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What are the types of soils?

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Being engaged in the cultivation of flowers in indoor conditions, you must carefully take care of green pets, so that they feel indoors as comfortable as possible. It is desirable to create conditions close to the natural habitat. To do this, you need to maintain the temperature in the room, the humidity of the air, and also to choose the right soil for the plants, which would combine exactly those qualities that are needed for this particular flower or shrub. Although in flower shops you can find bags with versatile planting material that will suit most green pets. About what kind of land is needed for planting indoor plants and how to properly classify the types of substrates, read our article.

Types and characteristics

Soil for indoor flowers can be purchased at any modern flower shop. They present a large assortment of land for planting home and street shrubs, flowers, vines, and so on. Thinking about how to pick up the soil for indoor plants? The type of substrate is essential for the proper growing of flowers. Each of them has its own characteristics and unique composition.

Heavy ground

This type of soil is best suited for growing large plants with a developed root system, located at great depths. Among such representatives most often clivia, dracaena and palm trees are found. As a rule, this garden mixture is prepared from three components:

  • 5 parts turf soil,
  • 1 part of coarse sand,
  • 1 part of the humus.

Knowing the preferences of indoor plants regarding the quality and composition of the substrate, it can be prepared at home. All components are harvested on their own or purchased at any specialty store.

Moderate soil

Most representatives of houseplants prefer this type of soil, since its composition is optimally balanced. Such a soil mixture can be made from the following components:

  • 1 part peat,
  • 1 part of sand,
  • 2 pieces of humus,
  • 2 pieces of sod land.

If you decide to prepare the substrate and the soil for the plants with your own hands, then it is worth noting that all components must be of good quality. It is also necessary to properly observe all proportions, because with the slightest mistake the root system of a pet can be affected by rot, which will be almost impossible to get rid of.

Light ground

This soil is best suited for growing small flowers that have a shallow root system. Popular representatives include gloxinia, cyclamen, begonia and aloe. Also, such a substrate can be successfully used for growing seedlings and rooting cuttings. With a standard cooking scheme, you must mix the following elements:

  • 1 part of sand,
  • 1 part of humus,
  • 1 piece of leafy ground
  • 3 pieces of peat.

Before connecting all the components, it is recommended to sift the ground from foreign bodies properly. Otherwise, small stones and twigs will interfere with the proper development of the root system. Remember that the soil must be clean, airy and loose.

Substrate structure

The characteristics of the soil for indoor plants include two main parameters that should be paid attention first of all - acidity and structure. The composition of the purchased substrates can be very different. It is simply impossible to determine by eye whether the contents of the packages correspond to the composition indicated on the package. Therefore, when assessing the quality of the proposed substrate, it is necessary to focus on easily recognizable and always visible characteristics, for example, the presence or absence of a structure.

Land for indoor plants (flowers, vines, shrubs, etc.) should have a pronounced structure, that is, the presence of some coarse texture, heterogeneity and lumps. This can be easily verified by touching the bag with the substrate with your hands. In such a soil plants will never suffer because of the dry "layers" that are formed on the surface of the pot as a result of drying of the soil. In the soil with a pronounced structure, moisture will be evenly distributed and retained in any part of the substrate. It also retains its breathability even a few years after planting, since the upper layers of the soil are not subject to barking and compaction. At the same time, substrates that are too homogeneous, more prone to acidification, as well as uneven distribution and retention of moisture.

Soil acidity

Determining the composition of the soil for indoor plants is not so difficult, but what to do with acidity? Even in universal substrates, this parameter is necessarily indicated on the package with the ground, since most of the indoor cultures have their own individual characteristics, which are by no means uniform in terms of the soil response requirements. Of course, most plants will feel great in a neutral environment, but there are also representatives that develop exclusively in the soil with an alkaline or weakly alkaline reaction, as well as species that require an acidic environment.

For indoor plants, the average acidity is 6.0 on the pH scale (neutral). Soils with an exponent of 7.0 and above are alkaline or calcareous, and substrates by a reaction of pH 5.5 and below are considered weakly acidic and acidic.

Alkaline soil is preferred by very few houseplants. Among the prominent representatives: chlorophytum, ophiopogon, calceolaria and bells.

The soil for indoor plants and flowers with a reaction of 5.5 pH will be optimal for cyclamen, cestrum, sansvevieri, pittosporum, pachyphytus, ferns, oxillon, dieffenbachia, cypress, cordilin, calla, camellia, gerbera, alokazii, akalfi and others. Substrate with an indicator from 4.0 to 5.0 on the pH scale is preferably used for bergerantus, hydrangea, zuorbii, oscularity, ceropegia, rhododendron, etc.

In the description of any houseplant, in addition to the transplantation strategy, as well as optimal conditions of maintenance, one can find the preferred composition and soil structure. If you decide to determine which composition of the earth is better for flowers, then you should not dwell on the “medium” variant, since for each pet you need to choose your substrate, based on the individual preferences of this plant. Of course, most cultures will prefer a nutritious, loose and versatile type of substrate with a neutral environment, but in room collections there are often species for which such soil will be destructive.

Universal Soil

When choosing a soil for plants, it is necessary to pay attention not only to the acidity index, which must necessarily be indicated on the package, but also to the suitability of the substrate for a particular plant species - in most cases, the list of crops will also be given on the package with planting material. Also do not forget that you can get advice on the suitability of a particular type of soil from a sales assistant who will help you make the right choice.

A single, or universal, complex earth mixture is most commonly found on the market. Manufacturers can call it anything - from the usual "soil" to smart brand names. This soil is considered suitable for various groups of plants due to its "average" characteristics. Most unpretentious indoor crops that do not require special care will settle in it with great joy.

Special types of substrates

Special substrates are soil mixtures developed and selected for a specific family, type or type of indoor plants. A distinctive feature of this soil is its narrow focus. These earth mixtures differ from universal ones not only in their structure and acidity, but also in various degrees of nutritional value, which is achieved due to additional additives in the form of sphagnum or pine bark. Such compositions are always better than universal ones, since they truly satisfy all the needs of indoor cultures. However, it will be extremely difficult to choose this type of substrate, so you first need to familiarize yourself with the information about the plant itself.

Special types of substrate include:

  • soil for violets,
  • soil for growing indoor roses,
  • substrate for tubers, jasmine, citrus,
  • soil for palm trees (in rare cases, you can find separate mixtures for dracaena and yucca),
  • ground for succulents and cacti,
  • mixes for decorative leafy and decorative flowering plants.

Moreover, the prepared soil for narrow specialization plants is perfect for representatives who are similar in soil requirements. For example, almost all the Hesneriae will feel great in the soil for violets, and the soil for yucca or dracaena will also be suitable for hibiscus. But orchid soil is a highly specialized substrate that can only be used under orchids.

Turf ground

The result of overburdening of the sod beds is quite nutritious soil. To prepare the substrate, it is necessary to lay the grass in a pile, then close it with a layer of cow manure. It remains only to wait until this "pie" pereperet. The substrate is used for planting plants that prefer acidic soils, since turfy land has an acidity of between 5 and 6 pH. In order to reduce the reaction, as well as give the substrate a looser structure, the turf soil is often mixed with other types of soil, as well as sand or clay.

Leafy ground

Perhaps the easiest and friable soil for plants. The mixture of the substrate, in which there is leafy soil, perfectly passes water and air to the root system, but its nutritional value is on average, since such planting material is obtained by rotting simple leaves from deciduous trees. They are harvested in the fall in small heaps and are left for a period of one to two years. In order for the overrun process to go faster, the heap layers must be constantly watered and turned over. Leaf earth can be used to enhance the acid reaction.

Peat ground

This land differs from others in its special lightness and friability. It is often used to improve the overall soil composition. Peat mix provides mineral balance for any dough mix. Get it exclusively from peat, which passed the period of decay at least a year ago. In horticulture, riding is most actively used, less often - dark transitional peat, which has an acidity of from 3.5 to 5.5 pH. If there is peat in the mixture, then you should definitely see the fibrous, reddish pieces in it. Such a soil is best suited for growing young seedlings, especially all aroid ones. Ferns and philodendrons can live in pure peat at all. However, in order for the soil to better pass water and air, it is recommended to mix it with other types of earth.

Coniferous land

This kind of light acidic land is perfect for growing flowering houseplants, such as azaleas and anthuriums. The soil is a top layer of bedding taken from their coniferous forest (usually pine). If you decide to prepare the soil for the plants yourself, then you should know that you do not need to remove the layer from the very top, because there are a lot of unchanged needles. It is best to use the bottom layer, which is located at a depth of 20 centimeters. This is a fairly loose earth with a reaction from 4 to 5 pH.

Compost or humus

The land is quite rich and rich in active substances, which is very aggressive in its pure form. If you decide to add pure humus to the substrate, you risk damaging the plant root system (it will simply burn out). So this kind of soil should definitely be mixed with other types of land. For composting, it is best to use spent greenhouse manure, which decomposes within 2-3 years. Its pH acidity is around 8.0 units.

One of the most important components for many earth mixtures. Although many people say that there is nothing to grow in the sand, you will not be able to completely do without it in home gardening. For planting only river white sand is used. Before use, it must be thoroughly washed, hardened, and disinfected.

In most cases, growers use only pine bark. It can be collected right in the forest. For disinfection and softening, the material is boiled for 30 minutes in boiling water, after which it is cut into small pieces. The bark will give the substrate good water permeability as well as lightness. It will also provide an acid reaction for the mixture (4-4.5 pH). Pine bark is also used to make the soil for plants more friable. This property is especially required by aroid, ferns, and most of all - orchids.

Sphagnum (moss)

This is an indispensable component of soil mixture for epiphytic plants. Moss is used to give the soil lightness, friability, hygroscopicity. However, before using it it is necessary to dry it well, and then grind it practically to a powder. Sphagnum will give an acid reaction around 4 pH. Also, moss is perfect for covering air roots that are on the trunks of some plants, so that they do not dry out and freeze. Prikannye branches (with reproduction) is also better to cover with fresh moss.

The information from the article will help you to prepare the ground for your pets correctly and will answer the question about what kind of land is needed for planting indoor flowers. Remember that not all cultures prefer to "live" in a universal soil, so before a transplant, it is better to consult with a specialist in a flower shop or to find information in the relevant literature.

Ground Grade Categories

Soil is evaluated in these categories:

  1. The shape and size of the grains.
  2. Coupling of particles.
  3. Uniformity.
  4. Particle interaction coefficient (friction).
  5. The presence of moisture.
  6. The amount of water absorbed into the soil.
  7. Permeability
  8. Ability to retain water.
  9. The amount of blurring.
  10. Solubility.
  11. Wet soil plasticity.
  12. Compressibility.
  13. Looseness.

Types of soil

Soil by its properties, structure and composition is divided into certain groups of species that are considered to be the main - they are rocks and loose soils. In addition to these main species, there is another group called conglomerates - These are remnants of rocks that are completely unrelated.

According to the complexity of the development of the soil can also be divided into individual types.

Rocky ground

It is a single solid array of crystalline rocks. It has a fairly high strength, has a high frost resistance, practically does not shrink and does not dissolve in water, does not soften. Thanks to these properties rocky soil has the ability to withstand fairly large loads. On it you can safely build a foundation for the building with almost no penetration.

The only drawback is the great complexity in its development.

Conglomerates

This type of soil consists of rock fragments that are not tied together. Also has high stability. The foundation for the building can be shallow, but not less than 500 mm.

The group related to loose soils is also divided into two types - clay soil and sandy.

Sandy soils

Consist of loose small particles that were formed in the process of weathering of rocks. Their particles have different sizes and are not related to each otherIt also divides sand into several types:

  • the smallest particles (dusty),
  • middle sands
  • sands are large
  • gravel sands.

All types of sand instantly get wet and quickly pass water, have a loose appearance in the aquatic environment, are well compacted under load and are quite easily developed.

Thick and coarse sands are best suited for building, they do not compress much and hold almost any load well.

Although sands have an increased water permeability, it is still necessary to take into account the depth at which the groundwater lies before building the foundation. For a private house, the depth of the foundation can be laid in the range of 40 - 80 cm.

But silt sands are not suitable for construction, as they withstand loads rather poorly, therefore it is better not to build on them, or to build a slab foundation.

Pure clay

Unstable and treacherous soil. Clay can be deposited in non-uniform layers, retains water and almost always contains moisture in its composition. When it freezes, it begins to swell, which can cause deformation of the foundation. А так как ее состав, в большинстве случаев, не однородный, ее пучение происходит не равномерно. Сооружения, построенные на таком грунте, могут деформироваться, и вполне возможно даже разрушение самого фундамента.

Это свойство глины называется пучинистость, и им обладают практически все ее подгруппы. True, it may be the basis for the construction of the foundation, but at the same time the depth of its foundation must be below the line of soil freezing.

There is another kind of clay - this loess (macroporous clay). In its structure there are pores that are visible visually. When interacting with water, loess easily eroded.

This type of clay is common in the southern regions of Russia and the Far East.

This is a sandy soil which contains about 5 -10% clay. When interacting with dampness, sandy loams liquefy, and with a large amount of water they turn into quaffs. For the construction of this type of soil is practically not suitable.

Are a kind of clay. They are about a third composed of clay, and the remaining components are sand and various impurities. The particles interact quite well with each other, so wet loams have good plasticity. When interacting with water, they can increase their volume or simply erode. The presence in the loamy soil of large interlayers of sand reduces their stability, and this means that this soil is not suitable for construction.

The clay itself shrinks more slowly than sand, so the foundation sediment takes a long time.

By the presence of clay, loam can be heavy, average and light.

Silty soils

One of the species belonging to clay soils. It is formed by the sedimentation of small particles at the bottom of reservoirs, is present in the marshland and peatlands. Practically not resistant to stress. therefore Before construction, silty soil, like loess, should be carefully strengthened..

What could be the ground?

If earlier gardeners and flower growers had to prepare the soil on their own, nowadays ready-made mixtures are sold in specialized flower shops. And on sale there are the following main types of flower soil:

  1. The soil for succulents and cacti has a loose structure and is rather poor, since in nature such plants grow mainly in deserts. Sand is a mandatory component, but it can also include horse or top peat, as well as leafy ground (for forest succulents).
  2. The substrate for ferns is nutritious and saturated, retains moisture well, because such plants are very moisture-loving and quite demanding. The mixture may include biohumus, lowland peat, as well as a small amount of sand.
  3. Mixture for palm trees may contain biohumus, turf and leafy land, riding peat. Palm trees are more moisture-loving than, for example, cacti, and also often bear fruit, so the substrate must be sufficiently nutritious and neutral.
  4. You can find and specialized soil for azaleas, which is friable, low in nutrients and moderate acidity. It may contain sand, high peat and chopped needles.
  5. Substrate for violets should be, above all, moisture-intensive, to retain water and prevent its rapid evaporation. Biohumus can be its basis; moss-sphagnum, charcoal, sand and sometimes coniferous earth are sometimes present in the composition.
  6. Soil for bromelias or epiphytes. In the wild, most of these plants live not in the ground, but, for example, on the bark of trees. And therefore, for their cultivation is suitable mixture, as close as possible to the natural growing conditions. It may consist of crushed bark, peat moss, charcoal.
  7. Universal substrate suitable for the growth of many decorative indoor deciduous plants. The mixture absorbs moisture well, but does not detain it. The basis of universal substrates, as a rule, is represented by a mixture of peat with different degrees of decomposition with the addition of sand and dolomite flour.

The soil types listed above are conditional classification. That is, even if a species is intended for a certain family of plants, this does not mean at all that it is really suitable for growing a certain variety. Therefore, the finished mixture may have to change and add some components.

Soil for cacti and succulents

Usually the basis for it is a mixture of high and middle peat, due to which it has a brown color and a loose structure. Mandatory component - sand. Although succulents prefer poor soil, sapropel may be present, which adds hygroscopicity.

  • Tip: Sometimes the primer for succulents is too fibrous, and the water simply passes through without stopping. In this case, it is advisable to add one piece of nutritive peat, garden soil, or recycled sheet compost.

Soil characteristics

How to choose the perfect soil for a particular plant? Take into account the characteristics of the soil. The first is acidity. If this criterion is taken as the basis for the classification, then all the soils can be divided into acidic, neutral and alkaline (it is also possible to include intermediate indicators in the division - weakly alkaline and weakly acidic). The acidity is determined by the pH level. 4-5.5 is a sour soil, from 5.5 to 6.5 - slightly acid soil. The neutral substrate has a pH of 6.5-7. And they say about alkaline soil in the event that the acidity level is about 7-9.

The second important characteristic is the "weight" of the soil. So, light soil has a low density, thanks to which it perfectly passes and evaporates moisture. This type includes sandy and sandy soils. The moderate substrate will have an average density, in this group you can include medium and light loams. Heavy soil has a high density, retain water. This type includes clay soils.

Why ready-made soil mixes are not suitable for indoor plants

Ready substrates that go on sale under the proud name "Soil Mix" actually have nothing in common with the soil. They consist mainly of red (high) or black (lowland) peat with the addition of mineral fertilizers and other components (coconut fiber, vermiculite, charcoal, etc.), depending on what plants they are intended for.

What the manufacturer usually informs in small print somewhere at the bottom of the package, titled this revelation - “Composition of the mixture”.

Have you ever read it?

Most of the failures in the cultivation of domestic flowers associated with the use of ready (read: peat) substrates.

There is no doubt, using ready-made planting grounds is very convenient. No need to look for different types of soil, no need to harvest them for future use and store them in the house, occupying the space necessary for life. Peat-based compositions are light and absorb water well. On sale you can find such a jumble for all types of plants. And that would be a solution for most amateurs, if not for one thing ...

But the peat composition is unstable, it dries quickly. All peat mixes must be kept constantly wet - they hardly absorb moisture when dry. But most of your green pets require that the land between waterings dry up. And some of them do not tolerate excessive moisture at all.

That is why a flower in such a soil substrate is easy to pour.

In peat formulations, fertilizer reaches the root system much faster than in the groundwater, but when irrigated, it is easily washed out. Therefore, within a few weeks after transplantation, you will have to feed the plant. Did you know that the dose of fertilizer when feeding is not always easy to determine? It is easy to “overfeed” your pet or, conversely, make him “starve”!

Using ready-made peat-based substrates, you create additional difficulties for yourself.

Exceptions are formulations with the addition of biohumus. Humus (black soil) is a soil rich in organic matter. Such compounds are less common and are usually more expensive than peat based substrates.

Land for indoor flowers should be made by hand.

Don't be scared, it's not at all difficult.

A little information about the different types of soil will help you understand this.

Characteristics of garden lands

It is quite porous and resilient. It can be found on the meadow nearest to your home. It is enough to take a good turf (a layer of soil with grass roots, 15-20 cm deep), chop it up and sieve with a sieve. Plant residues can be discarded, but what remains and will be sod land.

Hardwood (leafy)

It is light, loose and rather nutritious soil, which is formed from the annual rotting of foliage and branches in a grove, in a forest or in planting. It is easiest to find leafy ground in places with densely growing deciduous trees, in which the foliage does not retract, but remains on the surface and rot. Remove the top layer of freshly fallen leaves and collect the soil that is under it, but not deeper than 10-15 cm, with the remains of well-dried out last year's leaves.

Humus
It turns out from the rotted manure. It is light, loose and very rich in nutrients. In the village to find humus soil is quite easy. In the city you can get it in the greenhouses.
In its pure form, sand is used in grafting.

It is added to all mixtures in the amount of 10-20 percent.

The best is coarse river or lake sand.

Soil for palm trees

Palm trees are a little more moisture-loving than succulents, the soil for them is made on the basis of middle peat, biohumus, with the addition of sapropel, sand and vermiculite.

  • Tip: Palm trees do not like stagnant water, so the land should not be heavy and clogged. To alleviate its structure will help river coarse sand (perfect sand, which is sold in aquarium stores).

Soil for ferns

For these moisture-loving plants they make a rich and nutritious substrate based on lowland peat and biohumus, with the addition of organic matter and mineral fertilizers.

  • Tip: such an earthy mixture has a dark color and may contain lumps. It must be mixed and left in the air for a couple of hours.

Universal substrate

It is suitable for most decorative and hardwood, well absorbs water, but at the same time it dries quickly. Usually, the basis of universal substrates is a mixture of peats of various degrees of decomposition, dolomite flour and sand.

  • Tip: Any universal mixture can be corrected by diluting with sand, or “flavored” with garden soil. However, before planting a plant, check the acidity of the soil.

Dolomitic (lime) flour

In fact, it is crushed to a state of powder and dried dolomite mineral, and by its properties it is a real fertilizer, which is used both in the preparation of earthen mixtures and separately. Dolomite can be white, brown, brown, gray. This mineral is rich in calcium, which strengthens the root system of the plant. In addition, it is saturated with magnesium, which takes part in photosynthesis and is responsible for the green pigment in the leaves.

  • By the way! Lime flour increases the alkalinity of the soil, sometimes it is specifically used for plants that prefer weak acid soils. How to measure the acidity of the soil.
sand and dolomite flour

Expanded clay drainage

This porous material is obtained from special rocks of clay by roasting. Usually these are balls of different sizes, which are used mainly for soil drainage, since they do not absorb water at all. In ready ground mixtures, fine or crushed expanded clay is used. This is necessary to increase the looseness of the soil and oxygen access to the roots.

  • By the way! Even in the presence of small clay in the composition of the earth mixture, be sure to use medium and large clay as a drainage at the bottom of the pot.

Vermiculite

This natural mineral of the hydromica genus possesses properties identical with sand, it has a layered structure, and in practice it is used in crushed form. Vermiculite is used in its pure form in hydroponics for growing seedlings, rooting cuttings under room conditions, and mulching the soil in garden floriculture. This mineral improves the structure of the soil, prevents solidification, increases breathability.

  • By the way! Vermiculite can be used as a drainage by filling it in the bottom of the pot, besides it is an excellent medium for storing the bulbs.
vermiculite and expanded clay

What can a substrate consist of?

Soil properties are determined by the components included in its composition.

The most common components of soil mixtures:

  • Peat is a decomposition product of mossy components of lakes and rivers. This is the most common component.
  • Sand is also often included in the composition of the soil, and the river. This component makes the soil more “breathing”, gives it looseness, and also prevents solidification and caking.
  • Lime (dolomitic) flour is the result of grinding the dolomite mineral, this component increases the nutritional value of the soil, plays the role of fertilizer.
  • Vermiculite is a mineral with excellent moisture-absorbing qualities that prevent the soil from drying out quickly.
  • Expanded clay is made of baked clay. It looks like porous balls and usually performs the functions of drainage, that is, it absorbs excess moisture.
  • Perlite is a volcanic rock formed from solidified lava and disintegrated into many balls. In the ground, this component performs the function of regulation, that is, it prevents overheating and cooling, distributes water, improves permeability, and maintains structure.
  • Humus or compost is a very nutritious land consisting of plant and food residues that have passed through the stage of decay. As a rule, in its pure form, the component is very aggressive, so it should be dissolved.
  • Biohumus is obtained as a result of processing organic waste or manure by earthworms.
  • Sphagnum is moss, giving the soil lightness, hygroscopicity, porosity. The component absorbs moisture and transfers it to the roots of the plant.
  • Bark, most often coniferous. It loosens the soil, provides permeability and lightness, as well as temperature regulation. In addition, the needles slightly oxidizes the soil.
  • Charcoal is a fairly powerful natural antiseptic that destroys pathogens and prevents decay. In addition, the component plays the role of drainage.
  • Coconut fiber is a peat substitute.
  • Sapropel is an organic sediment collected from the bottom of freshwater reservoirs, and it performs the function of fertilizer, increases the nutritional value of the substrate.
  • Leafy ground is rotten leaves of trees. The component is distinguished by its medium nutritional value, but is friable and light, therefore it allows moisture and air to pass through.
  • Soddy earth is formed from turf beds. It is very nutritious and has an increased acidity.

How to make a choice?

How to choose the perfect primer for indoor flowers? It is necessary to take into account the specific plant variety and its preferences, as well as some other factors, such as the age of the flower, conditions of detention, growth characteristics

Knowing the main types of soils and their features, you can choose the optimal soil for the plant and ensure its active growth.

The composition of earth mixtures for flowers

Land for flowers is selected depending on the device of their root system.

So, weak and delicate plants require a soft and light soil. More dense soil mixture can be used for growing seedlings. A powerful and developed root system requires dense soil and it is practically not suitable for indoor plants.

Not always purchased soil meets expectations. Experienced growers for planting plants trying to make the soil mixture on their own.

The following components are used to prepare the ground for indoor flowers:

Fern roots and coconut fiber improve soil quality. Pebbles, claydite, brick dust and even pieces of foam are used as drainage. Keep the ground for indoor flowers is required only in a wet state. If the soil is dry, and then it is moistened, the quality will not be restored.

The proportions of the ingredients depend on the properties of the plants, but there are basic rules in the preparation of the mixture:

  • Before mixing the components, the collected soil must be calcined. It should not meet the larvae, earthworms. Lumps are carefully chosen
  • Lay the soil in a container in layers. The first layer is drainage,
  • Sod is sure to be added to the leafy ground. Proportion 1/2.

To improve the quality of the soil, you can use fertilizers produced by the chemical industry. But home remedies are also suitable for feeding.

Folk recipes feeding home plants

The area from which domestic plants receive food is limited by the size of the tank.

Replanting a plant every 2 months in a new ground is dangerous - every transplant is stressful for him. The stock of nutrients from the soil, compiled in an industrial environment by professionals, lasts a maximum of six months.

Additional feeding can be carried out with the following substances:

  • Sugar. The glucose contained in it activates the process of creating organic compounds. But it is still better to use not ordinary sugar, but EM-preparations, for example, “Baikal”. If the earth is not sufficiently loose, carbon dioxide is not enough, the sugar will turn into top dressing not for flowers, but molds that will actively reproduce,
  • Sleep coffee. Этот компонент повышает кислотность. Некоторые применяют вместо кофе спитый чай, но замена неоправданна. Под воздействием чайной заварки земля плесневеет, и появляются мошки – сциариды, которые « обожают » чай,
  • Zest of lemons and skins of bananas is an excellent raw material for preparing a nutritious mixture. Chopped peel and banana skins are filled in equal parts with a three-liter jar, sugar is added - 2 teaspoons, pour boiling water and clean in a dark place for 3 weeks. Do not forget to shake the jar periodically. When the mixture is infused, it is filtered and diluted with clean water - 1/20, used for feeding once a month. Do not be afraid of the "terrible" smell of the mixture - it is quite pleasant. Dried banana skins can be added to the substrate without prior preparation,
  • Humus is better to use for plants with a large root system: shrubs and palms. But in its pure form they do not add it - the roots “burn out”. For 10 g of substance, you must take 3 liters of pure water. Each type of plant requires its own type of humus: with mullein, bird droppings and other "appetizing" ingredients,
  • Universal earth necessarily contains ash. It contains sulfur, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in a form that is easily digestible for plants. You can make a liquid dressing from ash, or you can simply mix it in dry form with the soil. The question is: why does the earth constantly grow moldy in flowers, you won’t have to ask yourself. Ash is the best cure for this problem.
  • In the onion peel tincture contains a bunch of useful trace elements. To prevent the plant from starving, you should water it with this tool at least once a month,
  • Stimulate the growth of yeast plants. By the action of yeast top dressing equivalent professional mineral fertilizers. Make them required every 2 months in a small amount. Top dressing from yeast is prepared as follows: in 500 ml of water dissolve 5 g of fresh yeast or dry 10 g, add 1 and 3 teaspoons of sugar, respectively, insist 3 hours and then water the flowers.

Home plants are fed with eggshell, amber powder, tooth powder, they are watered with water after washing meat and fish.

The last remedy causes the appearance of blackflies in the land of potted flowers and a lot of flies in the apartment. Apply it to home plants with caution.

When plants require feeding or transplanting

Recommendations for changing the soil and enriching it, as well as transplanting plants are given very different. Some flowers are advised not to touch at all and only to be fed regularly, while others need to be repotted at least once every six months.

Plantings themselves are able to signal their own problems, you just need to be able to understand it.

Activate the composition of the soil is required if the plant has slowed growth, has a pale color, refuses to bloom in due time, or even shows uneven leaf color and some spots on them.

You should not wait for a similar signal, so as not to treat the "patient" afterwards. Feeding should be carried out on time.

Why is potted ground spoiled?

Even experienced flower growers meet such a phenomenon - the potted earth begins to deteriorate. Why does the earth begin to turn white or rot in mold, become covered with mold?

The reasons provoking these changes may be as follows:

  • The dryness of the air in the room - salts are carried to the surface of the soil,
  • The composition of the water for irrigation. The harder it is, the greater the likelihood of salt deposits,
  • We made the ground for the flowers incorrectly - the ground turned out too heavy, the salts come to the surface. Capillarity increased,
  • Lack of drainage components. Water passes through the earth layer and evaporates from the surface,
  • Excess mineral supplements.

In most cases, white bloom appears on the ground if physical evaporation exceeds transpiration. Excessive watering also provokes the development of mold.

To cope with the problem in various ways:

  • Pour the clay over the top layer and rinse after the formation of white scurf. Gradually, the harmful substances from the soil will go away,
  • Add a deoxidizer to the soil - it can be purchased at any flower shop,
  • Sprinkle the earth with river sand and mix it with the soil,
  • Filter the water prepared for irrigation.

Helps to solve the problem of gel for flowers, which are used instead of the earth or with the earth. It is used to improve the rooting of cuttings, for germinating seeds, as an additive to the soil while retaining moisture.

It is even possible to plant plants with a large root system: succulents, beauty, money tree, and others.

Watching a plant planted in colored transparent crystals, you can see the appeared problems in the root system in time and solve them without waiting for the flower to give the signal “SOS” and help it in time.

Agroperlite

This volcanic rock is formed from frozen lava, which, as a result of contact with groundwater, breaks up into many “perlites” - small balls that resemble pearls (hence the name). Before use, the material is exposed to high temperatures, which makes it porous. In the composition of the soil, agroperlite acts as a universal regulator: it evenly distributes moisture, prevents cooling and heating of the substrate, improves its aeration and structure.

  • By the way! Agroperlite can also be used as a drainage, by the way, its presence in the soil prevents injury to the root system during transplantation, because in this case, even wet earth sticks to the roots less.

This organic fertilizer, or rather, the product of labor of special earthworms. As raw materials for them is used manure, vegetable organic waste. Therefore, biohumus can serve as an alternative to humus and manure. In the process of worms, seeds in the compost lose their germination, neutralize heavy metals, reduces the risk of the appearance of dangerous microorganisms in manure. This nutrient material is used to saturate the soil mixtures.

  • By the way! As a fertilizer, it significantly increases the yield, and in arid countries, biohumus is used as artificial soil.
agroperlite and biohumus

This moss moss plant, in fact, is the progenitor of peat, the basis of most soil mixtures. Marsh moss is continuously growing, “sacrificing” its lower part to the reservoir. The plant has a unique hygroscopicity, not in vain in the translation from the Greek language "sphagnum" means "sponge." Absorbing excess moisture in the soil, sphagnum regulates its flow to the roots of the plant, at the same time, increasing the physical properties of the soil.

  • By the way! Sphagnum can be added even to the finished substrate, because it prevents bacterial and fungal diseases of the roots, has a bactericidal property. However, the real moss is difficult to find on sale, often fibrous synthetic material is sold under the guise of sphagnum, it is not harmful, but also not useful for plants.

Why purchased substrates are always the best solution

Experienced flower growers, and even those who are keen on not only floriculture, but also gardening, often prefer not to buy ready-made substrates, but to compose them themselves. But in fact, the correct mixture for plants is obtained only in exceptional cases, for this you need to have an adequate supply of components - high-quality peat, leaf, sod land, compost, humus, sand, as well as knowledge and experience. Indeed, it is often not enough knowledge even in what proportions to mix the ingredients and how to process the earth mixture to achieve optimum looseness. And, as a rule, any independently formulated substrate for plants is always inferior in its characteristics to high-quality purchased earth mixture.

The biggest mistake that can be made in the choice of soil is to assume that plants can take root in any "land." The ground gathered in a park, a garden, a vegetable garden, however fluffy and high-quality it seemed to you, is not what indoor crops need. In order for such a framework to become a full-fledged substrate, many more actions will be required. None of the most enduring room Spartan will feel good in such "wild" soil. Plants for which this type of substrate is acceptable usually belong to the bulbous ones, which are grown in the garden and in the room.

Each "simple" dredger has its drawbacks. The soil gathered in the city (even in the best eco and dendropark) is contaminated with heavy metals and toxins. The field land is saline, forest too acidic even for rhododendrons, from another's garden and even its own land can be contaminated with diseases, fungi, pests, weeds, over-compacted with time, etc. Even peat, which you collect from the reservoir, is not always the same peat that can be used for pot plants.

Sterility, inconvenience, laboriousness, unknown mineral composition and nutritional value are sufficient arguments to choose the option with a ready primer. Of course, on such a substrate will have to spend money. And sometimes highly specialized mixtures are quite expensive. But as a rule, the costs are more than repaid.

Ready substrate for indoor plants. © naturescare

The main advantages of ready-mix:

  • they are made specifically for capricious, special, pampered indoor plants, which by their endurance and requirements are significantly different from garden plants,
  • their chemical composition is strictly controlled, fully meets the requirements of the plants themselves,
  • plants are protected from the detrimental microflora and microorganisms for them,
  • in substrates water and air permeability, texture, density, flowability,
  • such substrates are sterile, protected from soil pests and disease spores,
  • nutritional composition, an additional supply of minerals meets the requirements of indoor plants in macro and microelements,
  • Substrates are convenient to use, they do not require additional processing and save time.

Problems occur with ready-made substrates.

Despite the fact that the purchased substrates have undoubted advantages over the compiled with their own hands, the problems in growing plants, the disadvantages of care or "miscalculations" are not excluded with them.

First, the wrong choice of earth mixtures or the purchase of cheap substrates from an unknown manufacturer may unpleasantly surprise with the composition of the soil. That is why it is so important to choose companies familiar to you that specialize in soils and fertilizers that have proven the quality of their products. When buying a cheap substrate, even the composition on the package is not a guarantee. After all, sometimes, having opened a pack, you may find that in reality the soil instead of a qualitative mixture consists entirely of peat, sheet soil or sand with unknown additives. Buying from disappointments will help buying only in specialized stores, supermarkets, and not on the market.

Secondly, not a single substrate can cope with improper care. If you make mistakes in irrigation, then even the highest-quality ground mix will be able to pickle, sour, stumble into a dense crust.

Thirdly, the untimely transplant, or rather its absence, leads to such a depletion of the soil and the growth of the roots, that it will be impossible to judge about any quality of the substrate over time. Any soil mixture “works” for the time allotted to it, immediately after planting, it does not allow dressing for several months at all, and for 1-2 years to be limited to regular dressings at the stage of active growth.

Ready soil for indoor plants in the package. © Emma Jeffery

Structure and acidity are two parameters that need to be paid attention even in ready-mixed soil mixtures.

Purchased substrates are very different in composition. But on the eye to determine whether the content of the packages with the soil description of the composition from the manufacturer, it is impossible. Therefore, when assessing the quality of the acquired substrate, they are always guided by visible and easily recognizable characteristics (for the absence or presence of a structure).

For indoor plants, regardless of their type, soil with a pronounced structure is preferable - with lumps, inhomogeneity, some coarse texture. In such a soil, plants will not suffer from dry "layers" on the surface and drying of deep layers of soil, moisture will be held evenly and distributed, this soil is not so prone to compaction and crusting, it maintains breathability even a few years after transplantation. Substrates that appear to be too uniform are generally more prone to acidification, crusting, uneven retention and distribution of moisture.

Soil acidity is always, even for universal substrates, indicated on the packaging. After all, indoor cultures do not lose their individual characteristics and are by no means uniform in their requirements for the soil reaction. Of course, the vast majority of indoor plants feel good in neutral soil, but there are plants that grow well and develop only in the soil with a weak alkaline or alkaline reaction, and those species that need an acidic environment.

The average for indoor plants is considered a pH of 6.0. Soils with a pH from 5.5 and below are classified as slightly acidic and acidic, and about 7.0 and higher - as calcareous or alkaline.

In alkaline soil, indoor bells, calceolaria, ofiopogon, and chlorophytum prefer to grow.

A weakly acidic soil (pH about 5.5) is optimal for alypha, alokaziya, gerberas, camellias, calla lilies, cordilins, cypress, dieffenbachia, kislitsy, ferns, pahyphytus, pittosporum, sancesviers, cestrum, cyclamen. Soil with a pH from 4.0 to 5.0 prefer room rhododendrons, ceropegia, scaly, euphorbia, hydrangea, bergerantus, etc.

In the description of each plant, in addition to the optimal frequency and transplantation strategy for it, the type and the desired composition or structure of the soil are always indicated. Selecting a substrate for indoor plants, it is worthwhile to dwell not on one “average” variant, but to check which soil is suitable for each pet and choose a substrate individually. Usually, most plants in a room collection need a similar type of substrate — versatile, loose, nutritious, with a neutral reaction. So, it is not necessary to purchase dozens of types of soil with optimal indicators of structure, acquiring only one universal soil for the base of the collection and special mixtures for certain types of plants with special requirements.

Special substrate for growing orchids in room conditions. © Deb Edwards

Bark and pine needles

Pieces of bark can often be found in ready-made earth mixtures. It plays the role of baking powder, regulates the temperature. The bark will not be superfluous in the substrate universal, its presence is mandatory for many tropical species, and for some orchids it is simply necessary.

  • By the way! It is believed that the bark also protects against pests, scaring them. Bark can be harvested independently. But there are many nuances that are important to consider! About this - in the following material.
sphagnum and bark

Charcoal

This is a real antiseptic for plants! Crushed coal is used to gloss over cuts; it disinfects and prevents infections from entering the plant tissue. In the composition of the soil coal preserves the root system from rotting. Usually in room conditions we use crushed activated carbon, which is a more affordable alternative to wood. However, the latter can be purchased at specialized flower shops.

  • By the way! Charcoal can be added to ready-made earthen mixtures for flowers that do not tolerate high humidity, such as cacti, succulents.

This substance is, in essence, a useful organic sediment at the bottom of freshwater bodies of water. The result of the decomposition of plant and animal microorganisms is a valuable storehouse of organic acids and microelements. It is used in its pure form as a long-acting fertilizer for garden and indoor plants. It improves survival, improves the immunity of plants, protects them from diseases. Some substrates are based on sapropel.

  • By the way! Of course, the sediment can not be collected anywhere, the sources should be environmentally clean areas. Therefore, buying sapropel from hands is quite dangerous!
charcoal and sapropel

Humic acid

This is a group of complex organic molecular compounds that are contained in open ground. They supplement the finished nutrient substrates for flowers, seedlings, because these elements, in fact, are the main nutrient component of the soil. Acids stimulate the growth and development of plants, increase protective functions, help to better absorb inorganic trace elements.

  • By the way! Humic acids due to long-term biological processes pass into a soluble form, forming water-soluble salts - humates. Therefore, the presence of the latter in the mixture also indicates the presence of acids.

Trace elements

Mandatory component of all earth mixtures. The package must contain the ratio of the main components of nutrients - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, as well as the presence of other important trace elements - iron, magnesium, copper, manganese, zinc, etc.

  • By the way! Usually this initial stock lasts for 3-4 months. That is why, after transplanting into a new soil, it is advisable not to fertilize plants in the near future!

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