The approach in psychology, which includes the problems of love, inner inclusion and spontaneity instead of systematic and principled exclusion, is defined as humanistic.
Humanistic psychology puts man on the main place and his self-improvement. Her main subjects of consideration are: higher values, self-actualization, creativity, freedom, love, responsibility, autonomy, mental health, interpersonal relations.
The object of humanistic psychology is not the prediction and control of human behavior, but the liberation of a person from the fetters of neurotic control, which has arisen as a result of his “deviations” from social norms or from the psychological conditions of the individual.
Humanistic psychology as an independent direction appeared in the USA in the 1960s of the 20th century, as an alternative to behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Its philosophical basis was existentialism.
In 1963, the first president of the Association for Humanistic Psychology, James Bugental, formulated five main points of this approach:
- A person as a whole being surpasses the sum of its components (that is, a person cannot be explained as a result of a scientific study of his private functions).
- Human being unfolds in the context of human relations (that is, a person cannot be explained by his private functions, in which interpersonal experience is not taken into account).
- A person is aware of himself and cannot be understood by psychology, which does not take into account his continuous, multi-level self-consciousness.
- A person has a choice (he is not a passive observer of his existence, but creates his own experience).
- Man is intentional (facing the future, there is a purpose, values and meaning in his life).
It is believed that humanistic psychology was formed under the influence of ten directions:
- Group dynamics, in particular T-groups.
- Doctrine of self-actualization (Maslow, 1968).
- Personally centered psychology (client-centered therapy Rogers 1961).
- Theory Reich with his insistence on the release of the clamps and the release of the internal energy of the body (body).
- Existentialism, in particular, theoretically interpreted Jung (1967) and practically experimentally - Perls (also Fagan and Shepherd 1972).
- Results of using expending drag, in particular LSD (Stanford and Golightly, 1967).
- Zen Buddhism and its idea of liberation (Letting, 1980).
- Taoism and its ideas of the unity of opposites "Yin - Yang."
- Tantra and its ideas of the importance of the body as an energy system.
- Vertex experiments like revelation and enlightenment (Rowan, 1976).
Humanistic psychology is not an ordered area of scientific knowledge. It is not a science, but rather a set of metaphysical concepts that point the way to uncovering human problems through existential experience. Wherein:
- A deep and intensive group of studies concludes with a general, realistic attitude towards oneself and others.
- An ecstatic and vertex experiment in which the meaning of unity and the patterns of the human and natural worlds is achieved.
- The existential experience of being is fully responsible for certain thoughts and actions.
All the major figures of humanistic psychology went through this kind of experience. This led to the idea of the subject of knowledge, which can be investigated or evaluated only by similar steps.
The humanistic approach to psychology is clearly aimed at practical tasks. Its core concepts are personal growth (becoming) and human capabilities. She argues that people can change by working on themselves.
Within the framework of this direction, a large number of self-intervention methods (“self-penetration”) have been created, which can be systematized as follows:
1. Body methods:
- therapy Reich, focused on bioenergy, rebirth,
- methods Rolfing's,Feldenkreis's
- equipment Alexander,
- "Sensual consciousness",
- holistic health, etc.
2. Thinking methods:
- transactional analysis
- creation of personal constructs ("repertoire grids" Kelly),
- family therapy
- NLP - neuro-linguistic programming, etc.
3. Sensual methods:
- Encounter psychodrama,
- integrity awareness
- initial integration
- empathic interaction Rogers and etc.
4. Spiritual methods:
- transpersonal counseling,
- intensive enlightenment workshops (enlightenment intensive workshops)
- dynamic meditation
- play with sand (send play),
- interpretation of dreams (dream work), etc.
Most of these methods can be adapted to work in many industries. Humanistic practices are engaged in personal growth by means of psychotherapy, holistic health, education, social work, organizational theory and counseling, business training, general development training, self-help groups, creative training and social research. (Rowan, 1976).
Human being is studied by humanistic psychology as a co-research, when the subject himself also plans his own study, participates in the execution and in the interpretation of the results. It is believed that this process provides more different kinds of knowledge about a person than the classical research paradigm. This knowledge is such that can be used immediately.
Several concepts emerged on this basis:
Therealself(real self). This concept is key to humanistic psychology. It is peculiar to conceptual constructions. Rogers (1961), Maslow (1968), cabin boy (1967) and many others. The real self implies that we can go further than the surface of our roles and their disguise to contain and emphasize the self (Shaw, 1974). A number of studies that have been based on this have interacted with Hampdun-Turner (1971). Simpson (1971) argues that here we have the political aspect of the idea of “real-self” (the real self). From this point of view, gender roles, for example, can be considered as concealing the “real self”, and therefore as oppressive. These links have been carefully considered. CarneyandMcmahon (1977).
Subpersonal(sub-personalities). This concept has been highlighted. Assagioli and other researchers (Ferucci, 1982). It indicates that we have a number of subpersonalities that come from different sources:
- collective unconscious
- cultural unconscious
- personal unconscious,
- disturbing conflicts and problems, roles and social problems (Frames),
- fantasy ideas about what we want to be.
Abundancemotivation(validity, wealth of motivation). Most psychologists base their views on a homeostatic model. Action is a thought initiated by needs or desires. Human being, however, strives for creative exertion and situations that support it, as, respectively, is the reduction of exertion. Achievement motivation (McClelland, 1953), the need for a difference of experience (Fisk and Moddi, 1961) can be considered in connection with the concept of motivational wealth, allow to explain various kinds of actions. Motivation cannot be conditioned by execution. It can be "removed" only for the actor.
Finally, humanistic psychologists argue that attention to one's own states and motives makes it possible to avoid self-deception and facilitates the discovery of the real self. This is a peculiar motto of humanistic psychology in its theoretical and applied expression.
Romenets V.A., Manokha I.P. The history of psychology of the XX century. - Kiev, Lybid, 2003.
The task of humanistic psychology
This type of psychology seeks to understand people as unique among other living beings, with consciousness, with free will and responsibility for their own choices. The goal of humanistic psychology is to understand a person and help each person to fully develop their potential and, thus, be able to most effectively contribute to the broader social strata. This type of psychology considers human nature qualitatively different from the nature of other living organisms. However, humanistic psychology lacks an understanding of the fundamental importance of social relations in a healthy psychological development of the individual.
The teachings of the doctrine
The following five postulates form the basis of humanistic psychology briefly:
- Man as a whole being surpasses the sum of its components. People cannot be reduced to components (divided into separate mental parts).
- Human life occurs in the context of relationships.
- The human mind includes self-awareness in the context of other people.
- People have a choice and responsibility.
- People are focused, they are looking for meaning, values, creativity.
Humanistic psychology emphasizes the study of the entire mental structure of man. This doctrine affects a person’s behavior that is directly related to his inner feelings and self-esteem. This type of psychology examines how people are affected by their self-perception and self-worth associated with their life experiences. It considers conscious choices, responses to internal needs and current circumstances that are important for shaping human behavior.
Qualitative or descriptive research methods are usually preferable to quantitative methods, since the latter lose unique human aspects that are not easy to quantify. This is reflected in the emphasis of humanistic psychology - the bias is placed on the real life of people.
This trend has its roots in the existentialist thought of various philosophers, such as Soren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger and Jean-Paul Sartre. It reflects the many values expressed by the Jews, Greeks and Europeans of the Renaissance. They tried to explore those qualities that are unique to humans. These are human phenomena such as love, personal freedom, lust for power, morality, art, philosophy, religion, literature and science. Many believe that the message theory of humanistic psychology is a response to the insult of the human spirit, which is so often implied in the image of a person, drawn by behavioral and social sciences.
In the 1950s, two opposing forces existed in psychology: behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Humanistic psychology has become a completely new trend.
Behaviorism grew out of the work of the great Russian doctor Ivan Pavlov, especially from the work on the theory of conditioned reflex, and laid the foundations for this trend in psychology in the United States. Behaviorism is associated with the names of Clark Hull, James Watson, BF Skinner.
Abraham Maslow later gave the behaviorism the name "first force". “The Second Power” was released from Sigmund Freud's work on psychoanalysis and psychology of Alfred Adler, Eric Erickson, Carl Jung, Erich Fromm, Otto Ranck, Melanie Klein and others. These theorists focused on the “depth” or unconscious realm of the human psyche, which, they stressed, must be combined with the conscious mind to create a healthy human personality. The "third force" was the humanistic theory. One of the earliest sources of this trend was the work of Carl Rogers, who was strongly influenced by Otto Rank. He broke with Freud in the mid-1920s. Rogers focused on ensuring that personality development processes lead to healthier, more creative personality functioning. The term “actualizing trend” was also developed by Rogers, and was a concept that ultimately led Abraham Maslow to study the concept of self-actualization as one of the needs of people. Rogers and Maslow, as the main representatives of humanistic psychology, developed this theory in response to psychoanalysis, which they considered too pessimistic.
The influence of Carl Rogers
Rogers is an American psychologist and one of the founders of a humanistic approach (or customer-oriented approach) to psychology. Rogers is considered one of the founding fathers of psychotherapeutic research, and was awarded the Prize of the American Psychological Association (APA) for his pioneering research and outstanding scientific contributions in 1956.
The humanistic direction in human psychology, his own unique view of human relations, has found wide application in various fields, such as psychotherapy and counseling (client-oriented therapy), education (student-centered learning). For his professional work, he was awarded the prize for outstanding professional achievements in psychology in 1972 by many non-profit organizations. Rogers was recognized as the sixth most prominent psychologist of the 20th century. Rogers humanistic psychology gave impetus to the development of psychology in general.
Rogers opinion about the person
As a representative of humanistic psychology, Rogers proceeded from the fact that every person has the desire and desire for personal self-development. Being a creature that has a consciousness, it determines for itself the meaning of existence, its tasks and values, is the main expert for itself. The central concept in the theory of Rogers was the concept of "I", which includes the ideas, ideas, goals and values through which the personality determines itself and creates prospects for its development. His contribution to the development of humanistic psychology is impossible not to appreciate.
Movement among psychologists
In the late 1950s, several meetings were held among psychologists in Detroit who were interested in creating a professional association dedicated to a more humanistic vision in psychology: what had to do with self-awareness, self-actualization, health, creativity, nature, being, self-development, individuality and awareness. They also sought to create a complete description of what a person should be, and explored unique human phenomena such as love and hope. These psychologists, including Maslow, believed that it was these concepts that were likely to become the basis of the psychological movement known as the “third force”.
These meetings eventually led to other events, including the launch of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology in 1961. This edition was very popular in the psychoanalytic environment. Following this, the Association for the Psychology of the Humanist Direction was soon formed in 1963.
In 1971, an exclusive division was created dedicated to the humanistic trend in the American Psychological Association, which publishes its own academic journal called “Humanistic Psychologist”. One of the main advantages of the humanistic theory is that it emphasizes the role of man. This school of psychology gives people more opportunities to control and determine the state of mental health. Personality in humanistic psychology is considered as a holistic phenomenon.
Methods of counseling and therapy
This course includes several approaches to counseling and therapy. The main methods of humanistic psychology are the principles of gestalt therapy, which helps to understand that the present affects the past. Role-playing plays an important role in gestalt therapy and provides an adequate manifestation of feelings that would not be expressed in other conditions. In Gestalt therapy, verbal expressions are important signs of the client's feelings, even if they are contrasted with what the client actually expressed. Humanistic psychotherapy also includes such elements as deep therapy, holistic health, body therapy, sensitivity and existential psychotherapy. Existentialist-integrative psychotherapy, which was developed by Schneider, is one of the new methods of humanistic psychology, as well as existential psychology. Existentialism emphasizes the notion that people freely create their understanding of life, that they can define themselves and do what they prefer to do. It is an element of humanistic therapy that prompts an understanding of one’s life and its purpose.
There is some conflict regarding freedom and restrictions. Constraints seem to include genetics, culture, and other related factors. Existentialism aims to solve such problems and limitations. Empathy is also a major element of humanistic therapy. This approach emphasizes the ability of the psychologist to assess the situation and the world based on the feelings and perceptions of the client. Without this quality, the therapist cannot fully assess the condition of the client.
The work of a psychologist in this direction
Therapeutic factors in the work of a humanistic psychotherapist and psychoanalyst are, above all, unconditional customer acceptance, support, empathy, attention to internal experiences, stimulation of the implementation of choice and decision making, authenticity.However, with seeming simplicity, the humanistic theory is based on a serious philosophical and scientific basis and uses a fairly wide range of therapeutic techniques and techniques.
One of the main conclusions of humanistically-directed psychoanalysts was expressed in the fact that any person has the potential to change thinking and restore mental state. Under certain conditions, an individual can freely and fully use this potential. Therefore, the activity of a psychologist of this orientation is primarily aimed at creating positive conditions for the integration of the individual in the process of consultative meetings.
Psychotherapists who apply humanistic psychology should be more willing to listen and guarantee comfort to patients, allowing them to share real emotions and feelings. These psychotherapists must ensure that they are focused on what the client feels, that they have a clear understanding of the client's problems, and also provide a warm and welcoming atmosphere for the client. Therefore, the specialist is required to abandon the bias towards the client. Instead, sharing warmth and acceptance is the basis of this psychological direction.
Another element of humanistic psychology is self-help. Psychologists Ernst and Goodison were practitioners who applied humanistic approaches and organized self-help groups. Counseling psychologist has become a valuable tool in humanistic psychology. Psychological counseling is also used in self-help groups. In addition to psychological counseling, the humanistic concept also influenced the work of psychologists around the world as a whole. In fact, the influence of this direction was significant in other areas of psychological practice.
The purpose of humanistic therapy
The overall goal of humanistic therapy is to give a holistic description of a person. Using certain techniques, the psychologist tries to see the whole person, and not just the fragmented parts of the personality.
Such therapy also requires the integration of the whole person. This is called Maslow self-actualization. Humanistic psychology states that every person has built-in potential and resources that could help create a stronger personality and raise self-esteem. The mission of the psychologist is to direct a person towards these resources. However, to realize the hidden opportunities, he may have to abandon the security of a certain stage of personality in order to cover a new and more integrated stage. This is not an easy process, as it may include the consideration of new life decisions or the revision of views on life. This type of psychology regards psychological instability and anxiety as normal aspects of human life and development that can be worked through in therapy.
The humanistic approach to psychology is unique because its terms and its concepts are based on the assumption that all people have their own world view and unique life experience.
Principle of formation
One of the most important principles of humanistic psychology is that a person is constantly in the process of becoming. For example, a university graduate student will be different from a giggling fashion freshman. After a few more years, a young specialist in his field will also be different from a graduate. He will be able to learn new ways of life that are related to his career or, for example, family life.
Those people who deliberately give up their formation, in fact, give up their personal growth. They deny the fact that they have the possibility of a full life. According to humanistic psychology, it is a big mistake to refuse to make every moment of your life as rich as possible. For a psychologist in this area, such a view is nothing more than a perversion of what a person could potentially be. Life is an immutable value, and therefore a person must fill every moment of existence with meaning.
Another of the fundamental concepts of the humanistic direction of psychology is that the only “reality” that is available to a particular person is subjective. A similar view can also be described as phenomenological. Theoretical constructs, along with external behavior, occupy a secondary position in relation to the immediate experience of the individual, as well as the unique significance of this experience for her. As Maslow wrote about this: "Nothing can replace experience, absolutely nothing."
One of the most important ideas of humanistic psychology is to consider the individual as a unique whole. Already Maslow saw that psychologists for a very long time focused on a detailed analysis of individual events in a person’s life, neglecting his integrity. They studied the trees, not the whole forest. In fact, the theory, which was first developed by Maslow and developed by his followers, was a protest against such beliefs, originating from behaviorism. The principle of the whole, which is always greater than the sum of its parts, is accurately reflected in many theoretical works of researchers in this area.
Creativity in man
Humanistic psychology recognizes the presence of a creative side in each person. Perhaps this provision is one of the most significant in all this direction. Creativity is the most universal characteristic that is potentially present in every person since birth. However, people often lose their ability to create as a result of the influence of the external environment - in particular, in the process of receiving a formal education.
Inner human nature
Freud quite clearly hinted that man is at the mercy of the unconscious forces that control him. The founder of psychoanalysis also stressed that if a person does not control unconscious impulses, it will lead to the destruction of other people or of himself. It is difficult to judge how fair such a point of view is, but Freud poorly believed that people were driven by a bright beginning.
Personality in humanistic psychology is viewed from the radically opposite point of view of psychoanalysis. Proponents of this trend say that a person is, if not internally good, then at least his nature is neutral.
Of course, this opinion may well be challenged by the person who is attacked by thieves on a dark evening. But Maslow argued that the destructive forces acting in people are the direct result of frustration, inability to satisfy their own needs. By nature, each has positive opportunities for achieving self-realization. Maslow adhered to such a positive outlook on the person throughout his life.
One of the main representatives of humanistic psychology, who is also its founder, is Abraham Maslow. It was he who proposed the concept of a whole person. Maslow's theory was contrasted with the then dominant teachings of behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Maslow assumed that the essence of each person is extremely positive and strives for continuous development. In this case, the goal of psychology is to help the individual to find in himself what is already embedded in it. These features according to Maslow's humanistic psychology exist in the form of innate possibilities. They can be updated by external factors. Maslow's ideas and served as the foundation for the further development of the humanistic direction.
Maslow made a great contribution to the development of psychological science. It was he who switched attention from work on neuroses to the study of the characteristics of the psychology of a healthy person.
Carl Ransom Rogers
Rogers is one of the authors of the central concept of humanistic psychology - about self-occupancy. According to Rogers, the latter denotes an innate tendency towards growth and development inherent in man. All that is required for the realization of the potential inherent in a person is the appropriate conditions.
Rogers concept of "I-concept"
The fundamental element of the structure of personality in Rogers' humanistic psychology is the “I-concept”, which is formed with the continuous interaction of man with the outside world. If there is a discrepancy between the self-concept (“I-concept”), real experience and the ideal “I”, the person enters into action various mechanisms of psychological defenses. They manifest themselves either in the selective perception, or in the distortion of experience. In some cases, this leads to psychological maladjustment.
Another prominent representative of humanistic psychology is Victor Emil Frankl, a psychologist and psychiatrist from Austria. It was Frankl who created the concept of logotherapy. According to her, the driving force of personal development is the desire to find life's meaning. A person may not ask this question directly, but respond to it with his own real actions and deeds. The role of meaning for each individual personality is performed by values. Viktor Frankl describes three categories of such values in his writings:
- The value of creativity (labor is of paramount importance).
- Experiences (like love).
- Life attitude (consciously chosen and developed by the individual position, which he adheres to in critical life circumstances).
In the process of making sense, man comes to self-realization, self-realization. Conscience is the inner authority that helps the individual to determine which of the potential meanings is true.
In one of his main works, entitled “Man in search of meaning,” Frankl writes about his personal experience of surviving in the terrible conditions of a concentration camp. In the same book, he expounds his experience of finding the value of life, its meaning, even in such a terrible situation. The method of Frankl researchers referred to the category of existential therapy. His works became a source of inspiration for many representatives of the humanistic direction. Frankl himself came to the conclusion that the main stressor for a person is the absence of the meaning of life. According to the psychologist, existential neurosis is essentially identical to the crisis of meaningless existence.
Techniques in humanistic psychology: client self-report
Any methods in this direction suggest not the experience that a person has received during his life. That is why the therapists of this psychological school pay a lot of attention to the self-reports provided by the subjects. This allows you to take into account the individual perception of the client itself. Other research methods that are considered traditional should only add subjective ones.
Many authors emphasize that for a full-fledged and comprehensive study of the personality it is necessary to begin personal research with observation, projective techniques, and after that apply questionnaires, an experiment.
Tests and other methods
The method of humanistic psychology, the purpose of which is an integral, holistic diagnosis of personality - the questionnaire “Feelings. Reactions Beliefs ”, developed by D. Cartwright. Another test that analyzes the characteristics of self-actualization of personality was developed by E. Shostrom. Based questionnaire self-Shostroma based on the theory of Maslow, Perls and others. The “Test of empathic tendencies”, the authorship of which belongs to E. Mehrabian, is also often used.
The number of techniques used in the humanistic direction is quite large. Back in 1971 in America, S. Peterson developed the so-called “Catalog of ways of personal growth”, which at that time listed about 40 methods used in humanistic psychology. Let us briefly list some of them:
- art therapy (drawing, music, dance),
- Eastern techniques (meditation, yoga),
- gestalt therapy
- transactional analysis
- existential psychotherapy.
Non-directive psychological counseling method
This method is one of the main in humanistic psychology. It was first proposed by C. Rogers, who called it client-centered therapy.
What is the use of this method? As already mentioned, the humanistic tendency postulates the original kindness of each person. But positive qualities become visible only under certain conditions, when the individual is in the atmosphere of acceptance, attention. This is what the psychotherapist does in consultation.
A session thus takes the form of a dialogue. The therapist understands his client, does not blame him, does not expose too much criticism. This becomes one of the main conditions ensuring the rehabilitation of a person. The client realizes that he has a chance to freely and openly talk about the accumulated difficulties, to express himself. This allows you to more clearly understand the events of the world, increase self-esteem, find a way out of personal crisis.
Consider some interesting facts about the humanistic direction.
- The ideas proposed by Maslow were criticized by the founder of psychoanalysis Z. Freud.
- Frankl invented the concept of "Sunday neurosis", which characterizes the depressed psycho-emotional state that a person may experience at the end of a working week.
- Karl Rogers, one of the founders of the humanistic direction, in his youth planned to become a farmer.
- The school of positive psychology also belongs to the humanistic direction.
- As its philosophical base, humanistic psychology relies on existentialism.
- This trend in psychology opposes the construction of psychological knowledge on the principle of natural sciences.
Human nature cannot be determined in an exhaustive way, because one of its main features is not only what a person does, but also how he does it. A person is not only who he is at a certain point in time. It also contains opportunities and chances for transformation, hopes, dreams. People must recognize both for themselves and for others to create their own lives. Any experience, even negative, while useful and worthy of respect and recognition. After all, it protects us from making mistakes in the future.
- The formation of humanistic psychology .................................
- The problem of man in psychology .........................
- The emergence of a humanistic trend in psychological science.
- Humanistic psychology at the present stage …………………….
- Personality problems in humanistic psychology .......... ........
- The humanistic psychology of Abraham Maslow. ………………….
- Erich Fromm: Freedom and Existential Human Needs
- Humanistic views of C. Rogers ……………………………………………
The problem of personality research took a leading place in the psychoanalytic direction, whose representatives from the irrationalistic position interpreted the motivational-need sphere of the human psyche, the driving forces of behavior.
The flaw in the neo-Freudian and related concepts is that their representatives view "the driving forces of human activity as something originally laid down inside a person, in his body, rather than emerging and developing from his changing and developing relationship with the world."
The relevance of the chosen topic is due, above all, to the fact that lately there has been an increasing interest in questions of human behavior and in the search for the meaning of human existence. Leaders learn how to work with subordinates, parents attend courses on parenting, spouses learn to communicate with each other and quarrel competently, teachers learn how to help their students and other educational institutions to cope with emotional excitement and confusion.
Along with the interest in material well-being and business, many people seek to help themselves and understand what it means to be human. They strive to understand their behavior, to develop faith in themselves, their strength. Realize the unconscious side of the individual, focus primarily on what is happening to them at the present time.
The category “personality research in humanistic psychology” is presented in science only slightly and was considered in the works of D.I. Feldstein, I.D. Yegorycheva, L.I. Bozovic, B.I. Dodonova, D.V. Sochivko, A.B. Pischelko, V.M. Litvishkova and others. As well as in the writings of A. Maslow, S. Jurard, F. Barron, and C. Rogers, the concepts of a psychologically healthy, fully functioning personality are developed. В рамках теоретических и практических исследований психологии проблема исследования личности в гуманистической психологии остается недостаточно разработанной, требует своего решения, следовательно, является актуальной для психологической науки в целом.
На основании вышеизложенного были определены объект, предмет, цели и задачи исследования.
Объектом при рассмотрении данной темы выступает индивид. Принимаются во внимание значимые характеристики объекта. These characteristics can be attributed to the objects of study, regardless of their gender, age, level of education, profession, occupation, nationality and health status.
The subject of psychological research of personality is the system of generalized relations of the individual in the surrounding reality and the methods of action with which these relations are realized.
The objectives of the study - the disclosure of the problem of the study of personality, human needs and values, a deeper consideration of the problems of the individual in humanistic psychology.
To achieve the goal, the following research objectives were formulated:
1) Conduct a theoretical analysis of domestic and foreign sources on psychology, reflecting the experience of the problem of the scientific study of a humanistic personality in humanitarian psychology.
2) to study the formulation of problems of the personality in humanistic psychology,
3) personality traits are in one-to-one dependency on each other; therefore, it is necessary to formulate the characteristic psychological laws of the personality.
Hypothesis. As a result of this work, the researcher intends to get a complete picture of the problems of personality research in humanistic psychology and the options for solving these problems.
The place of the studied phenomenon in the psyche allows us to determine its relationship with other mental phenomena. One of the branches of “humanistic psychology” is considered existential psychology.
The methodological basis of the research is the general psychological principles of the activity approach (A. N. Leontiev), the system approach to the study of psychological phenomena (B.F. Lomov), the theory of relations (V. N. Myasishchev), the provisions on objective and subjective factors adopted in psychological science. personality development (LS Vygotsky, BG Ananyev), humanistic theories (A. Maslow, C. Rogers, V. Frankl).
Research methods. To implement the tasks and test the formulated hypothesis, the study used the following methods and techniques, including:
- data collection methods in the framework of qualitative analysis: expert assessment, content analysis,
- psychodiagnostic technologies implemented using the CAT 5 methodology (self-actualization test developed by M. Croz under the supervision of L.Ya. Gozman), as well as MMKM-1 and MMKM-2 (modeling method of communicative worlds developed by VI Kabrin, and modification of the method), TTS (test transcommunicative situation, by V.I. Kabrin),
Theoretical and practical significance of the research. The idea of the problems of personality research in humanistic psychology is expanded and generalized. Scientific presentations on the problem of studying personality research have been systematized. The use of a communicative approach to assess personality research is grounded.
The structure of the study. This work consists of introduction, two chapters, conclusion, list of used literature.
1. FORMATION OF HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY
- The problem of man in psychology
One of the first attempts to consciously introduce the term “humanitarian psychology” itself, unlike the widely known term “humanistic psychology”, apparently took place in May 1990, when a number of Moscow psychologists gathered in a large audience of the Institute of General and Pedagogical Psychology of the USSR Academy of Pedagogical Sciences (now Psychological Institute of RAO) to establish the Russian Association of Humanistic Psychology. At the meeting, however, a dispute arose about the expediency of just such a name for the new association. The author of these lines, who tried to prove the need for a different term in his report, proceeded from the fact that “humanistic psychology” is an established trend in world psychology, fixed, associated with certain views and names (G. Olport, A. Maslow, C.Rodzhers, and others), while it should be a new and broader approach, in which other humanitarian paradigms can be correlated, including, of course, the original achievements of Russian psychology. For example, the provisions of cultural-historical psychology L.S. Vygotsky, whose value sometimes exceeds (or, as VV Davydov once put it, “covers his head”) many of the arguments of Western humanistic psychologists. However, this and other arguments were not adopted by the majority of that constituent assembly, and the Association of Psychologists was nevertheless called "humanistic", and not "humanitarian." They talked about the unusual nature of the term, the difficulty of differentiation with other approaches, that the framework of the traditional Western understanding of the humanist paradigm can be understood more freely and such. In short, the arguments were rejected, despite the fact that the author of these lines was then elected President (1990-1993) of the Association. Nevertheless, further development has shown the need to introduce the concept of humanitarian psychology into the circulation of national science. Moreover, the current really began to take shape not in the Western manner, but in the Russian way, that is, very widely, with the inclusion of not only specially psychological and psychotherapeutic, but also general life-sense questions and problems.
In the minds of a certain part of Russian psychologists gradually occurred, more precisely, there is a turn in orientation: from the former - natural science, from imitation, reliance on samples of natural science to orientation on samples, achievements and values of humanitarian perception. Now there is a gathering together of a humanitarian outlook. We encounter, get acquainted, in fact, for the first time with theories, views that were previously difficult for domestic psychologists, entire continents of Russian philosophical thought open up, unpublished writings of literary critics and historians appear, Russian art abroad and so on are revealed in their entirety. All this, combined together, will make an amazingly strong and bright canvas or - with respect to psychology - a complete mirror, reflected in which it will be able to see and understand its problems in a new way. It should be noted that the domestic humanitarian psychology is drawn up (which was once with a humanistic psychologist in the West) as secular, and if it comes to spiritual, then it is generally understood as a project, a projection, of self-construction, devoid of independent ontological status . And this is often seen as a fundamental point: “We held out. - writes, for example, L.I. Vorobiev and in one of the first articles devoted to humanitarian psychology and psychotherapy, - from direct ontologization of the spiritual component of a person through the representations of religion. We held on to the definition of the soul as the ability to feel unavoidable contradictions, identified the symbol, the archetype as a way of holding and transmitting such kind of contradictions, in which the experience accumulated by mankind to overcome them was simultaneously cumulated. Of course, this does not save us from a collision with ontological problems, but it allows us to reach it reasonably, not losing, but expanding the possibilities of choice and design. ” If we talk in this regard about the practical side (humanitarian psychotherapy), then it should lead the person to an increasingly wider and equally acceptable choice. “It looks like,” explains LI Vorobeva, “to plotting the path of the path, the final destination of which is unknown. The point is only to reduce the uncertainty of the situation. " Considering the multidimensionality, the multi-positionality of humanitarian knowledge, “the question of its truth - falsity disappears by itself. Proceeding from this position, it becomes clear that the desire to analyze all the new aspects and approaches, be it paganism, changes in consciousness under the influence of drugs, the impact of different types of art, Buddhism or Christianity.
Thus, the personality as a specific construction, not reducible to other dimensions, is not self-sufficient, in itself bearing the ultimate meaning. This meaning is acquired depending on the emerging relationships, relations with the essential characteristics of human existence. In other words, the essence of a person and the essence of a person differ from each other in that the first is a way, a tool, a means of organizing the achievement of the second, which means the first gets meaning and justification in the second. Therefore, returning to the discussion around the words of M.M.Bakhtin, we can assert that a person as a psychological tool can “become external”, we can speak about it “in absentia” and this does not contradict the transcending, changing human nature. As for the inevitably arising discrepancy, the abyss, the contradiction between the “real” (final) and the “semantic” (potentially infinite), in the light of what was said is not an obstacle to the objective knowledge of the person, which should be avoided by exalting the tangible “real” to the detriment of the unclear “semantic "(As opposed to" understanding psychology, "existential approaches or literary scholarship about the prevalence of the second over the first). It is necessary not to avoid, not to mask this contradiction, but, on the contrary, to single out and fix it as the first objective given.
Of course, the task of the psychologist is then very complicated - he must be able to relate the personality to the fact that there is infinitely more, to correlate the definite and the determined to that which is not defined and indefinable, but this correlation, tension, potential difference is the most important condition of the personality, that which gives this existence true meaning, energy and scale. The proposed understanding of the personality leads to a significant revision of a number of problems and approaches, for example, mental health problems, normal problems, and normal personality development. The definition of the norm is one of the most unloved questions that one tries to get around whenever possible. When this can no longer be avoided, everything ultimately continues to be reduced to either statistical criteria (to be like most), or to adaptation, homeostatic criteria (the main thing is adaptability, balance with the environment), or negative obviously not ill, then healthy) and so on.
If you look closely at these criteria, it is not difficult to see that they came to psychology, mainly from the natural cycle disciplines, so the concepts of adaptability and homeostasis came from biology, in particular from physiology, and health as the absence of disease and such are from medicine . Being applied to the individual, these criteria are clearly insufficient, reduced, although they are still actively used. The possibility of a qualitatively different understanding of the norm arises when we separate the concepts of “man” and “personality”, when we begin to consider personality as an instrument, organ, instrument for acquiring human essence. In this case, the personality characteristic, its “normality” or “abnormality” will depend on how it serves the person, whether its position, specific organization and orientation promotes communion with the generic human essence, or, conversely, separates it with this essence, confuses and complicates communication with her. Thus, the concept of a norm acquires other targeting and a vector: not to statistics, adaptation and such, but to the idea of human essence, to the image of a person in culture. In other words, the problem of normal personality development is made dependent on the problem of normal human development.
- The emergence of the humanistic direction in the psychological science
Existential-humanistic psychology in Russia is a phenomenon prepared by the very history of this country, its Orthodox traditions, the books of its best writers (L. Tolstoy, F. Dostoevsky, A. Chekhov, V. Garshin) and thinkers who constantly turned to the questions of the meaning of life and death, freedom and responsibility, the phenomenon of faith (A.A. Kozlov, V.S. Soloviev, L.M. Lopatin, N.A. Berdyaev, L. Shestov, S. Frank, E. Trubetskoy, R. Ivanov-Razumnik , M. Bakhtin, as well as S. Bulgakov, P. Florensky, V. Vysheslavtsev, I. Ilyin and V. Rozanov). The ideas of F. Dostoevsky, N.A. Berdyaev and L. Shestov and other Russian thinkers made a great contribution to the development of European, and then American culture and philosophy, and still influence the leading representatives of the existential-humanistic approaches of both continents. Russian art has always assumed polysemy and phenomenology; it suffices to recall the music of P.I. Tchaikovsky, painting by itinerant artists or Russian poetry, especially the poetry of the "Silver Age".
Psychology is widely taught in seminaries and universities of pre-revolutionary Russia. Holisticity, anthropologism, the dominant of moral and ethical problems can be attributed to the properties characteristic of the majority of domestic psychological concepts. The paradox of Russian thought and the historical path of science in Russia makes it possible to live together with antagonistic approaches in psychology (humanitarian and natural science), which, while opposing, at the same time, complement each other. An example of this is the evolution of GI ideas. Chelpanov from the Wundt experiment to the development of a method close to the phenomenology of Husserl.
Russian psychology develops under the noticeable influence of the religious-philosophical heritage, with its rich experience of understanding spiritual problems. Russian religious existentialism in the person of N.A. Berdyaev and L.Shestov in time arises even earlier than the European, a serious school of historical and philosophical analysis of existentialism continues to exist even during the heyday of the USSR. In the Russian pedagogy of the beginning of the 20th century, the ideal of the personality-oriented humane democratic school was formulated by I.I. Gorbunov-Posadov. According to his ideas, such a school is built on deep respect for the child’s personality, love, spiritual unity and mutual trust, the ability to see in each child not only an individual, but also a living human soul with all the hidden spiritual world in it. The values of the humanistic school of individual domestic teachers continue to develop even in the period of unification and total ideologization of education of the Soviet period. K.N. Wentzel insists on the principles of integrity, unity and harmony of a child’s life at school, wishing to see her as a creative environment for the development of a free person. Pedagogical system and practice V.A. In the 1950s and 1960s, continuing the Russian cultural and pedagogical tradition, Sukhomlinsky builds on trust in children, refusal from coercion and punishment, cooperation between children and adults, creative work and moral freedom, providing the opportunity to choose an act, line of conduct, lifestyle and taking responsibility for your choice.
A number of outstanding Russian scientists are preparing the ground for the modern Russian existential-humanistic psychology. Among them - S.L. Rubinstein, in the unfinished book of which “Man and the World”, raises the problems of a person’s being, his life’s world, the relationship between ethics and ontology, the meaning of life and other existential issues, M. Mamardashvili, L.S. Vygotsky with the concept of "peak psychology". Phenomenological, humanistic position in the description of psychiatric symptoms and syndromes, special attention paid to the patient, in an effort to understand his problems, is formed by psychiatrists SS Mnukhin, V.E. Kaganom, S.I. Konstorum, A.M. Svyadoshem and others.
Humanistic psychology, having arisen in the USA in the late 1950s, in its desire to build a new methodology of human cognition, turned, first of all, against the dominance of the natural science mechanistic approach in the American psychology of the time. It is precisely from the point of view of the pathos of confrontation with psychoanalysis and behaviorism characteristic of this period of development of psychological science in the United States that we can understand the comparison of the significance of the emergence of humanistic psychology with the collapse of feudalism, the discoveries of electricity or the whole hemisphere of the Earth, made by J. Bigenthal. She clearly opposed herself to a scientific tradition, which seeks to reduce psychology to the study of the primitive mechanisms of reflex functioning. In the same period, a number of European psychologists develop concepts that are inherently humanistic in nature, but it is in the USA, in addition to the ideological and theoretical discourse, that they are transformed into a broad social movement that goes beyond psychology itself. With the creation of the American Association for Humanistic Psychology (AGP) and the journal “Humanistic Psychology” in 1961-1962, this movement is formed as an independent official branch of psychology oriented towards the highest essential manifestations of man. In part, this dramatic development of humanistic psychology in the United States is due to the general social trends of that period: the peak of the movement for civil rights, mass demonstrations, protest marches.
В России в этот период активно развивается одно из основных направлений советской психологии - деятельностный подход. Он не чужд гуманистической проблематике, как, впрочем, и остальные советские научные школы, открытые по отношению к ней. Именно в их русле формируются отечественные гуманистические концепции, не противопоставляясь другим школам и направлениям, как в Америке, а развивая и трансформируя существующие подходы .
By the time of the founding in 1983 of the project of the Soviet-American cooperation of the AGP with the APS of the USSR, a number of recognized leaders of American humanistic psychology, such as A. Maslow, S. Djurard, S. Büler, E. Sjutich, are passing away. Nevertheless, within the framework of this cooperation, five AGP delegations participate in dialogues, exchange of scientific experience and friendly contacts. The composition of the delegations is rather motley and includes not only psychologists, but the geography of their visits is limited mainly to Leningrad, Moscow and Tbilisi. In Moscow, the main receiving party is the scientific research institute of general and pedagogical psychology of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR. At first, this is mainly one-sided activity, moreover, a limited number of institutions show interest in it, but over time, Soviet specialists also become guests of the AGP annual conferences.
The emergence and development of the humanistic trend in the world psychology is associated primarily with the philosophical works of the existentialists S. Kierkegaard, C. Jaspers, M. Heidegger, J.-P. Sartre. One of the most important for the development of world psychological thought, the work of J.P. Sartre was called “Existentialism - this is humanism”. Existential psychology is closely connected with the philosophy of existentialism and is an offshoot of humanistic psychology. The existential view of a person originates from the concrete and specific awareness of the uniqueness of being of each person that exists at a particular point in time and space. Existentialists believed that each person consciously and painfully comprehends existence and death. Rejecting the notion that man is a product of genetic as well as environmental factors, existentialists emphasize the idea of the responsibility of each of us for what we become. Consequently, the existentialists are convinced that any person is challenged to fill their lives with conscious meaning, opposing it to the surrounding absurdity. In the 1960s, the humanistic trend in psychology took shape thanks mainly to the works of American and European psychologists: E. Fromm, G. Olport, C. Rogers, R. May, A. Maslow, and others. It should be noted that these eminent scientists did not adhere to common views on the subject of humanistic psychology. They had distinct personalities, and we could talk about “Rogers psychology,” “May's psychotherapy,” “Maslow's teaching,” and such. This is due to the fact that the term “humanistic psychology” was coined by a group of psychologists led by A. Maslow. It was a movement rather than a scientific movement. The main goal of such a scientific movement was to create a viable theoretical alternative to both behaviourism and psychoanalysis. This task was brilliantly solved by psychologists who had united their scientific and ideological efforts. Humanistic psychology was named by A. Maslow "the third psychological force". Thus, the nature of her opposition to behaviorism and psychoanalysis was emphasized. Humanist theorists emphasize that each person is an architect of his own behavior and life experience. People are thinking beings, freely deciding and choosing their actions. Thus, humanistic psychology as the main model accepts a responsible person who freely chooses from the given opportunities. The most important concept that humanistic psychologists have learned from existential philosophers is the concept of formation. A man is never static, he is always in dynamics, in motion. As a free being, man is responsible for the realization of the greatest number of life opportunities. From a humanistic point of view, the search for authentic existence requires something more than the satisfaction of biological needs, and even more than the satisfaction of social needs. Often people refuse to become, denying the possibility of a full-fledged human existence.
For a humanistic psychologist, such a person who abandoned the search for meaning, filling his life with him is a traitor to himself. The one who betrayed the human nature is not able to answer the basic questions of his life: what am I? Does my life make sense? How can I realize myself, even if I'm forever alone? Instead, a person may submit to the requirements of society and not go beyond these limits. Humanistic psychologists point out that the search for the meaning of life is difficult: many become alienated towards themselves and others, some lack the courage to insist on their own, others prefer to accept what friends and parents say, society as a whole. Overcoming this problem may induce a person to do something worthwhile. People must take responsibility for the choice and direction of their destiny, as they are responsible for one single life - their own. In addition, existential philosophy made it possible to develop a phenomenological direction in psychology. The focus of this direction is the understanding that a subjective reality is opened to a person rather than an objective one. Subjective experience - the main phenomenon in the study and understanding of man and mankind. External behavior is secondary to immediate experience and its experience. Nothing can replace experience and its experience. Thus, “humanistic psychology is in its essence a direction in world psychology, recognizing as its main subject a personality as a unique integral system, which is not something predetermined, but an“ open possibility ”of self-actualization, inherent only to man.” The focus of G.Olport has hit, first of all, the aspiration of a person in the future, the free realization of the potencies. For A. Maslow, the starting points are creativity and the need for self-actualization of each person. For C. Rogers - strengthening self-confidence and the possibility of achieving the ideal "I". On the basis of the theory and practice of these scientists, psychotherapeutic areas have evolved, which have received the name "personal-centered therapy", "existential therapy", "logotherapy" and others.
- Humanistic psychology at the present stage
The visits of K. Rogers and V. Frankl give impetus to the emergence of an initiative group in the Research Institute of General and Pedagogical Psychology for creating in the USSR an association of humanistic psychology. Finally, in 1990, a year before the collapse of the USSR, thanks to the efforts of V.N. Tsapkin, B.S. Brothers, V.I. Shchur, F. E. Vasilyuk and V.I. Slobodchikov, the Soviet Association of Humanistic Psychology (AGP) was created . It embodies the dream of spreading humanistic ideals and values in a professional psychological environment, uniting researchers and practitioners who realize in their life and professional activities ideas about spirituality, freedom and integrity of a person, conditions and ways of gaining the fullness of being, personal health and the meaning of life . B.S. was elected president of the association. Bratus, vice-presidents - V.N. Tsapkin and V.V. Maikov, Executive Director - V.G. Scur.
At the Association, thematic sections start to work, among them the Christian Anthropology Section, the Humanistic Psychotherapy and Medicine Section under the direction of V. Tsapkin and the Section of Existential Psychology and Psychotherapy under the supervision of D. Leontiev. Work begins on the compilation of a compendium based on the materials of the Association’s founding conference, which should become its peculiar programmatic publication. The Center for Human Sciences of the USSR Academy of Sciences, within the framework of the research project “Humanistic Psychology: History, Methodology and Perspectives”, allocates funds to the Association for this work.
The geography of Russian scientific centers engaged in the dissemination of humanistic approaches is expanding. The beginning of the 1990s was the period of the formation of professional associations and "circles" of interest. This phenomenon, stimulated by active political processes going on in the country, spread far beyond humanistic psychology. Diverse communities actively developed, in parallel with the official science there existed powerful informal groups that absorbed the most active and thinking part of the scientific intelligentsia. They revealed the powerful leadership and intellectual potential of Russian scientists, their high ambitions and promising goals.
In 1995, in St. Petersburg, the first three-year program of the International School of Psychotherapy, counseling and group management was launched on the basis of the Harmony Institute of Psychotherapy and Counseling (established in 1988). Education at the School is conducted jointly by Russian and Western experts. The program is based on the principles of the existential and humanistic approaches of C. Rogers, C. Jung, A. Maslow, R. Assagioli, V. Frankl, F. Perls, R. Mei and others.
Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the International School of Psychotherapy becomes the board member of the Institute of Psychotherapy and Counseling "Harmony", Doctor of Medicine V.E. Kagan Viktor Efimovich, author of over 400 publications, active curator of Psychological Newspapers, member of the Association of Child Psychiatrists and Psychologists and member of the board of its St Petersburg branch, vice-president of the Independent Psychiatric Association of Russia, also co-founder and first president (1990-1999) of St. Petersburg Association of Humanistic Psychology.
From abroad, new approaches continue to come to Russia, new institutions are opening up, such as the Russian-Austrian Institute of Existential-Analytical Psychology and Psychotherapy, created in 2002 with the participation of the International Society of Logotherapy and Existential Analysis (GLE-International), Alfried Längle, Austrian and Russian psychologists and psychotherapists. Subsequently, at the Institute of Practical Psychology at the HSE, headed by prof. A. Orlov opens a program certified by GLE. Representatives of the unfamiliar Russian audience of existential approaches, independently trained abroad, also develop the practice. So, for example, Letunovsky V.V. among the main sources of his approach is Martin Heidegger’s fundamental ontology and the existential-initial therapy of Calfried Durkheim ideologically close to M. Boss and V. Frankl.
The process of developing and disseminating approaches is actively promoted by international and all-Russian conferences. Among them are the most famous and popular "Annual International Conference on Conflict Resolution", regularly organized by the Institute of Psychotherapy and Counseling "Harmony" (St. Petersburg) since the beginning of the 90s. Among other conferences, it is worth mentioning the “All-Russian conference on existential psychology” (Meaning, Moscow), the conference “Existential Dimension in Counseling and Psychotherapy” (HEPI, Birštonas), “Existential Issues in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy” (VEAAET, Latvia), and finally , International Scientific Conference "The Problem of Meaning in the Sciences of Man," dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Viktor Frankl (Institute of Existential Psychology and Life Creativity, RSUH, Moscow).
Thanks to the work of domestic publishers, in particular, the publishing house Smysl, which opened in the early 90s, the best professional literature is available to a wide range of our compatriots. Many are well-known to most of the foreign representatives of the humanistic (Gordon Allport, Henry Murray, George Kelly, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers) and existential psychology (Ludwig Binswanger, Medard Boss, Rollo May, Irwin Yalom, Thomas Greening, Victor Frankl, James Byudental).
Thus, the specificity of the subject of humanistic psychology lies in: a) deep philosophical roots (as opposed to behaviorism or psychoanalysis), b) to consider the personality from the point of view of its unique motives, and, first of all, the motive of self-actualization, c) the choice of opportunities for each person and responsibility for their choice and its consequences, d) in the understanding of man as a deeply creative being.
2. PERSONAL PROBLEMS IN HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY
2.1. Abraham Maslow's Humanistic Psychology
One of the leading directions of modern foreign psychology is humanistic psychology, denoting itself as a “third force” in psychology, opposed to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. The origin of the name and the formulation of basic principles is associated with the name of the American psychologist Abraham Harold Maslow (1908-1970), which took place in the 60s of the last century. In the center of humanistic psychology - the concept of the formation of the individual, the idea of the need for maximum creative self-realization, which means true mental health. Let us denote the main differences of humanistic psychology from the first two "forces". Individuality in humanistic psychology is considered as an integrative whole, as opposed to behaviorism focused on the analysis of individual events. In humanistic psychology, the irrelevance (unsuitability) of animal research for understanding man is emphasized. This thesis is also opposed to behaviorism. Unlike classical psychoanalysis, humanistic psychology claims that a person is initially kind or, as a last resort, neutral, aggression, violence, and such things arise in connection with the influence of the environment. The most universal human characteristic in A. Maslow's concept is creativity, that is, a creative direction, which is inherent in everything, but is also lost by the majority due to the influence of the environment, although some manage to preserve a naive, “childish” world view. Finally, Maslow emphasizes the interest of humanistic psychology in a psychologically healthy personality. Before analyzing a disease, you need to understand what health is (in Freud's psychoanalysis, the path is directly opposite). These principles mainly apply to other humanistic concepts, although in general, humanistic psychology does not represent a single theory: it is united by some general provisions and “personal” orientation in practice, psychotherapy and pedagogy. We will consider humanistic psychology on the example of the views of A. Maslow and C. Rogers. The “heart” of the concept of Abraham Maslow is his idea of human needs. In 1954, he developed a hierarchical model of motivation (“Motivation and personality”), believing that man’s needs are “given” and hierarchically organized into levels.
If this hierarchy is presented in the form of a pyramid or a ladder, then the following levels are distinguished (from bottom to top):
1) physiological or basic (organic) needs - hunger, thirst, sexual desire and others,
2) the need for security - to feel protected, to get rid of fear, from aggressiveness,
3) the need for affiliation and love - to belong to the community, to be close to people, to be accepted by them and, to love and be loved,
4) the requirements of respect (honoring) - competence, approval, recognition, authority, achievement of success,
5) cognitive needs - to know, be able, understand, explore,
6) aesthetic needs - harmony, symmetry, order, beauty,
7) the need for self-actualization - the realization of their goals, abilities, self-development.
The general principle proposed by Maslow for the interpretation of personal development: the underlying needs must be, to some extent, satisfied before a person can proceed to the realization of higher ones. Without this, a person may not be aware of the needs of a higher level. In general, Maslow believed, the higher a person can climb the ladder of needs, the more health and humanity he will manifest, the more individual he will be. At the "top" of the pyramid are the needs associated with self-actualization. Maslow defined self-actualization as a desire to become all that is possible, this is the need for self-improvement, for the realization of his potential. This path is difficult: it is associated with the experience of fear of the unknown and responsibility, but it is also the path to a full-fledged, inner rich life. By the way, self-actualization does not necessarily imply an artistic form of embodiment: communication, work, love are also forms of creativity. Although all people are looking for internal consistency, few reach less than 1% of the level of self-actualization (which is not a state, but a process!). Most, according to Maslow, are simply blind to their potential, are not aware of its existence and are not aware of the joy of movement towards its disclosure. This is facilitated by the environment: the bureaucratic society has a tendency to level the individual (remember the similar ideas of E.Fromm's “humanistic psychoanalysis”).
Equally, this applies to the situation in the family: children growing up in friendly conditions, when the need for security is satisfied, have more chances for self-actualization.
В целом же, если человек не выходит на уровень самоактуализации, это означает «блокировку» потребности более низкого уровня. Человек же, вышедший на уровень самоактуализации («самоактуализирующаяся личность»), оказывается человеком особым, не отягощённым множеством мелких пороков типа зависти, злобы, дурного вкуса, цинизма, он не будет склонен к депрессии и пессимизму, эгоизму и так далее. So, the task of man, according to Maslow, is to become what is possible - and therefore, to be himself - in a society where conditions do not contribute to this. The person turns out to be the highest value and is responsible, ultimately, only for being held.
The concept of self-actualization is at the center of the concept of one of the most popular psychologists of the 20th century (mainly among practitioners, therapists and educators) - Carl Rogers (1902-1987). For him, however, the concept of self-actualization turns out to be a symbol of the force that forces a person to develop at various levels, determining his mastery of motor skills and the highest creative ups. The man, like other living organisms, believes C. Rogers, has an innate tendency to live, grow, develop. All biological needs are subordinated to this trend - they must be satisfied for the purposes of positive development, and the development process takes place despite the fact that many living in harsh conditions stand in its way, not only survive, but continue to progress and develop. According to Rogers, man is not what he appears in psychoanalysis. He believes that a person is initially good and does not need control from society, moreover, it is control that makes a person act badly. Behavior leading a person to unhappiness does not correspond to human nature. Cruelty, anti-socialism, immaturity and such other - the result of fear and psychological protection. The task of the psychologist is to help a person discover his positive tendencies that are present in everyone at deep levels. The actualizing trend (the other means the need for self-actualization, in the dynamics of its manifestation) is the reason that a person becomes more complex, independent, socially responsible. Initially, all experiences, the whole experience is evaluated (not necessarily consciously) through the trend towards actualization. Satisfaction is brought by those experiences that are in line with this tendency, and they are avoided by opposing experiences.
Such an orientation is characteristic of a person as a leader, until the “I” structure is formed, that is, self-consciousness. The problem, according to Rogers, is that, together with the formation of the “I”, the child has a need for a positive attitude towards himself from others and a need for positive self-attitude. However, at the same time, the only way to develop a positive self-attitude is associated with the assimilation of such behaviors that cause a positive attitude of others. In other words, the child will no longer be guided by what corresponds to the actualizing tendency, but by how likely it is to get approval. Hence, Rogers draws the tendency of a person to join relatively conservative groups in this regard - religious, social, small groups of close friends, and so on, since non-congruence is characteristic of people of any age and social status. However, the ultimate goal, according to Rogers, is not stabilization of external assessments, but loyalty to one's own feelings.
In addition, K. Rogers developed personality-centered therapy, the principles of which (the main attention is the personality as such, non-social roles or identity) spread beyond psychotherapy, in the traditional sense of the word, and formed the basis of groups of meetings, covered learning problems, family development, ethnic relations and others.
The position of the Austrian psychiatrist and psychologist Viktor Frankl (born in 1905), the founder of the 3rd Vienna School of Psychotherapy (after the schools of Freud and Adler), is close to humanistic psychology (although it is largely based on psychoanalysis). His approach is called logotherapy, that is, therapy aimed at acquiring the meaning of life. The basis of his approach Frankl puts three basic concepts: free will, the will to the meaning and the meaning of life. Thus, Frankl denotes disagreement with behaviorism and psychoanalysis: behaviorism, in fact, rejects the idea of human free will, psychoanalysis puts forward ideas about the desire for pleasure (Freud) or the will for power (early Adler). As for the meaning of life, Freud believed that the person asking this question, thus, manifests mental distress. According to Frankl, this question is natural for modern man, and it is precisely the fact that man does not strive to attain it, does not see the paths leading to this, is the main cause of psychological difficulties and negative experiences, such as sensations of meaninglessness, worthlessness of life. The main obstacle is the centering of a person on himself, the inability to go "beyond himself" - to another person or to meaning. The meaning, according to Frankl, exists objectively in every moment of life, including the most tragic. The psychotherapist cannot give a person this meaning (it is for everyone), but he can help him see it. “Going beyond your limits” Frankl refers to the concept of “self-transcendence” and considers self-actualization to be only one of the moments of self-transcendence. In order to help a person in his problems, V. Frankl uses two basic principles (they are the same methods of therapy): a) the principle of dereflexia, b) the principle of paradoxical intention.
The direction developed by V. Frankl, as well as humanistic psychology or gestalt therapy, can hardly be called a theory, in the strict sense of the word. It is characteristic of Frankl’s statement that the main argument confirming the validity of his position is his own experience of being a prisoner in fascist concentration camps. It was there that Victor Frankl was convinced that even in their inhuman conditions it is possible not only to remain human, but also to rise — sometimes to holiness — if the meaning of life persists.
The fundamental thesis underlying the position of A. Maslow is the study of a person as a uniquely organized whole. In addition, A. Maslow, like other humanistic psychologists, believed that human nature is good or at least neutral. His gaze on a person can be called optimistic.
As one of the criteria of psychological health A. Maslow, considered the current motive of self-actualization of his subjects. He argued that the life of a self-actualizing person is never meaningless, but is filled with either the realization of what was found or the search for new meanings. “I imagine a self-actualized person not as an ordinary person to whom something is added, but as an ordinary person from whom nothing has been taken away. The average person is a complete human being, with dimmed and depressed abilities and talents. ”
Abraham Maslow gave priority to the creative side of human nature, considering that everyone is capable of creativity. And you do not need to write music or draw pictures. You can express yourself as a creative person in any business. Creativity is the path to the development of meta-motivation, high life values, and simply is a given. Apparently, the ability to manifest itself as a creative creature is one of the hallmarks of man in general, distinguishing him from other living organisms. Thus, A. Maslow argued that the meaning of human life is subject to its creator - man. With the hands of Abraham Maslow, the concepts of self-actualization and personal growth are among the key, even cult, in modern psychology.
Maslow’s works are often quoted today, although they have become available only in recent years and, frankly, there are few who have read them carefully. They are known mainly in the abstract, and most psychology students usually confine themselves to jarring on Maslow's “pyramid of needs” the night before the exam in order not to recall it anymore. In fact, Maslow’s role in world psychology is much deeper and more serious, and this truly outstanding psychologist deserves that his colleagues know firsthand about him. It should be noted that Maslow’s attempts to humanize psychology were met with a fierce rejection on the part of most of his colleagues who adhered to the behavioral orientation. Although Maslow's students almost worshiped, the editors of leading psychological journals for a number of years rejected any of his manuscripts without consideration. In fact, the students brought him in their arms to the chair of the President of the American Psychological Association. But it happened in another era, in the late 1960s - in the era of Bob Dylan and Andy Warhol, Timothy Leary and Ken Kesey. Probably, when they say that the youth of the 1960s changed the face of America, there is some truth in this. At least for psychology this is true.
2.2. Erich Fromm: freedom and existential human needs
Erich Fromm is one of the first psychologists who tried to expand the horizons of psychoanalysis. Existential philosophy became the basis of his humanistic theory. According to E.Fromm, loneliness, isolation and alienation are an integral feature of human existence. At the same time, he was convinced that each historical period was characterized by the progressive development of individuality as people struggled to achieve greater personal freedom in the development of all their potential possibilities. However, a considerable degree of autonomy and freedom of choice of people of modern Western society was achieved due to the loss of a sense of complete security and the appearance of a sense of personal insignificance. From the point of view of E. Fromm, people in modern society face a dilemma: freedom from social, religious and other restrictions has demanded compensation from a person in the form of security and a sense of belonging to society. E. Fromm believed that this gap between freedom and security caused serious difficulties in human existence. People fight for freedom and autonomy, but this struggle itself causes a feeling of alienation from nature and society. People need to have power over their lives and have the right to choose, but they also need to be connected with other people, to feel themselves part of society.
A man, according to E. Fromm, overcomes the feeling of loneliness that accompanies freedom in several ways (accomplishes escape from freedom): - authoritarianism, connecting itself with something external to strengthen the weak "I", - destructiveness, allowing to overcome the feeling of inferiority, destroying and conquering others, - conformity of the automaton, implying absolute subordination to social norms. These ways allow one to overcome loneliness to some extent, but, according to E. Fromm, a person ceases to be a man in the full sense of the word, since he ceases to strive for freedom of choice, loses his individuality, his unique life style. Escape from freedom E. Fromm opposed to positive freedom, allowing you to remain unique and at the same time feel like a part of society. Ways to positive freedom lie through love and work. Thus, the conflict between the desire for freedom and the desire for a sense of security is a huge motivational force. This conflict is due to a special kind of needs - existential, not reducible to either biological or social. “But will our children hear a voice that will tell them where to go and why to live? Somehow they feel, like all human beings, that life should make sense - but what is it? After all, he is not in contradiction, not in duplicity and cynical submissiveness, encountered at every step? They are drawn to happiness, truth, justice, love, devotion, but can we answer their questions? ”E. Fromm answers these questions by putting forward a description of five basic existential needs: - the need to establish connections (a person needs to love someone , for someone to care, while maintaining their individuality), - the need to overcome (all people need to overcome their passive, animal nature, in order to become active creators of their lives), - the need for roots (people need to feel to be an integral part of the world), - the need for identity (an inner need for identity with oneself, in order to feel oneself different from others, to be able to say: “I am me”), - the need for a frame of reference and devotion ( a person needs to have convictions for productive comprehension of the world and an object of devotion - the highest goal or faith in God). With a strong frustration of these needs, a person becomes ill, his mental and psychological health is undermined.
The value of the humanistic theory of E. Fromm is that he showed: a person wants to be free among the free, an individual part of the whole. "People are alike, because we all got one human situation with its existential dichotomies, people are unique, because each of them solves his human problem in his own way." In case of non-acceptance of responsibility for the satisfaction of their existential needs, both an individual person and society suffer, forming the norm of the internal division of their members. First of all, he acted as a reformer of psychoanalysis. Fromm is an insightful and deep psychologist who has managed to uncover the origins of human passions, the motives of human behavior. He gave psychoanalysis a historical dimension. Analyzing the possibilities of the emancipation of man, Fromm showed the richest sociological imagination. He investigated the finest mechanisms of the psyche against the background of a multidimensional socio - historical context. Fromm wrote: “I have never agreed that I referred to me as a new“ school ”of psychoanalysis, no matter how it was called“ cultural school ”or“ neo-Freudism ”. I am convinced that these schools have produced valuable results, but some of them have overshadowed many of Freud's discoveries. I am definitely not an “orthodox Freudian”. The fact is that any theory that has not changed for 60 years is precisely for this reason that it is no longer the original theory of its creator; rather, it is a petrified repetition of the former and, as such, is in reality transformed into a set. Freud made his fundamental discoveries in a well-defined philosophical system, a system of mechanistic materialism, the followers of which were most natural scientists of the beginning of our century.
We believe that the further development of Freud's ideas in a different philosophical system, namely in the system of dialectical humanism, is necessary. “How did Fromm's reformism manifest in psychoanalysis? First of all, in that, unlike Freud, the philosopher considered human nature mainly due to historically, without minimizing the role of biological factors. He refused to set Freud, as if the problem of man could be correctly formulated in terms of contrasting biological and cultural factors. Freud believed that man is a closed system, "a thing in itself."
In his opinion, nature has endowed man with certain biologically determined aspirations, and personal development serves as a response to the satisfaction or frustration of these aspirations. Fromm showed that the main approach to the study of the human personality should consist in understanding the relationship of man to the world, to other people, to nature and to himself. According to his views, man is initially a social being. Consequently, the key problem of psychology is not in revealing the mechanism of satisfaction or frustration of individual instinctive aspirations, but in the attitude of the individual to the world. These discoveries of Fromm largely changed the focus of psychoanalysis, provided a new round of its development. They allowed the use of neofradeism methodology for the analysis of sociohistorical dynamics. The philosopher managed to create a whole gallery of social types and characters, he tried to comprehend the social, political conflicts of the century. It is quite natural that this led him to the need to reveal the humanistic potential of the ideas of Karl Marx.
2.3. Humanistic views of C. Rogers
One of the important provisions of the theory of K. Rogers (1902-1987) is the judgment that the individual exists in a constantly changing world, the center of which is himself. This individual space has been called the phenomenal world. It is not the world of objects and objects, but includes everything that a person (organism) feels, regardless of whether this feeling is consciously or unconsciously. The realization of this or that feeling was called the symbolization of the object. In the personal world of the individual, only a small part of it is experienced consciously, while some of the contents of the experience are easily formed into images, while others remain vague bases of new experience. The true meaning of individual experience is known only to the individual. Complete and direct knowledge and insight into the world of experience, and perhaps only potentially. The body reacts to the environment as it is given to him in experience and perception. This sphere - the perception of events is real. Иными словами, человек реагирует не на какую-то абсолютную реальность, а на свое восприятие этой реальности. Это положение является одним из оснований феноменологического направления, представителем которого был Роджерс.It is revealed through the following three principles: human behavior can be understood not from the standpoint of an objective observer, but from the standpoint of the personality itself, its subjective perception and cognition of reality, the person himself determines his fate, is free to choose and make decisions, people are kind by nature and strive to perfection. In a psychological sense, reality is the personal world of a person’s perceptions.
In psychotherapy, a change in the sphere of perception, mental reality leads to a change in a person’s reactions. For example, while the parent is perceived as dominant, the child’s responses remain relevant. The body reacts to a certain phenomenal field as an organized whole. This position of Rogers is opposed to functionalism, which decomposes the personality and cognitive processes into separate components, which in themselves do not represent this integrity. The personality has one main tendency and the desire - to actualize, preserve and strengthen the body as the center of experience, to develop in the direction of maturity.
The organism moves towards greater independence and responsibility, towards self-government, self-regulation and autonomy. This need for self-actualization is inherent in every person from birth, but the upbringing and norms established by society force him to forget about his own feelings and needs and accept the values imposed by others. In this deviation lies the source of the behavior anomalies. The more manifestations of experience available to consciousness, the greater the opportunity for a person to reflect the overall picture of his phenomenal world in behavior, the less protective, distorting the content of the experience of representations, the more adequately they are expressed in communication. Over time, a part of a person’s personal world, his perceptions begin to be realized and shaped into a separate structure - I-concept. I am a symbolized part of the experience, which arose as a result of the fact that some feelings about myself were marked and separated into a separate entity. “I-concept” is an “I” perceived by an individual or what a person has in mind when he says “I” or “me”. At the initial stage, the I-concept is usually formed mainly on the basis of personal experience, events occurring in the phenomenal sphere and identified by the individual as “I” or “himself”, at least at the preverbal level ... Also, individuals develop the I-concept when interacting with others who have meaning for them and treat them as separate “I.”
The structure of “I” includes different values: 1) directly experienced by the body (“I perceive my parents as people dissatisfied with my behavior”) and 2) introjected into others, but perceived in their distortion as their own, direct (“I perceive my behavior as unsatisfactory "). A healthy personality structure develops in a child who is not forced by parents to distort their experience. Any experience and experiences in the life of an individual are subject to various assessments: some of them are adequately symbolized in relation to the self, some are ignored, not realized, not having to do with meeting the needs, some are distorted in symbolization as incompatible with the structure of the self, others are denied to meet the needs.
- area of content, that is, those areas that are reflected in the "I-concept" (physical, social, sexual, feelings and emotions, tastes and preferences, professional interests, leisure, values and moral traits),
- the structure or type of links between individual parts of the “I-concept” and the nature of relations with the environment,
- congruence - non-congruence, that is, the presence of conformity / inconsistency of self-concept and the real experiences of people,
- protection, or force, which protects against assessments that do not correspond to the “I-concept”,
- tension, that is, the condition that occurs due to a fixed protective position, ·
- the level of self-esteem, or the ability to take oneself in all its diversity of features,
- reality, or the ability to assess themselves on the basis of actual information received.
The basis of neurosis is disagreement, incongruence of the true content of the person (experience) and its “I-concept”, the self. Overcoming this discrepancy occurs through integration, when all sensory and internal experiences can be realized through precise symbolization and organized into a single system, internally compatible with the structure of the self and correlated with it.
In the process of psychotherapeutic work, the therapist seeks to help a person maximize, to realize. The psychotherapeutic techniques used by K. Rogers are called non-direct psychotherapy, or “client-centered” psychotherapy. Later, the term "client-centered psychotherapy" was replaced by a more appropriate one - the concept of "person-centered therapy."
Rogers believed that the new name would be more suitable for describing human values and interdependence, the ideas about which underlay the approach he developed, and that this name could be used in other fields of knowledge besides counseling and psychotherapy. It is this emphasis on a subjective, perceptual view of customers that has led to the approval of the term. Perception is seen as their version of reality.
The main conditions of a person-centered approach are empathy, congruence, and unconditional positive acceptance of the client. To define congruence, such words as authenticity, reality, openness, transparency, and presence are used.
Empathy - a sense of the inner world of the client as its own, but while maintaining the quality "as if". Empathy - the ability of a person to respond emotionally to the experiences of other people. Usually, two types of empathy are considered: 1) empathy - experiencing the same feelings, 2) sympathy - experiencing different feelings by the subject.
Consultants should be sensitive to the flow of experiences that occur both with clients and with themselves at any given moment. They should also be able to sense the nuances that customers cannot feel. Showing tact, sensitivity and showing understanding of clients' problems, consultants should convey to them their perception of their inner world and personal meanings. Consultants should also inform clients of their desire to understand their inner world, often checking the accuracy of their understanding and showing willingness to take into account comments and make corrections . True empathy has no evaluative and diagnostic quality, does not mean a direct reflection of the words of the client.
Rogers understood by empathy a special position, a specific form of companionship, a gentle way of communicating with clients ... [which] does not imply the fulfillment of good intentions, as well as mechanical reflection. K. Rogers sought to ensure that in the process of psychotherapeutic work to help a person maximally reveal himself, be realized. His psychotherapy focuses on empathic support for the client. In this way, it differs from the usual psychotherapeutic installation, which consists in the fact that the therapist supposedly knows the true causes of the client's problems, and also knows what the client needs to become better. That is why most therapists try to force the client to see things as the therapist sees them, that is, they resort to directive management, manipulate thoughts, feelings, and actions in order to lead the client to how he should think, feel, act.
Rogers believed that with the unconditional positive acceptance and understanding of the client, people will carry out personal growth in a direction that is unique and unique for them. When a person becomes himself, he, paradoxically, begins to change, because the relationship becomes genuine, and the true relationship is beautiful because it is full of life and meaning. Specifically, in the practice of counseling, the consultant seeks in the dialogue with the client to reflect on the crisis situation by the client, which in the course of subsequent conversations can be replaced by rethinking this situation and finding possible ways out of it. What is this change about? In the process of psychotherapy, the main task is the coherence of the real I (“What I am in my ideas and actions) and objective experience. The greater the agreement between the description of oneself and its objective reflection, the less perceptual protection and more adequate behavior. Otherwise, a person has neurotic reactions. Opening to one's own experience allows one to bring into correspondence the structure of the ego with the experience of the personality. The theory of therapy and personal change involves the removal of feelings of anxiety and uncertainty due to the unconditional positive attitude towards him the therapist. The man himself begins to reveal his experience and begins to accept what he had previously rejected. There is a reorganization of the I, the differences between the I-real and the I-ideal are removed. If an individual experiences an unconditional positive attitude toward himself, if there is complete mutual understanding between the client and the therapist, then the individual will be a fully functioning person, will be open to his experience, which thus can be accessible to awareness, the structure I will be congruent to experience, will be gestalt, flexibly changing in the process of learning new types of experience. A large place in psychotherapy is given not to cognitive structures, but to emotions and affects.
This work is devoted to one of the topical themes of general psychology - the problem of personality research in humanistic psychology. Psychology, which is something more than a matter of leisure exercises for scientists, psychology, which is worth it, that a person gave her all the power, can not be limited to abstract study of individual functions, it should go through the study of functions, processes, and so on. ultimately, lead to the actual knowledge of real life, living people. The subject of psychological research of personality is the system of generalized relations of the individual in the surrounding reality and the methods of action with which these relations are realized. The system of personality traits enters in turn into a subsystem of a large system of social relationships. The subsystem of personality traits is in many ways dependent on the subsystems of a lower level - the physiological properties of the organism and the mental properties of a person as an individual. In the same relationship are the mental properties of the individual and the socio-psychological characteristics of the social group. Personality traits are also in one-to-one or multi-valued dependence on each other. These dependencies form characteristic psychological patterns of personality. Self-expression of personality occurs through the interconnected unity of both the physiological properties of the organism, and the psychological properties of the personality, and the psychology of the social group, of society as a whole. Each subsystem in a large social system "the human body - society" follows its own specific laws. Of course, there are numerous contradictions between the subsystems of the individual, for example, the properties of the individual may contradict the properties of temperament. The desire to change the conditions of its existence in the process of activity gives an idea of the person as a subject. But the possibility of influencing the conditions of one’s existence arises only in collective activity. The personality itself can only experience the conditions of existence in a social group or society. And without the absence of an active collective activity, consciousness and self-consciousness are able to create only the illusion of freedom from the natural and social laws that affect human life. A person becomes a subject in collective activity in the presence of common aspirations, goals, relationships, that is, with its social typicality. And how much a person will be able to retain in himself an individually-peculiar one and transform according to this collective activity one can judge the person as a subject, striving to improve the surrounding reality.
The main area of practical application of humanistic psychology is psychotherapeutic practice, in which many of the ideas that today form the theoretical foundation of humanistic psychology were born and developed. In the writings of A. Maslow, S. Jurard, F. Barron, and C. Rogers, the concepts of a psychologically healthy, fully functioning personality were developed. Non-directive psychotherapy by K. Rogers and log therapy by V. Frankl are among the most popular and common psychotherapeutic systems. The main provisions of “humanistic psychology”: a person should be studied in its integrity, each person is unique, therefore the analysis of individual cases is no less justified than statistical generalizations, a person is open to the world, the person’s experiences of the world and themselves in the world are the main psychological reality, human life should be considered as a single process of becoming and being of man, man is endowed with the potentials for continuous development and self-realization, which are part of his nature, man possesses a certain Epen free from external determination because of the meaning and value, which it is guided in his choice, man - it is an active, intentional, creative being.