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What does mom need to know about newborns in the first place?

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1 month of a child's life is very important for both the baby and his mother. During this period, the little man adapts to life outside the safe womb of his mother. And then a woman learns to be a mother, responsive to any changes in the life of her baby.

Physical indicators

The first month of a baby’s life is a special period when physiological parameters can tell a mother a lot.

The first thing you should pay attention to right in the hospital is how much the baby sleeps. A healthy and well-developing child at this time spends in sleep almost all the day, remaining active for 2-4 hours. At the same time in a dream he can eat, actively move his arms and legs.

The second is an increase in the parameters of the baby. Thus, according to WHO, a child must gain at least 600 grams during the first month, grow about three centimeters and increase the volume of the head by one and a half centimeters. The first signal of concern is a shortage of the specified weight. However, if the child is actively eating, has a good stool, then it is worth waiting for the planned examination of the doctor.

The third is sight. At 1 month of the child’s life, it begins to focus. The kid gradually begins to discern silhouettes, recognize relatives, shows interest in the contemplation of objects.

The fourth is the rumor. In a dream, as a rule, the child does not respond to loud noises. But in the waking state, he is obliged to shudder with sharp and loud sounds. It is also worth noting that if the baby has problems with the ears, then he can show it with the help of active head torsion.

The fifth is the sense of smell. Normally, only by the end of the first month the child can begin the so-called cleaning of the mucous membrane. However, only a specialist can determine if it is. And therefore at the first signs of a cold you should consult a doctor. Ignoring this symptom or self-medication can cause the baby to stop responding to odors.

The sixth is the chair. The development of a child in the first month of life depends largely on his diet. Its quality and quantity can easily be determined by the chair. Normally, a breastfed baby is emptied after each feeding. Artificial baby does it once or twice a day. Both chairs should be golden in color.

Mental indicators

1 month of a child’s life is fully focused on reflex formation. The main one is sucking. With its help, the baby receives much-needed milk for him. And this rule applies to both infants and artificials.

The following three reflexes are aimed at active knowledge of the surrounding world - prehensile, Mora and search. Grasp allows you to explore the surface, the search - the location of objects in space, Mora is responsible for the recognition of sound and its source.

In 1 month of a child’s life, future upright skills are also formed. This is facilitated by four reflexes - supports, swimming, crawling and walking. The reflex of a support forces the kid to touch completely for a short while a surface with feet. The swimming reflex is to perform characteristic movements in the “prone position”. Reflexes crawling and walking reflect the ability to walk in the future.

All the indicators described are very important in order for the doctor to assess at the first examination how fully not only the physical, but also the mental development of the child occurs.

Vision in the first month of a child's life

Your baby sees things best at a distance of 20 - 25 cm. This is the ideal distance to look into the eyes of a mom or dad.

Next, newborns see mostly blurry figures, because they are short-sighted.

Their eyes are especially sensitive to bright light, so babies are more likely to open their eyes in low light.

Do not worry if the child sometimes mows or rolls his eyes. This is normal until the vision of your child improves, and the muscles of the eyes do not increase.

The child should be able to follow the slow movements of the person or object.

What can a child hear up to 1 month?

The baby heard sounds still in the womb. The heartbeat of the mother, the murmur of her digestive system and even the sounds of her voice are part of the world of the child before birth.

When a baby is born, the sounds of the world around you sound loud and clear. A child may marvel at the unexpected barking of a dog nearby or calm down with the gentle humming of a hair dryer.

Taste and olfactory sensations of the newborn in the first month

Babies taste and smell and will be positioned for sweet tastes, not bitter ones. For example, a newborn will prefer to suck on a bottle of sweetened water, but will turn away or cry if he is given something bitter or sour to taste. Similarly, newborns will turn to the smells they prefer and turn away from odors that they dislike.

Tactile sensations

Touching is important to the newborn. With each touch, the newborn learns life and his environment.

In the womb, babies are kept warm and protected, but after birth, for the first time, they feel the cold, the heat, the hard seams of clothing.

Make sure the newborn finds the outside world a soothing place. Provide plenty of comfortable clothing and soft blankets, tender kisses, caresses and comforting hugs.

From the moment of birth, babies begin to react to the world around them. Their reactions to the mother’s arms or loud sound are examples of normal child development.

Behavior of the newborn

  1. Turns the head toward the voices of the parents or other sounds.
  2. He cries to report the need to pick him up or feed him, change diapers or put him to bed.
  3. He stops crying when his desire is satisfied (they took the child in their arms, fed them or put them to bed).

Motor and physical development of the child in the first month

From the very beginning, the child has a set of reflexes designed to protect him and provide the necessary help, even if the parental instincts have not yet entered into force.

These early reflexes include the search reflex, which helps locate the breast or the feeding bottle, the sucking reflex (it helps to eat), the grasp reflex (the one that causes your finger to squeeze when placed in the baby’s palm) and the Moro reflex (the nervous reaction he feels when scared).

Rules for child care in the first month of life

  • Be sure to wash your hands before taking the baby. Newborns do not yet have strong immunity, so they are susceptible to infection. Make sure everyone who communicates with the child has clean hands,
  • be careful to support the head and neck of the baby when you wear it or put it in the crib,
  • Do not shake the newborn, whether in the game or in frustration. Severe shaking can cause intracranial bleeding and even death. If you need to wake up the baby, do not shake the baby. Instead, tick your baby's feet or gently stroke his cheek,
  • make sure that the baby in the carrier, stroller or car seat is well fastened. Limit any activity that may be too rough or vigorous for the crumbs.

Feeding the newborn

How to feed your newborn in the first month, breast or bottle, decides mother.

You may be confused as to how often to do this. As a rule, it is recommended to feed children on demand, that is, every time he seems hungry. A child can give signs with crying, sucking a fist or poking sounds.

A newborn baby should be fed every 2 to 3 hours. If you are breastfeeding, give your baby the opportunity to suckle about 10 to 15 minutes from each breast. If you feed the mixture, give about 60 to 90 milliliters for each feed. For each individual baby, you can individually calculate a single volume of the mixture.

Diaper change

Before changing the diaper, make sure that all accessories are within reach and you do not have to leave the baby alone on the changing table.

To change the diaper are needed:

  • clean diaper
  • ointment under the diaper, if the baby has a rash,
  • a container filled with warm water
  • clean cloth, wipes or cotton pads.

After each act of defecation, or if the diaper is wet, put the baby on the back and remove the dirty diaper. Use water, cotton discs and wipes to gently wipe the baby's genitals. Changing the diaper in the boy, do it with caution, since exposure to air can cause urination.

When wiping the girl, rub the crotch from the labia to the bottom to avoid urinary tract infections. Apply ointment to prevent and treat rashes.

Always wash your hands thoroughly before and after changing a diaper.

A diaper rash is a common problem. As a rule, it is red and convex. After a few days, it will disappear when bathing in warm water, using a cream under the diaper, and with a small amount of time spent without it. Most rashes are due to the sensitivity of the skin; it is irritated by a wet diaper.

To prevent or cure a rash in the diaper area, try a number of ways:

  1. Change the baby's diaper often and as soon as possible after a bowel movement.
  2. After washing, apply a “barrier” cream. Zinc creams are preferable because they form a moisture barrier.
  3. Leave the baby without a diaper for a while. This gives the skin the opportunity to take an air bath.

You will change your baby many times a day.

Here is Some tips to help make work more pleasant - for the crumbs and for you:

  • start with comfortable clothes. Look for stretch fabrics, wide necks, loose sleeves, cuffs and ankles, snaps, snaps or zippers on the front of the garment, not on the back. The lace may look adorable on your little girl, but it can be prickly or even tangle the baby’s fingers, so save it for special occasions,
  • Attach the bib if the crumb regularly spits. After all, it is much easier to replace it than clothes.

Umbilical wound care and circumcision

Care for the umbilical wound is very important. Experts suggest rubbing the area with alcohol until the umbilical cord dries and disappears.

The navel area of ​​a baby cannot be immersed in water until the umbilical cord falls and the area heals.

If the boy is circumcised, immediately after the procedure, the head of the penis is covered with gauze smeared with petroleum jelly so that the wound does not stick to the diaper. Gently wipe the head after changing the diaper with clean warm water, then apply petroleum jelly. Redness or irritation of the penis should heal in a few days, but if redness, swelling or pus-filled blisters appear, contact your doctor immediately.

Nail cutting

The nails grew even before the baby was born, so you can get a manicure in the first week of life. This procedure should be carried out every 2–3 days in the first month, until the nails harden and stop growing so quickly.

When trimming, hold the child's finger while pressing the tip of the finger down and away from the nail. Gently cut the nails, following the natural curve of the nail. Make sure that you do not cut it too low and do not make any sudden movements. While holding tiny toes, trim your fingernails straight, without curving to the edges. Remember that toenails grow more slowly and therefore require less maintenance.

Bathing basics

You must wipe the baby with a soft sponge before the umbilical cord disappears and the navel completely heals (1-4 weeks).

Prepare the following Subjects before bathing a child:

  • clean soft washcloth
  • mild baby soap and odorless shampoo,
  • soft brush to massage the scalp,
  • towel or blanket,
  • clean diaper
  • fresh clothes.

To do this, select a flat, safe surface in a warm room. Fill the sink, if it is near, or the bowl with warm water. Strip the baby and wrap him with a towel. Wipe baby's eyes with clean cotton balls dipped in water. Movement should be directed from the inside corner to the outside.

Then lather the baby shampoo and gently wash the baby's head. Try to wash the foam as carefully as possible. Use a damp cloth to gently wipe the body, especially pay attention to the axillary folds, the areas around the neck, behind the ears and in the genital area. Then you need to dry your skin, put on a diaper and clothes.

Bathing in the bath

When your child is ready to take a bath, the first bath should be short-term.

An infant bath is added to the above accessories. The baby bath is a plastic bath that fits in a large bath. This is the best size for babies, and swimming with her becomes easier.

Make sure that the bath water is not more than 5 - 7 cm deep. Strip the baby in a warm room, then immediately place it in water to prevent chills. Slowly lower the baby in the chest in the tub, holding his head with one hand.

Wash your face and hair with a washcloth. Gently massage the scalp with the tips of your fingers or a soft baby brush.

When you rinse the shampoo or soap from the baby’s head, place your hand on the forehead so that the foam flows around the sides and the soap does not get into your eyes.

Gently wash the rest of the baby’s body with water.

During the entire bathing, constantly pour water over the child so that he does not catch a cold. After bathing, immediately wrap the crumbs with a towel, make sure that it covers his head.

A baby towel with a hood is great for keeping a freshly washed baby warm.

Sleep basics

The newborn, who seems to need you every minute of the day, actually sleeps for about 16 hours or more. Newborns tend to sleep for 2 to 4 hours. Do not expect him to sleep throughout the night. The digestive system of babies is so small that they need food every few hours, and the crumbs should wake up if they have not been fed for 4 hours.

Also, in order to prevent unilateral flattening of the head, do not forget to alternate the position of the infant every night.

Many newborns have their days and nights confused. They tend to stay awake at night, and sleep more during the day. One of the methods to help them is to reduce nighttime arousal to a minimum. Keep the light low using a night light. Talk and play with your baby for the day. When the baby wakes up during the day, try to keep him awake a little while talking and playing.

Encouraging the newborn to learn

As parents take care of their newborn, he learns to recognize touch, the sound of voices, and the look of faces.

In the first weeks you can start several simple, age-adapted toys that develop hearing, sight and tactile sensations.

  1. Rattles.
  2. Kids toys.
  3. Musical toys.
  4. Unbreakable bed mirrors.

Try toys and mobiles with contrasting colors and patterns. Strong contrasts (such as red, white and black), bends and symmetry stimulate the development of the child’s vision. When vision improves and children gain more control over their movements, they will increasingly interact with their environment.

Store stocks of easily accessible but nutritious foods, such as cheese sticks, hard-boiled eggs, yogurt, cottage cheese, fruits, and ready-made vegetables, so you can eat often. Know that your nutritional needs will be higher if you give the baby a breast.

When a baby is 1 month old, it should be fed at least 6 times a day. Try not to strictly control the feeding time, let the child determine how much and how often he wants to eat.

Sleep organization

Let the crumble in 1 month sleep enough, be sensitive to his signals.

Even at this early stage, try to put the baby in his crib when he is tired but not yet asleep. Most young children go to bed soon after feeding, and their “sleeping window” can be very short.

Perhaps you will watch the early smiles when the month of the newborn. But most likely this will be due to their reflexes, and not to the reaction. Closer to six weeks, the child will give a true smile. Many children have colic at the age of 1 month of life.

Motor skills of a child in 1 month

A baby in 1 month will be stronger than a newborn. He may be able to raise his head for a short time, when he is standing upright or lying on his stomach. Perhaps he can even turn her from side to side. But you still need to give him support.

Your child also becomes more expressive and can start to shit when he sees relatives. Be sure to respond to his efforts to promote these communication skills.

How to develop a child in 1 month?

  • Provide your child daily lay on the tummy. This will help develop the muscles in the neck and upper torso,
  • Turn on the music and try not to filter the world of your child. Хотя может возникнуть соблазн ходить на цыпочках дома, когда ребёнок спит, это приведёт к тому, что малыш станет чувствительным к шуму окружающей среды. Младенцы, которые приходят в семьи, где уже много маленьких детей, не реагируют на домашний шум и учатся приспосабливаться, потому что они должны это делать.

Все дети уникальны и проходят этапы развития в своем собственном темпе. Development guidelines simply show what a crumb can realize. And if not at the moment, then in the very near future.

If you have questions or problems, ask your doctor to suggest possible solutions that will help you and your baby grow together.

Growth and development of the child 1 month of life

In a month the baby grows fast, eats well and gains weight. During the last week of his life, his body length increased by an average of 1.2 cm, and his body weight by 250-270 g (based on WHO data). The lower weight limit for male babies at 1 month is 3.6 kg, the upper one is 6 kg. For girls, the figures are slightly lower: these are 3.5 kg (lower limit) and 4.6 kg (upper limit). Head circumference increases by about 1.5 cm per month.

Table of indicators of child development in 1 month

If the weight or height of a month-old baby is significantly different from the norm, then the reasons may be the following factors:

  • selected feeding method (breast / artificial feeding),
  • problems when feeding a baby (baby’s failure from the breast, allergies, insufficient milk lactation),
  • features of the course of pregnancy and the process of childbirth (for example, the child was born prematurely),
  • the presence of the child's disease, affecting the parameters of height / weight,
  • heredity,
  • ecology (the mother has bad habits, dangerous environmental factors).

Physical development of a child in 1 month

The first weeks of a child's life can be called a period of adaptation to independent life outside of her mother's womb. Consider the most basic features of the physical development of the child, which occur in the body of the baby at the age of one month.

  • After the birth, the baby's circulatory system is rebuilt. There is an intense blood supply to the liver and brain.
  • The immune system is learning to produce specific immunoglobulins to fight infections.
  • The kidneys adequately perform their first functions, but before half a year they will be immature, and only after this time they will begin to fully function.
  • The respiratory system of the baby provides the body with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.
  • The child's movements are becoming more and more confident: he can already smoothly hold the pen to his mouth or his face.
  • White “grains of sand” disappear on the nose, cheeks and forehead of the baby - milia that could be observed in a child after his birth.
  • Lying on the stomach, the baby turns its head and briefly tries to lift it from the surface by about 45 degrees. Some babies are able to keep their head at a right angle in a month and rotate it slightly. The most active babies at this age are trying to raise their heads in the supine position.
  • Wedge-shaped and back fontanelles on the head of the child begin to drag on. This is a very slow process, it will take at least a few more weeks to close them. The big spring usually closes later, it takes about a year to process its ossification.
  • The skin of the baby in the first month continues to climb a little, especially between the fingers. It is not as dry as it was after birth. If necessary, you can moisturize your baby’s skin with a special hypoallergenic baby milk or cream labeled 0+.
  • An important indicator of the health of the crumbs is the favorable healing of the umbilical wound. At the age of one month it is covered with a crust and does not bleed. In the process of caring for the baby, the mother should monitor the state of the navel, treat it with hydrogen peroxide or brilliant green, and add a weak solution of potassium permanganate to the bathing water for disinfection.

Examination of the child in 1 month

After discharge from the hospital, the child is visited by a district pediatrician or nurse. They carry out the patronage of newborns. During the first 4 weeks the doctor will visit the crumb at least 2 times, and the nurse - 4 times.

From the moment a child of the month is executed, parents must come to the clinic with the pediatrician for a monthly examination with him. The doctor will evaluate the general condition of the baby, check for the presence of basic reflexes, feel the tummy, listen to the lungs and heart. In addition, the pediatrician weighs the baby, measures the length of his body, the circumference of the chest and head.

Also, babies in 1 month should inspect:

If additional examinations were not conducted at the maternity hospital, the child needs to undergo several more important studies - this is an ultrasound of the brain (helps to see the structure of the baby’s brain), an ultrasound of the hip joints (necessary to exclude joint dysplasia), and also an ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and kidneys (for identifying / excluding the presence of irregularities in the structure of internal organs at an early stage).

As for vaccinations, the second vaccination against viral hepatitis B is given to the child per month (the first vaccination is given to a newborn in the first 24 hours after birth).

Features of physiology in one and a half and two months

The first months the baby grows very intensively. His organs and systems adapt to the environment, and the kid himself instinctively reaches for his mother. Up to a year visits to the pediatrician occur every month. At the reception of the child, they measure, weigh, check the work of the heart and lungs, the presence of congenital reflexes, muscle tone, examine the skin. Indicators of anthropometric measurements may depend on the individual development of the child and on indicators at birth. At the same time, their difference from the norm is not a sign of pathology. After examining the child, the pediatrician makes a conclusion about his physical development.

Average anthropometric indices in newborns and in two months: height and weight standards - table

From one to two months, the child adds about 800 g of body weight, the height increases by about 3 cm, and the circumference of the head and chest by 1–2 cm.

Up to four months in children can find increased muscle tone. In most cases, this is normal. The baby during the whole pregnancy was forced to be in the fetal position. After birth, his body adapts to new conditions gradually, and hypertonus also slowly passes. But sometimes increased muscle tone can be an unpleasant symptom of a disease. For example, cerebral palsy, congenital brain pathologies, prolonged asphyxia (lack of oxygen) in childbirth, etc. manifest themselves as such. In diseases this symptom is not the only one, therefore, the doctor takes into account the overall development of the baby, the presence of reflexes, data Ultrasound and computed tomography.

Let's start with the fact that children under the age of one muscle tonephysiologically (i.e. in the most natural way) is higher than in older children. "What is dangerous increased muscle tone in children about a year? ”It’s all very much like a briefcase standing alone in a subway car. It could be a bomb, or maybe some clogged engineer forgot. Having found a portfolio, you should call specialists - let them figure it out: and this can be very, very serious, and maybe even the utmost nonsense - an absolute analogy with increased muscle tone!

E.O. Komarovsky

http://www.komarovskiy.net/faq/povyshennyj-myshechnyj-tonus.html

The stool in children at this age is mushy and quite frequent, depending on the type of feeding. Its color changes from birth to yellowish. At this time, the intestine is actively colonized by useful microflora. The chair may be absent for 1-3 days, this should not cause concern to parents. But if he is gone for more than 4–5 days, this is a reason to consult a doctor. Kid's digestion is normalized, but he may still be disturbed by abdominal pain and increased gas formation. To help the child cope with these troubles, some techniques help: laying out on the tummy before eating, pressing bent legs to the abdomen, venting tube, drugs against increased gas formation, warm pelenochka on the tummy (not a hot water bottle!), Massage the abdomen in a clockwise direction. Mom can put the baby on her stomach, sometimes her warmth soothes the child better than other options. Often, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have a positive effect on the intestinal function.

Burping is common for children of this age. If the baby burps a little, no more than 20 ml, then you should not worry. When the volume of milk coming back is very large, you should consult a specialist. The reason for this may be overeating, laying out on the stomach immediately after feeding, or any disease. To prevent frequent regurgitation after eating a baby, it is advisable to hold the column for 10–15 minutes.

Sleeps baby about 18 hours a day. At night sleep about 11 hours. In the afternoon, the child rests several times from 20 minutes to 3 hours. Outdoor sleep is usually longer than indoors.

When parents have questions, they must be asked a pediatrician. The doctor does not observe the baby 24 hours a day, and for 10–20 minutes he may not see some important symptom.

If the parents of the child are worried or in doubt about his behavior or well-being, it is necessary to consult a doctor. If the doctor does not give adequate explanations and does not send for further examination, it is worth visiting another specialist.

Basic reflexes of a month-old child

  1. Sucking reflex - the baby begins to actively suck when either the breast or the nipple gets into his mouth. The extinction of the reflex occurs by the end of the year.
  2. Search reflex - if you hold your hand on the cheek of a baby, then its head turns in the same direction, and the mouth is looking for the mother's breast. The reflex may subside by three months, the complete disappearance occurs by the year.
  3. Reflex Babinsky - if you hold on the outer edge of the foot to the fingers, then there is a divergence of the fingers. Some doctors consider the presence of this reflex to be the norm for up to a year, but there is an opinion that such a reaction of the foot to the stimulus is a sign of pathology, and consultation of a specialist is required.
  4. Hand and mouth reflex - when a thumb is pressed on the palm of a child, it turns its head and opens its mouth. The extinction of the reflex should occur by three months.
  5. Reflex Galant - if you hold along the spine, the baby bends the back. The reflex does not appear after 4 months.
  6. Grabbing reflex - when you touch something with your palm, the child captures and holds the object. The reflex disappears in about 4 months.
  7. Robinson's reflex - the baby is constantly striving to grab something and hold it in its handles. By 3-4 months, a conditioned reflex is formed, expressed in the fact that the child takes the toys purposefully.
  8. Reflex crawling Bauer - if you focus on the feet of the child on his stomach, he tries to crawl. The reflex disappears by 4 months.
  9. The proboscis reflex - with a light touch to the lips of the child, they are drawn out in the form of a proboscis. The reflex fades away by 3 months.
  10. Reflex support - if the baby is put on the table, he firmly rests on his feet. The reflex lasts up to 2 months.
  11. Step reflex - when a child “standing” on a support is slightly tilted forward, step movements appear. After 2 months the reflex does not appear.

If the reflex is absent in the baby, when it should normally be observed, it is necessary to consult with a specialist.

The main task of the baby in the first month is the adaptation and adjustment of the work of all body systems. Therefore, up to two months, the infant cannot boast of any significant achievements, but still the child comes to the first important stage in its development - self-retention of the head. And this period often pleases relatives with the first conscious smile of a baby.

Achievements and skills of a child in 2 months

  • begins to consciously smile, seeing an adult and in response to a smile and the words addressed to him,
  • fixes a glance at the subject, may follow its slow movement for some time,
  • recognizes mom's face and carefully examines it,
  • reacts to a loud sound by turning the head,
  • looking at the bright toys with interest,
  • quickens at the sight of an adult
  • distinguishes sounds, recognizes mother's voice,
  • in position on the abdomen, raises the head and holds it for a few seconds,
  • briefly holds the head, being in the hands of my mother,
  • pronounces separate sounds: "a", "and", "o", "u",
  • reflexively holds an object in his hands (gradually this action develops into a conditioned reflex),
  • crying is calling mom for any discomfort.

At this age, the child is still very small, and parents need to treat his actions with special attention. No need to worry if the baby has mastered so far not so much of the possible. The main thing is for mother to observe progress in his development. When something in the life of a kid makes parents concerned, or it seems that during the past time the child has not shown any skills, it is necessary to consult with a specialist.

Proper child care and nutrition: what you need to know

The basic rules of care remain the same. At this age, baby's morning begins with a loving mother and breakfast. Breastfed babies are eaten on demand. Children receiving the mixture eat about 7 times a day, the serving size is calculated. Mom may notice that the volume of breast milk has decreased, and she has started a lactation crisis. Do not immediately grab the bottle and give it to a screaming child, as the crisis does not last long. And babies who are beginning to feed from a bottle, can refuse to breast completely. After all, getting food through the nipples is much easier than getting it out of your chest. Another disadvantage of the supplement: the child is applied for a short time, then he gets the mixture, and the woman produces as much milk as the child sucks. That is, when the child tries to suck out even droplets, a signal will come in that there is not enough milk, and the woman’s body will start to produce it in larger quantities. If the mother intends to maintain breastfeeding, you need to be patient and apply some rules during this period:

  • the diet should be balanced
  • you need to eat at least 5 times a day,
  • drink plenty of fluids
  • sleep 7–9 hours a day,
  • do not worry,
  • be sure to put the baby to the chest more often.

Breast milk is the best and healthy food for infants. It contains all the necessary nutrients, vitamins, trace elements and fully meets the needs of the child's body for food components in the first 6 months. of life.

L.V. Abolyan, N.Z. Zubkova

http://lib.komarovskiy.net/sovremennye-podxody-k-grudnomu-vskarmlivaniyu-rebenka-abolyan-lv-zubkova-nz.html

After breakfast, hygiene procedures begin: diaper change, washing, washing, wiping. It should not be undermining the child often and with diligence, it can lead to adverse effects. Baby soap or detergent should be consumed no more than 1 time a day with heavy pollution. It is necessary to wash under running water. Wash the girl from front to back, without affecting the labia minora (if contaminated, you can wipe them with sterile oil), the boy in any direction, without moving the foreskin away. It is advisable not to wear the diaper immediately, but leave the baby to air for 15–20 minutes or more. To prevent diaper rash, you can coat the skin and folds with a special cream. All means must match the age of the baby.

While the child is taking an air bath, you can wash it:

  • face wash with clean water
  • wipe the eyes toward the nose with separate cotton pads dipped in boiled water,
  • the nasal passages are treated with rotational movements using slightly moist cotton flagella,

At this age, it is still difficult to organize a convenient mode of the day, but some basic points can be observed, which will facilitate parental care in the future and will have a beneficial effect on the child. Artificial children eat at a certain time, it is better to combine daytime sleep with a walk, and it is necessary to go to bed at night at the same time. The duration of the walk depends on the mood of the parent and the weather. Children are recommended to breathe fresh air at least 3 hours a day. In the cold season, the baby is dressed for a walk as well as himself, adding another layer (slider or blouse).

Before the last feeding the baby is usually bathed. Means for bathing a child are used no more than 1 time per week. The water temperature is about 36 degrees. When diaper rash in the bath, you can add a decoction of calendula, series or chamomile.

What to do and how to develop and entertain the baby while you are awake

When the baby is 1 month old, you can begin to do a light massage of the whole body. The temperature in the room should be about 22 degrees, the child should be healthy, with no signs of acute respiratory infections. Up to three months, the massage mainly consists of stroking. Light strokes can be made in any direction. The tummy is massaged with a little effort, the arm must be kept clockwise and from the sides to the navel. Also perform counter stroking of the abdomen, while the left hand goes up and right down. It is useful to press the legs bent at the knees to the tummy. During classes you can use the exercises: reflex walking, reflex crawling, reflex flexion and extension of the feet. If the baby has any diseases, the massage is done by a specialist on the indications.

Every day, mother can:

  1. Spread the baby on the tummy. Во-первых, это стимулирует малыша к самостоятельному поднятию головки, во-вторых, способствует отхождению газов, скопившихся в кишечнике.
  2. Устраивать «воздушные ванны». Это предотвращает появление опрелостей и потницы. В это время можно сделать массаж ребёнку.
  3. Держать грудничка «столбиком». В такой позе ребёнок меньше срыгивает после еды и старается удержать головку без помощи мамы.
  4. Производить массаж пальчиков и ладоней. This will relax the handles and help open up the cams.
  5. Include music, sing songs baby. Sound stimuli have a beneficial effect on the auditory perception of the infant.
  6. Make sounds from different sides. The baby has an interest, forcing him to turn the head in the direction of the sound source.
  7. Put your fingers or toys in the hands of the child. This supports the grasping reflex, which later transformed into a conscious capture of objects.
  8. Jiggle your baby, dance with him. Training is necessary for the development of the vestibular apparatus.
  9. Hang bright toys from different sides of the child. This stimulates the visual perception and the desire of the baby to raise the head, to reach the subject that has attracted the attention.

Exercise "Here is a gift to the baby" for early physical development - video

It is necessary to pay attention to the baby turned his head actively and with interest in one and the other direction. This will prevent the development of the installer torticollis.

Mounting wrench. Such a state can develop when the parent always approaches the child on one side, and the toys are located only on the right or on the left. As a result, the baby is forming a familiar turn of the head, since he has no incentive to look in another direction.

Mom must constantly communicate with the child, try to teach him, telling and showing him something. Hearing the mother's speech, the baby feels safe, while his speech centers develop.

How does a child develop in the second month of life - video

Parents see how the baby has grown up, how the expression of his face has changed over the past tense. When a small family member appears in the house, everything changes: the situation, the mode of the day and even the thoughts of adults change. Mom and dad get used to the new role, and the child to the world around him. The main thing for this period for parents and baby is a reasonable approach, self-reliance, love and understanding of loved ones.

Physical development in 1 month

An average weight gain of a month-old baby compared to birth weight is 600 grams. Baby growth in the first month increases by an average of three centimeters.

These are average indicators and the development of each baby individually, but there are limits to the norm, when going beyond which the child should be examined by a doctor.

The physical indicators of the development of a month-old baby are presented in the following table.

Indicator

Boys in 1-2 months

Girls 1-2 months

Average value in 1 month

Chest circumference

What baby can?

Here are the skills that a baby learns by 1 month of age:

  • Hold the head. Baby, being in position on the tummy, can lift the head and hold it up to 5 seconds.
  • Fixing gaze. The child peers not only at fixed objects and the face of an adult, but also at moving objects, if they are large and bright.
  • The development of vision. The baby can already distinguish between red, black, yellow and white, as well as cells and lines. In addition, the baby in 1 month already recognizes mom.
  • The reaction to the sound. When a baby hears a loud or harsh sound, it starts or stops. Sometimes the sound scares the baby so much that it makes the baby cry.
  • The goo You will hear sounds similar to “gu” or “ha” from the monthly karapuz, so this baby’s first speech is also called agukani.

The fact that the baby should be able to 1 month, see the next video of Nikolai Nikonov - the leading doctor and massage therapist in Russia.

Can a baby smile?

Conscious smile is one of the most pleasant skills that a child develops during the first month of life. The more often the mother smiles at the baby, the sooner she sees a charming smile in return. In addition, the smile will be accompanied by other manifestations of the revitalization of the baby - the child will move his legs and arms, as well as to roar.

Note that you can see how the newborn smiles, from the first days of life, but the baby’s first smiles are involuntary. First, the mother will notice that the crumb smiles in a dream, a little later - while bathing or after feeding. These are all variants of a physiological smile. But closer to 1 month, the baby's smile appears social content. She becomes an answer to contact with a mother or other close person.

Mom should always stay close to the baby and immediately respond to the needs of the little one.

Often take the baby in your arms, not forgetting to support your head, talk to the peanut and do not worry that in this way teach the little one to your hands and grow an egoist. On the contrary, studies have shown that babies that mothers take less often on their hands cry more often and longer, trying to attract the attention of mothers. If the baby knows that mom is always there, then he will not scream once again.

Care for baby in 1 month includes the following actions:

  • Hygienic procedures - washing, eye and eye care, washing, nail cutting, combing.
  • Bathing.
  • Walks in the open air.
  • Massage.
  • Air baths.

When dressing your baby, make sure that your hands are not cold or wet, since babies of 1 month are very sensitive to tactile sensations.

How to promote development?

Since the wakefulness periods of a baby are very small for 1 month, the mother should correctly allocate time so that she can have time and talk with the baby, and carry out hygienic procedures, and massage, swim in the bath, and take a minute to develop the baby. Mom's well-being is also important; therefore, it is necessary to take time and to have a good rest while the baby is sleeping.

A child of 1 month studies surrounding objects, both immovable and moving, and the sounds of the surrounding world. What kind of developmental activities are available at this age? First, communication with the baby for the development of his emotional and mental sphere. Secondly, the stimulation of vision, tactile receptors and hearing of the child. And, thirdly, to contribute to the retention of the head, for which the baby is often spread on the tummy and kept in a post.

Here are some actions that will help in the development of a monthly baby:

  • To help the baby focus the look, Show the baby a large toy, wait for the baby to look at it, and then slowly move it to the side, ensuring that the baby’s gaze remains focused on the toy.
  • Repeat the same with the rattle, which makes quiet sounds. Do this with your baby 1-2 times a day for up to 2 minutes in one session.
  • You can also include baby classic music or recording various musical instruments. Let the little one listen to music for up to 10 minutes daily.
  • Hang in the crib mobile with large toys (3-4 pieces) and nice melody. You can also lay out the crumbs on the developing mat.
  • Constantly talk with baby. And do it so that the baby can see your facial expressions. So you will stimulate and hearing the child, and the development of the baby's speech. In response to her mother's gentle speech, the baby will begin to respond faster with a complex of animation and a conscious smile.

Let not only the mom plays with the baby, but also the dad, because the communication with the baby is different, which allows the crumbs to absorb the best from each of them.

Games in 1 month

For physical development:

  • Putting the crumb on the back, take the child by the handles, lift them up by the head, then lower down, then cross on the chest and spread to the sides. With crumbs legs you can imitate movement on a bicycle. During this kind of gymnastics sing a pleasant song.
  • Putting the baby on the tummy, show him the toy and lift it up, stimulating the baby to raise his head. You can also put a crumb on your belly and call the baby by name so that the child lifts his head and starts looking at your face. Such exercises will improve the development of his muscles.
  • Gently touch the baby while bathing, accompanying such a light massage with a quiet song. After bathing your baby, wrap the baby in a towel, hide your face behind its edge, then look out from behind the towel and say “cuckoo”.

For the development of vision:

  • Make a kind of “doll” out of a paper plate. To do this, draw a face and attach a handle to the plate so that it can be held and moved. Show the “doll” to the baby from a distance of 25 cm and wait for the crumb to start tracking the plate.
  • Bend over the baby to fix his gaze on your face, and then slowly move to the side. The baby will follow you, turning the head.
  • For a small toy you need to sew gum and hang the toy over the child. Then make the toy on the elastic band "jump" in front of the baby up and down. Soon the child will not only look at the jumping toy, but also try to grab it with the hands.
  • Show your child a bright toy at a distance of 30 cm from his face, then slowly lead the object horizontally. Noticing that the child is looking at the toy, then move it vertically, and finally move the object in a circle.
  • During feeding, place a bright scarf or towel on your shoulder. The kid will look from your face to this bright subject.

For the development of other senses:

  • Read children's poems to your child to develop crumbs of hearing and a sense of rhythm. You can introduce the baby with your favorite rhymes or come up with your own. You can take as a basis any song and change the words in it to your taste.
  • Tie to the baby's bootees on the bell. During the movement of the legs, the crumb will hear the ringing and listen to it.
  • When the baby is in the crib, talk to the baby as you move around the room. This will both stimulate the baby’s hearing and his sight.
  • Gently massage on the feet and handles of the baby with each finger. Touch the crumbs not only with your hands, but also with a piece of cotton wool, a soft brush, a terry cloth, wool or other cloth mitten.
  • Dip the cotton balls into unsharp, smelling liquids, such as mint or vanilla eau de toilette. Giving such a baby a ball will stimulate the baby's sense of smell.

The development of the child is promoted by massage. To learn how to do it correctly, see the next video of Nikolay Nikonov.

Water activities

Among the activities that stimulate the development of infants 1 month, can be called swimming. It can be carried out both in the pool (under the control of the instructor) and in the bath at home. Thanks to the exercises in the water the baby will stimulate the vestibular apparatus. For swimming, purchase a special inflatable circle for the baby that supports the baby under the neck.

Having typed a full bath of warm water, lower the child with the circle into the water and wait until the baby is comfortable. Literally one or two swimming, and the baby will begin to enjoy such activities, and my mother can just watch the crumbs and catch the brightest moments for the photo.

Lower the baby into the water carefully, starting from the heels, taking into account the sensitivity of babies to changes in the temperature of the surrounding world. If the baby reacts negatively to the first swim, try to dip into the bath together with the baby. Lay the baby on your chest, gently water the body of the baby with some water and show the toys.

Show karapuzu that he can push off the legs from the walls of the bath. Unroll the floating baby so that its bent legs have rested against the side and wait until the crumb pushes off and swims back a little. At the opposite edge of the bath, turn the baby around and repeat the exercise.

An interesting exercise for babies of the first month while swimming will be walking on the bottom of the bath. Hold the baby under the arms and tilt forward slightly, stimulating the walking reflex for a few seconds. Then give the baby a little swim on the back.

Frequent problems

Abnormalities that parents can identify in 1 month:

  • Increased or decreased muscle tone of the child. Asymmetry of muscle tone is also possible.
  • Jaundice. In some children, it does not pass by the month, which requires consultation with a pediatrician.
  • Colic. They appear by the third week of life in many babies and cause great discomfort in the baby.
  • Insufficient weight gain, which can be associated with both problems of organizing breastfeeding and diseases of the baby.

For any of these problems, the child must be shown to the doctor by talking about the alarming symptoms.

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