furosemide, cowberry / bearberry decoction). If your baby has previously had allergies, check with the doctor which decoctions are suitable at an early age.
- provide access to fresh air, take off cramped clothes, put on a light blouse, not constraining movement and breathing,
- show your baby to a pediatrician and allergist, strictly follow the recommendations of doctors. Do not self-medicate, listen less to "all-knowing" neighbors,
- With pronounced symptoms, development of angioedema, call the ambulance immediately. If you suspect Quincke's edema, a team of doctors will arrive immediately.
Folk remedies and recipes
Relieve the child's condition, reduce skin itching, relieve puffiness will help proven home methods. Most of the components are always in the kitchen or first aid kit.
Relieve itching, reduce swelling, redness will help:
- soothing baths for itchy skin with a decoction of the train, chamomile,
- drawing on the face of the same decoctions with a mild anti-inflammatory effect,
- decoctions of lemon balm, peppermint, valerian root will reduce irritability, improve sleep,
- decoction of nettle to clean the blood of toxins
- cool gauze compress with chamomile / train decoction for swollen areas.
In identifying food allergies in infants, the nursing mom should reconsider her diet. We'll have to suffer, give up some products for the sake of the baby's health. Without proper nutrition, it is impossible to get rid of allergies to certain foods.
Failure to follow the recommendations, disregard for the advice of doctors often provokes the development of a chronic form of diathesis. Rash, redness, itching make the baby suffer, and mom get nervous. Often, due to a complex psychological state, the amount of breast milk decreases.
Make a diet taking into account the degree of allergenicity of various products. Pay attention to three categories. Choose items from the first list, use products of the second category rarely, in small quantities, watch the reaction of the baby. Wait a while with the use of the names from the third list before stopping breastfeeding.
Category 1 (very rarely cause allergies):
- low-fat dairy products,
- turkey meat
- yellow varieties of plums
- white and cauliflower,
- lean pork,
- parsley dill,
- white and yellow sweet cherry,
- green varieties of apples, pears.
How is it right and which is the best bike to choose a child? We have the answer!
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On the page http://razvitie-malysha.com/zdorovie/sredstva/ingalyator.html read about the benefits and use of an ultrasonic inhaler for cough and rhinitis.
Category 2 (sometimes cause allergies):
- black currant,
- low-fat beef.
Category 3 (often cause allergies):
- fat cow milk,
- sea fish,
- Red caviar,
- processed cheese,
- products with dyes, synthetic additives, semi-finished products.
When planning a pregnancy, while waiting for the baby, after childbirth follow simple rules:
- stop smoking, any alcoholic beverages,
- consume foods that reduce the risk of allergic reactions. Once again look in the section on "useful and harmful" products. Remember: the main type of negative reactions is food allergy in children under one year old,
- banned spicy, salted foods, sweet soda pop, fast food, ready-to-cook foods, concentrates,
- more dishes and products rich in vitamins, trace elements, biologically active substances. Useful fruits, vegetables (except red and orange), leafy greens, cereals, bran, cereals. Eat vegetable soups, low-fat dairy products, diluted juices (except citrus and red / orange). The future mother must eat fish, liver, boiled beef, eat eggs 1-2 times a week,
- wear clothes made from natural fabrics, use hypoallergenic cosmetics for mom and baby,
- make less contact with hazardous chemicals; at home, replace traditional household chemicals with natural cleaning agents or natural compounds of well-known brands with proven non-toxic effects, for example, Amway,
- wash baby clothes, bedding, diapers, hypoallergenic powders. The best option - eco-friendly biodegradable detergent for washing children's clothes,
- prohibit smoking in the house, often ventilate the room, stay with the baby away from places where there is tobacco smoke,
- use medications only as prescribed by a doctor. Uncontrolled pills and syrups (nursing mother and baby) - one of the causes of allergies in infants,
- Introduce complementary foods according to timing. Do not feed your baby with “adult” food ahead of time: a weak ventricle and intestines cannot cope with coarse fibers, the balance of microflora is disturbed, dysbacteriosis develops.One of the consequences is a decrease in the immune defense, an increase in the sensitization of the organism. With excessive sensitivity to various stimuli, the risk of negative reactions increases several times: remember this.
Next, a video about the causes of allergies in infants and the methods of dealing with the pathology:
When allergies pass
Rash and redness of the skin begin 1-1.5 hours after the interaction with the allergen. Food allergies from the intestines manifested within two days. That is why lactating mothers, when introduced into the diet of a new product, are recommended to monitor the reaction of the newborn for two days.
How much allergy a baby goes through depends on several factors. First of all, it is contact with the allergen and the types of reactions. If we exclude the pathogen immediately, then the reaction will take place in a few hours. But to eliminate the reaction to food quickly does not work, because it takes time to digest, complete elimination of the product from the body and subsequent rehabilitation. Symptoms of allergy after exclusion of the pathogen from the menu during breastfeeding will continue for another two to three weeks. Time depends on the amount of food taken.
The duration is also influenced by the effectiveness and efficiency of treatment, the state of immunity. The stronger the immunity in children, the faster the body cope with the disease.
How to help baby
When an allergic reaction occurs in a child, parents immediately wonder what to do and how to treat it. A rash on the skin, which manifests itself in the first weeks due to the hormones of the mother, will pass on its own. Treatment in this case is not necessary. Do not remove or treat red spots with cotton swabs! This will cause the skin to spread throughout the skin.
If allergies are not caused by hormones, then treatment should begin with a diet. Eliminate from the diet foods allergens. You can not take various means and drugs for children, as self-medication can only aggravate the condition of the child! To determine the form of allergies, consult a doctor. Only a specialist can prescribe the correct treatment!
How to help your child with allergies:
- Hypoallergenic diet, which doctors advise every mother to use in the first 1-1.5 months of lactation. Such a diet will reduce the risk of the risk of an allergic reaction and help to cope with an ailment that has already appeared. On the principles of nutrition with a hypoallergenic diet, read the link http://vskormi.ru/mama/gipoallergennaya-dieta-dlya-kormyashhix-mam/,
- Often the cause of food allergies is cow protein. Exclude from the diet of similar products, especially cow's milk. Famous pediatrician Komarovsky does not recommend drinking cow’s milk during breastfeeding, 4-6 months from the date of birth,
- Observe the perfect clean in the house. Remember that dust is the strongest allergen that can cause various diseases and complications. In case of allergies, you may have to remove soft toys, carpets and fur blankets from the premises, which collect dust in large quantities,
- Wash things at a high temperature with hypoallergenic soap or powder and rinse thoroughly. Linen is washed at least twice a week. Blankets and pillows choose with hypoallergenic synthetic filler. Often, an allergy in a newborn comes from feather bedding,
- With artificial or mixed feeding, an allergy in a newborn may be due to an incorrectly chosen formula. In case of a negative reaction, use non-cow protein-free hypoallergenic products. How to choose the right mix, read the article “Mixed feeding rules”.
In case of allergies and the child in any case, do not stop breastfeeding! After all, breast milk forms and strengthens the immune system, which is able to quickly deal with an allergic reaction. Only mother's milk nourishes the body of children with essential vitamins and beneficial elements to the full.
Remember that allergies are a disease. Therefore, if you find symptoms, immediately consult a doctor. He will prescribe tests that will help identify the allergen. After exclusion of the pathogen, the symptoms of the disease diminish and gradually disappear.
It is strictly forbidden to start self-treatment and use drugs! Only a specialist will correctly select drugs that quickly cope with the disease and will not harm the infant. There are various means for children.
Immune system weakness
The body of the child in the first years of life has a weak immune system, which can not cope with the surrounding harmful factors adequately, as in an adult.
Many foreign substances entering the body of a child provoke an immune response, so allergic reactions most often occur in the first year of life.
The intestinal tract has local immune protection, but children of the first year of life have not yet had time to form all the components of antibodies, therefore many food products, getting into the intestine and the circulatory system, are perceived as foreign agents.
Any food product can become an allergen to a baby, it all depends on individual intolerance.
There are a number of products that contain a large number of allergens, it is on these products that an allergic reaction most often occurs:
- Chicken eggs.
- Cow milk and dairy products.
- Nuts, especially peanuts.
- Fish, caviar, seafood.
- Fruit bright color.
Protein - the main allergen, and the listed products are protein, that is strong allergens.
The immune system reacts to the ingress of foreign protein, with an allergy to one of the products, the reaction will occur when eating other foods.
Photo: Reaction to prikorm
On the general condition
Symptoms of irritation appear in children whenever there is a malaise and deterioration of health:
- The child begins to act up.
- Restless sleep - often wakes up.
- The kid can abandon games and communication.
- Disturbed appetite.
The allergen enters the bloodstream, where antibodies react to it by isolating mediators of inflammation and allergy.
The characteristic symptoms of allergies will be due precisely to the effect of mediators:
- The permeability of the vascular wall increases, therefore the fluid comes out of the vessels, interstitial edema is formed, which manifests itself as an urticar rash - dense, non-cavity formations on the skin.
- With a further exit of the fluid cavity can be filled, blisters are formed.
- Swelling of the mucous membranes may occur.
- Peeling skin.
- Scales on the scalp.
- Due to the expansion of the lumen of blood vessels appears koi hyperemia - redness. Hyperemia may be local in the form of redness or occupy large areas.
- Formations on the skin may be characterized by the release of fluid - weeping.
On the mucous membranes
- Allergies can be reflected through the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity, then transparent mucous secretions appear.
- There may be inflammation in the mucous membrane of the eyes - conjunctivitis.
- Damage to the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract will cause sputum and wheezing.
What to do baby's mother up to 6 months
Mothers who feed their baby with breast milk do not need to switch to artificial feeding and introduce supplementary foods during allergy symptoms.
It is necessary to adjust the menu of a nursing woman so that there are no allergens in it. A nursing woman should avoid contact with allergens, not only food, but also in the environment.
What foods will include diet?
- Rye bread,
- rice porridge on the water,
- chicken fillet,
- turkey fillet,
- all kinds of cabbage
- green apple,
- olive oil,
- sunflower oil,
- low-fat varieties of dairy products,
- dried fruits,
- dried fruits compote,
- dogrose decoction,
- still water
- weak teas.
How to cook?
- Do not fry.
- Do not add spices.
- Do not cook strong broths.
- Use only fresh produce.
- Do not use canned products.
- Every day to make a varied menu.
- Do not eat more than one apple per day.
- rice porridge on the water,
- rye bread and butter,
- weak tea
- vegetable soup on a loose broth,
- fish steak,
- mashed potatoes
- Rye bread,
- dried fruits compote.
- braised cabbage,
- rabbit fillet
- tea is not strong.
Before going to bed you can kefir.
What to do when reacting to complementary foods
The introduction of complementary foods should begin no earlier than the child was six months old. By this time, his immune system had strengthened. Although complementary foods should begin to be administered with hypoallergenic products, allergies can occur in a child.
- Peeling skin.
- Nasal discharge.
The first symptoms are localized on the face, and then spread throughout the body.
Mandatory consultation with a pediatrician:
- If a reaction occurs, discard this product for a week so that the rashes are completely gone.
- During the week, do not give new products.
- A week later, try to give the child the same food.
To get rid of allergies, give your child antihistamines:
- "Diazolin" in a dose of 50-100 mg.
- "Suprastin" is allowed for children from a month in the form of an intramuscular injection or tablets.
The drug for relieving symptoms is better to check with the pediatrician.
- Assign systemic antihistamines to reduce the production of mediators of inflammation and allergies.
- "Suprastin" has an additional anti-emetic effect and acts as an antispasmodic, these properties should be taken into account when the child has these symptoms, so as not to overload it with drugs.
It is the drug of the first generation, therefore, it has its own side effects:
- causes drowsiness,
- leads to dry mucous membranes,
- causes heart palpitations,
- leads to urinary retention,
- "Diazolin" - the drug of the first generation of antihistamines, therefore, has a sedative effect on the child,
- "Dimedrol" has pronounced antihistamine properties, so it is prescribed in severe cases, when there is a threat to life due to an allergic reaction, in large doses is a sleeping pill,
- "Zyrtec" is a second-generation drug, it does not have pronounced hypnotic and sedative properties, it is allowed for children in the form of drops from six months.
- The use of local antihistamines in the form of ointments and gels to reduce redness and itching on baby’s skin:
- "Fenistil-gel" is not recommended for children under one month
- "Psilo-balm" has a local anesthetic effect, reduces the permeability of blood vessels, so redness and swelling are reduced after its application, but sun rays should not be allowed to contact this area of skin.
- Assign enterosorbents to cleanse the intestines from allergens. It is necessary to take into account the time of medication, enterosorbents should be taken 1-2 hours before or after taking the medication.
- Activated carbon, based on the weight of the child, one tablet per 10 kg,
- "Enterosgel" half a tablespoon three times a day for children under five years old,
- "Polysorb MP" is prescribed depending on the body weight of the child.
- Enemas should also be taken after taking the allergen to clear the intestinal tract.
To establish an accurate diagnosis you need to contact an allergist, he will conduct a series of tests, which will determine the allergen or group of allergens.
At home, allergies can be suspected by the symptoms that appear after consuming highly allergic foods.
How to prevent quinic edema in children? Click to find out.
- In order to prevent allergies in a child, you should introduce lactation not earlier than six months to the baby being breastfed, not earlier than four months to the child being artificially fed.
- On the first day of complementary foods, give no more than one teaspoon of complementary foods.
- During the introduction of new foods every day, increase the portion by half a teaspoon.
- Introduce new feed in two weeks.
- Do not give children cow's milk to two years.
- To exclude from the child's diet sweets, especially chocolate and honey.
- Drive meat to children after eight months.
- The first food should be from hypoallergenic products prepared by the parents themselves, to exclude preservatives in mashed potatoes from the store and pharmacy.
- Use only fresh and natural products for cooking.
- During pregnancy, a woman should watch out for her food and not eat dangerous foods.
- During breastfeeding, the mother's diet should be very strict, excluding all allergens.
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What precursors are allergic to newborns?
It is always difficult to recognize the danger at the stage of its generation. This is especially difficult to do when it comes to the human body and the hidden dangers of the occurrence of various diseases. Allergies in newborns are not a white spot on a black background, for which the eye immediately clings. After the baby is born on the body, there are quite natural rashes, reddening of the skin, peeling on the cheeks from dried mother's milk that fell on them at the time of feeding. All this distracts the attention of parents from more serious skin rashes.
Skipping the first signs of the onset of allergies is very simple. Especially if you take into account the strong fatigue of the mother after childbirth and her increased fatigue in the first days of communication with the baby. Of course, if an allergy in newborns begins to manifest itself from the first days brightly, with pronounced laryngeal edema, which prevents the child from breathing freely and provoking attacks of suffocation, or red rashes all over the body, causing severe itching and constant anxiety of the child, manifested as an incessant scream , - not to pay attention to these signs is simply impossible.
However, most often allergies in newborns are not so violent. There are a number of signs that should give an attentive mother an idea about the onset of allergy. These features include:
- diathesis rash, quickly crusting,
- thrush in the oral cavity, with the formation of ulcers on the inner surface of the cheeks and lips,
- pronounced diaper rash,
- frequent sneezing, cough.
In most cases, all of these symptoms can be indicators of the norm, which have arisen under the influence of external adverse factors. If this is so, then the signs that appear will quickly pass, after the application of measures specifically aimed at their elimination. In the case of allergies, none of the listed symptoms will not pass until the effect of the allergen is eliminated.
In order to remove from your soul unnecessary excitement, after the birth of a baby, you need to visit a pediatrician not only during strictly designated periods, but also in each case when questions and suspicions about the health of the child arise.
What to do if there is an allergy in the newborn?
How many situations, so many options for their development and, consequently, all sorts of solutions. It is important not to panic and not to focus only on the food mechanism of allergy in the newborn. It is necessary to consider the situation comprehensively, correctly assess the situation, take into account all the factors surrounding the child.
For clarity, it is necessary to make a list that includes all medicinal and cosmetic preparations that have been used recently. In the first paragraph of the list it is necessary to indicate on what feeding the baby is. If milk formulas are used, indicate their names and basic composition. Well, if at the stage of pregnancy, the mother kept a food diary, which in such a situation will play an important role. Pay special attention to household chemicals, especially those used in the washing of baby clothes. All these points are reflected in the list. There also enter data on all pets, including parrots and fish.
Aquarium fish, in and of themselves, do not cause allergies, but the food for them is a very strong causative factor, if remaining in the hands of adults, somehow gets on the child. Having on hands detailed "intelligence information", supported by the food diary we go to reception to the pediatrician and the children's allergist. All of the above preparation greatly simplifies the process of finding the cause and, in some cases, saves the child from unnecessary medical intervention in his body.
How is allergy treated in newborns?
In no case should not apply the methods of self-treatment and implement the advice of grandmothers "from personal life experience," even if they are based on well-proven drugs. The body of a newborn is more like a crystal house with a wide-open gate than a fortress with good defense. Trying to close the gates in this crystal house with one awkward movement can damage the building itself. The more damage, the more glued areas that will require additional bonding throughout life.
Perhaps this comparative example will help parents to correctly understand the mechanism of outside interference in the affairs of the organism in general and of children in particular. Only a professional can perform jewelery accurate work. At the stage of first aid, if you know the exact cause of the allergy, you only need to protect the child from the effects of the allergen and hurry to seek help from a pediatrician. A more urgent appeal to the doctor should be in case of an unknown allergen.
The active participation of all family members at each stage of treatment, strict adherence to prescriptions and recommendations of the pediatrician and allergist - there is a guarantee that allergy in newborns will be eliminated quickly and without repeated relapses.
The reaction of the nasal mucosa - allergic rhinitis
Often there are combined manifestations of the disease.
Some types of allergic manifestations are very dangerous for infants, especially angioedema or bronchospasm. Severe allergies cause laryngeal edema, only a qualified doctor can help. It is urgent to give the baby an antihistamine drug and call an ambulance team of doctors.
Causes of the disease in young children
Parents of newborns often wonder why in some babies the body normally perceives antigens, while in other children it manifests itself in the form of various lesions. The reaction does not go away, the parents are desperate and do not know what to do.
In addition to the above factors of predisposition to allergic manifestations, pediatricians explain the fetal hypoxia, colds and viral diseases, intestinal infections, which often violate the normal intestinal microflora. Also, in infants, due to its age, the function of digestion has not normalized, and the strong permeability of the mucous membranes of the nose and larynx easily allows allergens to enter the blood.
A bad role for a baby is smoking in women during pregnancy, the presence in mothers of chronic diseases of the bronchi and lungs, as well as the cardiovascular system, taking antibiotics while waiting for the child.
Pediatricians classify all antigens into external and internal. External allergens in contact with the skin include pet dander, dust, plant pollen, cosmetics. Internal antigens are substances that enter the child’s stomach and intestines along with food.
According to specialists in children's allergic diseases, food allergies are considered to be the most common in infants.
Often breastfeeding women mistakenly believe that in the case of feeding a baby with milk, they are 100% immune to the disease. This is completely wrong, allergens are often present in breast milk. What should be done in this case nursing mom? The answer is simple - carefully monitor your diet. If the child is on infant formula, the cause should be sought in the composition of the mixture used or in the child intolerance to cow's milk proteins.
When the allergen enters the baby's stomach and causes a number of internal and external negative reactions, most often the reaction shows itself immediately. But sometimes it happens that the reaction is slow and manifests itself in a few hours after using such a product. This circumstance makes it difficult to determine the allergenic product.
The appearance of symptoms similar to allergic, requires consultation of the baby with a pediatrician or a child allergist. After examining the child, conducting special studies (ultrasound, special blood tests), interviewing parents about the diet of both mother and child, the doctor can make a diagnosis and tell parents what they need to do to treat the baby.
Prior to the onset of antiallergic treatment, children as young as one year old carry out skin tests to determine exactly what product causes allergies. The essence of the method is as follows: something from the standard set of children's allergens (citrus, chocolate, eggs, honey) is placed on the skin, after a short time the doctor evaluates the result. Also, children's allergists suggest parents keep a food diary of the child. It should regularly record everything that the baby consumed during the day, and what kind of reaction it had (rash, vomiting, urticaria, which was the chair after this meal).
Allergy treatment in infants
The main thing in the treatment of food allergies - a strict diet and a ban on foods that cause it. Accordingly, if the baby is on breastfeeding, his mother cannot eat foods with potential allergens. For example, should be removed from the diet:
- salt, sugar,
- rich broth,
- any fried foods
- limit dairy products, especially fat sour cream and cottage cheese. It is also undesirable to eat yoghurts or cottage cheese mixes with artificial colors,
- fish, eggs, mushrooms, honey, cocoa, coffee, nuts,
- all red or orange fruits and vegetables.
This is not a complete list of prohibited products. An allergist will tell about all the exceptions to the nursing mother.
For babies with artificial milk formulas, the most common cause of allergies is whole cow milk proteins. A child can undergo a special examination to confirm the diagnosis. In such situations, the doctor recommends to use the mixture with a special hypoallergenic composition based on soy protein. Also recommended are milk formulas, in which cow's milk protein is broken down to the level of amino acids - this state of the protein does not cause allergies.
The disadvantage of such mixtures is that in the first variant, some children are also allergic to soy protein, and in the second variant, the mixture is expensive and not very pleasant to taste.
If the exclusion of a product with an allergen is selected correctly, the child’s reaction to it passes.
To alleviate the condition of infants who have a strong allergy, the pediatrician prescribes antihistamines, adsorbents, various ointments for the treatment of rashes and diaper rash and relieving itching and inflammation. Treatment of intestinal microflora is adjusted with the help of drugs with bifidobacteria and lactobacilli.
What should be done to prevent the disease
Pediatricians are advised to prevent the manifestation of allergy in babies to perform the following actions:
- until six months, try not to give the baby any additional supplements other than mother's milk,
- then additional supplements should be introduced, consisting of one neutral component, in order to more easily understand its tolerance,
- if possible, not to give children's medicines, sweetened and tinted with artificial flavors and dyes,
- for child care, mothers should use only hypoallergenic cosmetics for children,
- for babies you need to buy clothes from natural materials. Synthetic fabrics very often overheat the skin of the crumbs and cause allergic urticaria,
- doctors advise not to keep animals in the house, especially wool,
- The air in the room should be clean, moderately cool and humid. It should often do in the room of the child wet cleaning.
Over time, the child’s internal organs normalize their functions, especially the intestines and liver. The immune system of the baby with a healthy lifestyle will begin to perceive allergens adequately, and very often the children's allergy in infants disappears.