Geranium is a very bright, beautifully blossoming decoration of any house and apartment.
This flower is very popular with professional flower growers and ordinary lovers.
But despite all his unpretentiousness and ease of care for this plant, for frequent and lush flowering, he needs timely and proper nipping.
What is it for and how to do it? How to achieve a magnificent crown, consider below.
What and when need nip?
Geranium, or as it is also called pelargonium, perennial plant, long and luxuriantly flowering. The flower has many medicinal properties and practically does not fear insect pests, which are deterred by its specific smell. Geranium we meet not only in gardens and flower gardens, but also on many window sills.
Due to its unpretentiousness and beautiful flowering, geranium has gained great popularity in our country. But so that this beautiful flower remains compact and attractive. And did not take half of the window sill, you need to properly care for it, do timely pinching and cutting (about how to care for geranium at home in a pot, to bloom, read here, and from this article you will learn about flower care recommendations in open ground). Using these simple techniques that shape geraniums, you will achieve two important goals:
- A timely nip will give the plant a beautiful and abundant bloom.
- In addition, pinching and pruning geranium will relieve the plant from the sick and weak branches, slowing the growth and development of the flower.
Therefore, this procedure can be used as a regulator of the timing of flowering of the flower. Stop pinching a plant should be after the acquisition of the desired shape and bushiness.
The essence of the procedure
The principle of plucking in the removal of the point of growth from which a new branch originates. Simply put, the very top of the geranium stalk is cut. This procedure causes the trunk to start all new shoots, and the flower becomes more and more branched.
Pinching young Pelargonium should be carried out several times a month, while the flower grows in growth and is gaining momentum. Usually, all the leaves on the stem are removed, except for the 5-6 largest and strongest leaves.
It is possible to pinch growth points in any months of the year, except for winter, when the plant needs to rest and should not be disturbed (you can learn about how to care for home geraniums in the winter here).
How to hold?
The action algorithm is as follows:
- Before nipping, inspect the top shoots of the flower carefully and find the growth point on them, the largest upper bud of the shoot, responsible for the active growth of the plant. If this point is not removed in time, the begonia will be stretched to a height, not allowing side branches to form.
- Having found the main active kidney, pinch it off gently with your fingers or nails. You can use nail clippers or garden shears on a tighter, stiffened shoot. Through the procedure, make sure that the next young leaves are not hesitated, and try not to break the main trunk of the shoot.
- After pinching, the shoot does not stop growing completely in height, and after some time it will begin to stretch again. But thanks to pinching, the lateral buds will have time to open up and start new sprouts.
- Remember that removing the top of the shoot will awaken the neighboring dormant buds. Therefore, if you do not want the appearance of shoots in these places, awakened buds. After the appearance of the first shoots, they must also be carefully removed.
- During the work it is possible to use only pure tools processed by alcohol. Secateurs or scissors should be well ground to avoid unnecessarily injuring the flower. Hands need to be thoroughly washed, so as not to infect geranium with any disease.
- If the pinching is done with the nails, without using a tool, the shoots cannot be pulled too much, as this injures the plant.
- After the end of all procedures, the flower should be put in a warm, sunny place. Young shoots need a large amount of light for rapid and enhanced growth.
- If unhealthy, infected shoots appear on the plant, they should be immediately removed from the 3-4 centimeter part of the healthy stem.
- Places nip should be treated with disinfecting agents: alcohol, green paint or charcoal ash. Otherwise, the cut sites will begin to dry, and pelargonium can become ill.
How not to allow the flower to strongly stretch up?
To prevent the geranium from growing to height, the pinching should be done at the most important upper point of the stem formation. If, after this procedure, the shoots from the upper sinuses of the leaves re-grow, they must be removed, then allowed to grow a little and pinch again. The buds are removed during this time so that the flower gives all its strength only to the growth of lateral shoots.
What to do for lush flowering?
Geranium blooms only young shoots. Therefore, in order for it to develop rapidly and flourish, young shoots should be pinned after the formation of the first 4-5 pairs of first leaves. As a result, the remaining strong shoots will begin to actively grow and develop, turning into a lush crown with a lot of flowers.
Features for Pelargonium grown from seed
Grown seed geranium should begin to pinch over 6-8 leaf. In this case, only axillary shoots that grow below the topmost sheet of leaves are left. If after pinching in the axils of the upper leaves, shoots begin to reappear, they should be removed immediately, otherwise new shoots will not start to grow in the lower axils.
Below you can find step-by-step photos of the process of pinching geraniums.
Possible errors and their correction
When pinching geraniums, it is necessary to observe a very important condition. You can not pinch all the top shoots at once, some of them must be left intact. The role of these shoots is that they will take over most of the nutrients, preventing these new shoots from appearing prematurely.
But if you still unsuccessfully removed more top points than you need, do not be discouraged.
What to do after pinching?
With regular pinching of shoots and buds, geranium actively grows and develops. Due to this, color especially needs constant feeding with growth stimulants and a full range of mineral fertilizers (about when and the better to feed geraniums, read here, and from this article you will learn how to properly use iodine with hydrogen peroxide to feed the flower) . With a lack of nutrition the plants will start to let a lot of thin stalks weaken the plant.
Properly and in a timely manner, the procedure of pinching a geranium will help give the plant the desired beautiful shape, make its foliage dense, and bloom lengthy and plentiful. Indeed, the more shoots Pelargonium has, the more flowers will appear. Adhere to the rules and recommendations described in this article, and your flower will be a chic decoration for your home!
Growing conditions and rules for the care of geraniums for lush flowering
If the windows of the room are on the south side, and the sun "lives" on the window sill throughout the daylight hours, then these are ideal conditions for geranium. The flower bed in the garden should be on a hill so that no other plants or architectural forms can cast a shadow on the flower. The plant is not afraid of the rays of the scorching sun, it tolerates dry weather, the temperature drops to 10-15 degrees.
Optimal growing temperature: for lush flowering, the air must be heated to 18-22 ºС, but in winter, before flowering, it is enough to maintain 15 ºС above zero (this temperature is kept at the window or in the office space). If the flower does not take breaks between flowering, its strength will quickly run out, leading to disease or death. It is enough 3-4 weeks for the rest to lush bloom was long.
Lighting: if the sun leaves the geranium growth zone in the garden early or there is not enough light in the room, you should immediately find a more sunny place for a flower, a light day for at least 12 hours.
Watering and spraying: The sheet plate does not tolerate wetting, so the plant is negatively affected by the spray gun and the wipe. The accumulated dust from the leaves can be collected with a dry or slightly wet brush or brush. Watering is carried out daily during the flowering period in summer or 2 times a week in winter, when the plant is at rest. At the time when you are not at home in the summer, you can replace the daily watering with a cotton cloth, which is abundantly moistened with water.
Soil mixture: whether it be a pot for a houseplant or a flower bed in the garden, it is important to remember: geranium roots do not tolerate compacted soil. Therefore, the land is made from sand, peat, black soil in equal quantities. For air exchange it is necessary to loosen the soil often, so the roots will receive oxygen, and the leaves, thanks to photosynthesis, will be brighter and more luxuriant.
Top dressing of a geranium with iodine for magnificent flowering on video:
Fertilizer fertilizer: everything in moderation. Geranium negatively responds to organic fertilizers and takes mineral minerals with pleasure. Now there are special fertilizer complexes for geranium, which greatly simplifies the life of the grower, the main thing is to dilute the solutions according to the instructions and not to increase the concentration. During flowering, phosphorus and potassium will not be superfluous, and after that - nitrogen, which will give strength for a new flowering.
Moving to a new place: perfectly tolerates a change of scenery, continuing flowering. The beauty lives beautifully in pots of clay and plastic, as long as there is drainage in the bottom. Remember: a spacious container will enhance the formation of green mass and reduce the intensity of flowering. If the pot was larger, then you can plant several bushes at once, forming a bouquet composition. Garden geranium for the winter is cleaned into the room, otherwise the death could not be avoided.
Geranium pruning and pinching for density of shoots and lush flowering
How to pinch a geranium for a lush bloom photo
For the plant to look neatly on the window sill or flowerbed, it must be cut. To do this, choose the period of the end of winter or the beginning of spring, when flowering stops. Pruning old shoots, leaves, providing a neat look bush.
For branching and the formation of several shoots bush pinch after 8-10 sheet. So go the side processes, which also carry flower stalks. The procedure is not painless for the plant, so it is important to fertilize a couple of days before cutting, and watering should be done 1-2 times a week, as needed. Flowering can move, but not more than a month. During this time, new leaves and stems will grow.
About pinching geranium tell video:
In the axils of the leaves can form new shoots, stepchildren, which must be removed when there will be 1-2 leaves. Otherwise, the bush will acquire an irregular shape, additional shoots will give disharmony to the overall composition. Leave only shoots from the root.
Trimming geraniums in the winter video:
Be sure to remove the flowering inflorescences on the bush, so as not to take power from the plant and could form new flower stalks. If you leave dried flowers, the plant will begin to form seeds and stop flowering.
Geranium breeding at home
There are 2 ways of reproduction: seed and cuttings. The choice depends on the variety and preferences of the grower. Each has its own subtleties, but not difficult to repeat.
It is better to buy seeds in a specialized store for gardeners, where a consultant will prompt and help determine the choice of variety. In addition, the seeds from the store will give the expected result in appearance and flowering qualities. The seeds collected independently from hybrid plants do not guarantee repetition of those qualities that parents have.
How to grow geranium from seed
Growing geranium seeds from seedling photos
- Seeds are sown in bulk sown on the nutrient mixture as rarely as possible, sprinkled on top with a thin layer of earth or sand.
- Pots for seedlings choose a small size, 50-100 ml.
- After planting, the container is covered with a film so that there is a greenhouse effect, which helps the early germination of seeds.
- Every day, it is necessary to remove the accumulated condensate from the film in order not to provoke the development of fungal diseases.
- When the first shoots appear, the film is removed.
- Watering is carried out as needed, without waterlogging the soil.
- After the appearance of 2-3 true leaves, the bushes dive into containers for constant growth.
- Seedlings should receive a lot of light so that the development takes place fully, the plants do not stretch out and do not hurt.
Read more about growing geraniums from seed video tells:
The matter is simple, because even beginning flower growers and schoolchildren can cope. By the way, children really like to participate in the process of growing seedlings. Then they observe with delight how the plants develop, release the first buds and delight in abundant flowering.
Reproduction of geranium cuttings and dividing the bush
Reproduction of geranium cuttings photo How to propagate geranium
The most common method of breeding geraniums, which is not time consuming and always brings the desired result.
- For propagation by cutting, an adult bush is suitable, from which it is possible to cut a side shoot without damage.
How to propagate geranium cuttings scion geranium photo
- The finished process can be immediately planted in a clay pot, separating the lower leaflets from the legs.
- Soaking in a glass of water is not required, the plant does not like moisture, rot may appear.
Planting cuttings geranium photo
- The cut is treated with a weak solution of manganese, if conditions require (presence of pests, increased humidity in the room, causing mold).
Geranium breeding cuttings Cutting geranium photo
If the bush has several branches from the root, then geranium can be propagated by dividing the bush. To do this, the plant is removed from the ground, find the point of division, plant a bush and placed on a permanent place. Geranium will begin to bloom in 2-3 months, and under favorable conditions - earlier.
Seed method laborious, but with long flowering - 5-7 years. In the case of propagation by cuttings, the bush will begin to fade in 4-6 years.
Diseases and pests of geraniums
Adverse conditions, low temperatures and abundant watering can lead to decay of the base of the stem of seedlings and adult plants - blackleg. The disease leads to the death of the entire bush, if not to take action. With abundant watering and stagnation of water in the pot, you need to transplant the flower in a new soil, pinching off the upper processes.
How to care for geraniums at home Diseases and pests geranium photo
Gray bloom on the leaves - mold appears in the absence of drainage in the pot, compressed earth does not give sufficient air exchange, the flower begins to fade. The best way to prevent is to follow the recommendations of loosening, to introduce mulching substances into the soil in a timely manner. Suitable sleeping tea leaves, fine river or aquarium sand, peat. Affected leaves are treated with antifungal drugs - gently spraying problem areas.
Whiteflies, butterflies, aphids, moths - all those garden pests that can inhabit the garden plot. If the soap solution and the infusion of tobacco did not help, then you can turn to industrial means.
Why did the lower leaves turn yellow and dry?
Why the geranium leaves have turned yellow
It means that there is not enough moisture and air exchange in the soil. It is enough to increase the watering and loosen the ground. If it does not help, then you need to transplant the plant into a new, well-drained soil.
Why geranium does not bloom, although enough time has passed? What to do
Why geranium does not bloom photo
- Looks like the air in the room is too warm and dry. Will help frequent airing, humidifier.
- Another reason could be the exhaustion of the bush, it is simply already old and you need to think about reproduction by grafting and getting new young bushes.
- Do not forget about the quality of the earth: often the problem can be solved by transplanting into fresh, loose soil mixture. Rejuvenate the bush will help and landing just in the ground, with abundant watering. But when planting back to the pot, remember: the bush is better to divide afterwards, it will grow strongly and there will be little space in the old pot.
- The reason may be the remaining dried flowers on the bush. The plant will cease to bloom if they are not cut.
Why do geraniums turn yellow leaves?
Geranium leaves dry around the edges of what to do
Remember: geranium leaves dry the edges of the leaves and turn yellow only with improper care. If the plant is uncomfortable, it includes defense mechanisms to survive. Among the reasons may be too high temperature in the room, insufficient watering, too compacted soil, which does not allow the roots to sufficiently nourish the plant.
Here will help transplanting into a more spacious pot, with a new nutrient soil mixture, balanced watering, airing the room.
The use of geraniums in traditional medicine
Специфический аромат герани придется по душе не каждому члену семьи, но в состоянии покоя растение не отдает свой аромат. Знахари считали эфирное масло герани, добытое из зеленой массы растения, снимет головную боль, помогает бороться с мигренью.
- лечение заболеваний желудочно-кишечного тракта отваром листьев,
- ароматерапия с маслом герани снимает стресс, избавляет от бессонницы,
- tincture of the roots normalizes blood pressure, lowers the upper pressure,
- decoction of inflorescences relieves inflammation, redness, suppuration, is used to wipe the eyes with purulent conjunctivitis,
- a compress of soaked leaves eliminates age-related pain in the joints, stretching, overwork.
The plant is an excellent defender against flies and mosquitoes in the summer. Rescue from annoying insects will be the bushes on the window - decoration and barrier.
Geranium will not leave indifferent any florist, and care and care will bring bright bouquets of inflorescences.
The origin of the flower, its legendary past
How to propagate geranium at home photo
The geographical origin of geraniums is considered to be South Africa, with its sunny and hot climate. Despite the thermophilic preferences, the plant is easily adapted to the European continent. The history of cultivation as a culture begins in the 16th century, when trade with African countries developed. For Russia, the flower became famous after the journey of Peter 1 in Europe. Dutch architects brought with them several indoor shrubs, among them geraniums.
The origin of the name according to Muslim beliefs is associated with the prophet Mohammed. Geranium was a weed, no one paid attention to it. When the prophet descended from heaven to earth, his cloak was wet with sweat. He threw it on the grass, and geranium wrapped the cloak closer to the sun. To quickly evaporate moisture. Mahomet noticed this and thanked the plant, giving a luxurious inflorescence umbrella and an unforgettable scent.
By the color of the inflorescences of the geranium it was possible to determine the value of the flower Pink geranium attracted love and family well-being, white - childbearing, red - protected from evil spirits and evil spirits. Petals can attract a husband to the house or set up family relationships. To do this, young unmarried girls carried dried flowers in a linen bag with them. In the family, geranium helped women get rid of her husband's drunkenness and bring him back to the family.
Verses were written about geranium, famous classics were mentioned in the stories. It was grown as decoration and for treatment. Some varieties are able to adapt on the street, others like homely warmth, but all of them respond gratefully to the caring hands of the gardener.
Types and varieties of geraniums
Geranium at home photo How to care for geranium in a pot
Geranium is characterized by division into 6 groups:
- royal large-flowered, characterized by large caps of inflorescences,
- zonal, symbol of the Victorian era, evergreen bushes with high buds,
- ampelous, with five-fingered flat leaves and falling shoots,
- fragrant, emitting a specific aroma, flowers are small, collected in small rounded inflorescences,
- succulent, having thorns on the bushes, and the appearance resembles fabulous creatures,
- variegated with elegantly painted leaves with an unusual transition of green shades.
For room pelargonium there are 2 types:
- ampelous with falling shoots, looks great in pots,
- bush low with large caps of inflorescences.
Geranium home Growing conditions planting and care Photo reproduction
In the conditions of indoor cultivation, geranium is represented by more than forty varieties. Common species: fragrant, royal, zonal. All of them are unpretentious in care, flowering, love the sunny side.
Meadow geranium is more common in wild nature and garden plots. Its bloom is not so lush, but the green mass can compensate for this deficiency. It is no more than half a meter high, but to form a tidy bush, it is better to cut long stalks, then there will be no “bare” branches.
For cultivation of breeding such varieties of geranium as "Star of the Moscow Region", "Waterfall of Summer", "Orbit", "Maverik", "Yarka", and "Pavel" are popular. Hybrid seeds, offspring of the first generation. Therefore, re-collecting the seeds may not bring the qualities that the parent has.
Growing domestic geranium Reproduction of geranium cuttings at home photo
What is this plant?
The first copies of geranium appeared in Europe in the XVI-XVII centuries. From Greek this name translates as "crane".
Since 1789, the plant became known as pelargonium, and this name is generally accepted, but for many the name “geranium” is much more familiar. Geran refers to one-year or long-term (depending on the type) herbaceous rhizomatous plants. The stem can reach a height of 50-70 centimeters, as a rule, it has many branches. The flowers can be either single or collected in inflorescences.
A flowering branch can have a whole umbrella of flowers. The color can be different from white to red and even dark purple.
The leaves are covered with small villi and have an interesting bizarre shape, and their shade varies from light green to dark green (sometimes there are purple blotches). Many kinds of geranium are counted: garden, zonal, unique, royal, fragrant, angelic, ivy, homemade and a lot others. Some species feel great at home, others live in gardens and forests.
Growing from cuttings
So, how to grow a geranium from a cutting? Here are your actions:
- Ideal for cuttings will be the top shoots. Their optimum height is 7-9 centimeters. On the twig should be 5-7 good leaves of medium size. You need to cut the twigs under the bud, making an oblique cut. It is better to cut a pair of lower leaves. Then you can put the cutting into the water before the roots appear or just dip them into the mixture to stimulate growth. And some dry the cut and immediately put a sprig in the ground. The ideal soil is a mixture of sand, earth (for domestic plants) and peat in equal proportions. A large amount of land is not required, so it is better to take a small pot. If the capacity is large, the geranium is unlikely to bloom. When the plant takes root, it will be possible to transplant it into a larger (but not too large) pot.
Growing from seed
Growing geraniums at home is also possible from seeds, it is not so difficult. Here is the sequence of actions:
- No special preparation of the seeds is required, they are so well accustomed. Prepare a tank for planting. For example, you can take a shallow plastic container. Pour the peat mixture into the container, pour the soil. Place the seeds in the soil at a distance of 5-7 centimeters from each other. Top with a little more ground, sprinkle everything with water from a spray bottle. To create a special microclimate, tighten the container with food film. For about 4-5 days you will see the first shoots. The film can be removed. When the sprouts become stronger, you can plant them in pots. Select the best shoots, they will give good shoots.
Forming a bush
If nothing is done with geraniums, then it will grow upwards, which is not very beautiful. To form a beautiful bush, you can do the following:
- If you want to form a low and thick bush, then trim the top shoots. Pruning is done with sharp scissors. At the same time, almost the entire branch is cut, only a penile remains. To make the stems more branchy, cut off the young shoots. Pinching (pruning) should be done on the 8-10th leaf in the upper part and on the 6-8th leaflet at the side shoots. Break off yellowed leaves at once so that the plant does not spend on them nutrients. In order for the geranium to be beautiful, and the leaves grow evenly, turn it over regularly. In this case, each side will receive a sufficient amount of sunlight.
How to care?
Planting is not the most important thing, because if proper care is not taken, the plant will just wither. Let us dwell on several important points.
In summer, watering should be done quite often, in winter it should be more moderate. Water the plant fairly plentifully, but don't overdo it! Moisture accumulates in the leaves, and its excess geranium can harm.
For removal of excess moisture, by all means organize drainage. Spray the leaves do not need, they do not need.
The optimum temperature for growing geraniums is 18-20 degrees. The minimum temperature should not be below 10-12 degrees, geraniums can freeze.
Geranium is a light-loving plant, so lighting should be sufficient. It is best to place the plant on the window sill on the south side. But the direct scorching rays can lead to drying of the leaves, so that in a particularly sunny hours it is better to clean the pot in partial shade.
But the constant absence of light geranium just will not stand.
Fertilizers and soil
- As for the soil, then you can choose a universal mixture, but the earth must certainly be nutritious. Get a mixture of peat, sand and garden land. Provide drainage at any time, as stagnant water is dangerous and harmful. By the way, so that the moisture does not stagnate, the soil must be periodically loosened. Do this carefully, so as not to damage the roots. Fertilizers can be both universal (for indoor plants) and special, designed specifically for geranium. Especially such a plant loves mineral or organic food. In the mixture must necessarily contain potassium and phosphorus. It is necessary to carry out top dressing once a month.
- If geranium has grown, and the pot has become small to her, then take a capacity of 2-3 cm more and move the plant into it. Do not touch the roots. Lump the earth around them, surround them with new soil. Do not choose too big a pot, geranium can stop flowering and send all substances to the leaves. The best time for a transplant is the end of winter or the beginning of spring, that is, before flowering (during flowering geranium is better not touch).
Possible diseases and problems
Geranium, like all plants, can hurt. So, the roots can hit the rot, which often leads to death. Leaves infect the mold, but it is not so dangerous.
Geraniums and various fungal diseases are threatening. In addition, some insects are also dangerous: ticks, whitefly, nematodes, aphids, and some others. Now we list some alarming symptoms and their causes:
- If the leaves fall or turn yellow, the geraniums most likely lack moisture. The reason for the lack of flowering may be too warm air. If the edges of the leaves changed color and began to redden, the plant probably freezes. If the leaves started to rot, it is possible that the watering is too abundant. a little, and the stems are almost naked, this may indicate a lack of light. If the base of the stem has become dark, the roots are likely to be affected by rot. Gray deposits on the leaves are mold. Bubbles on the leaves appear from excess moisture.
Why do we need geraniums?
Geranium is not only bright and beautiful flowers, but also numerous useful properties. The leaves are used for the preparation of cosmetic and therapeutic agents. Also from this plant make oil, which is incredibly useful.
So don’t be in a hurry to throw out the torn off or cut off shoots! Let geraniums bloom and not get sick and always pleases you and your household! Like all lovers of houseplants, I look forward to when they bloom. A few years ago I began to think that it would be good to have plants that would bloom all year round and at the same time would not require special attention, and soon came to the conclusion that you need to try to grow geraniums.
Geranium, or pelargonium, has more than one hundred species. Among room geraniums, red, white, fragrant, ampelous and royal pelargoniums are the most popular.
Anyone who does not like the scent of the usual geranium, could approach fragrant geranium, different varieties of which may have the scent of mint, nutmeg, lemon, apple, rose. Royal geranium valuable especially large colors of bright colors.
But amber geranium looks great in hanging baskets. It seems to me that in a large variety of geranium species you can choose a variety for every taste.
How to grow geraniums at home
Those in whom the experimenter lives can grow geranium by cutting or from seed. For grafting, an apical shoot about 7-8 cm long with 4-5 leaves is cut from an adult plant. The two lower leaves are removed and the cuttings are placed in the water to grow the roots.
The one who is in a hurry can process the cut of the cuttings with a root-forming agent and immediately plant them in a special substrate, which should consist of an equal amount of peat, garden soil and sand. After the sprout takes root, it is pinched. You can try grow geraniums at home from seed, only you need to keep in mind that the seeds germinate very slowly, and from the moment of planting the seeds to the flowering period usually takes about six months. But if you can not wait or want to mess around, you can buy a flowering plant, and then you just need to take care of it .
Home care for geraniums
I like room geranium because it does not require any special care and at the same time pleases with its flowering almost all year round.
One of the main conditions for a good geranium development is proper lighting. The plant is not afraid of even direct sunlight, but the lack of light can lead to loss of leaves, fading flowers and even their falling off.
Substrate for geraniums.
For geranium suitable universal earth mixture. Please note that this plant needs good drainage.
To ensure drainage, I use expanded clay, which I place on the bottom of the pot. With proper care, geranium does not suffer from diseases and pests. But if you allow overmoistening of the soil, then geraniums can infect fungal diseases, and dry, hot air sometimes causes the appearance of whitefly, a relative of the aphid.
In such cases, special preparations are used to help rid the plant of a disease or pest.Geranium is easy to grow at home. Having provided the plant with the right care, you will be able to admire the bouquet of its flowers on your windowsill for many years.
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With the advent of new garden centers, the fashion for home plants is changing faster than for clothes. Every year, more and more exotic plants appear on the shelves of these stores, which are just what you want to decorate your home with.
But there are domestic plants, the popularity of which does not affect fashion. These indoor plants include geranium, which was grown on the window sills of our grandmothers.
True, in recent times there have been many species of plants belonging to the geranium family. And pelargonium is one of them.
It is this plant that today raises the popularity of geraniums to a great height. Garden geraniums, or so-called “flowering geraniums,” are the most popular among geraniums. They feel great not only in the garden, but also on the sunny windowsill.
Among these species there are those that delight in their flowering, and those who breed for the beauty of their leaves. If you see this plant alive, you will certainly be interested in how to grow geranium at home. Thanks to the healing qualities and simplicity in care, geranium has long become one of the most popular houseplants.
In folk medicine, it is used to treat the gastrointestinal tract, the treatment of nervous disorders, kidney stones. A century and a half ago, this plant gained popularity, and it began to grow in gardens and greenhouses.
Then a lot of new varieties appeared, and geraniums were grown at home. Now room geranium is growing in almost every home. She pleases her owners with abundant blooms for almost the entire year and, according to popular belief, protects her family from evil forces.
With proper care, geranium rarely gets sick. But even if this happens, the plant is easy to save, providing him the necessary assistance in time.
Diseases of domestic geranium are the result of poor or improper care - insufficient lighting, high humidity of the air and roots. But there are viruses that can infect your geranium through the soil.
Therefore, it is necessary to sterilize the soil during transplantation. Nematodes are the most dangerous diseases for geraniums, since the plant dies if it is damaged by this scourge. A characteristic sign of the disease is the formation of large nodes on the roots.
Such soil becomes generally unsuitable for growing any plants. They represent danger and fungal diseases for geraniums, such as gray and root rot, rust, etc. They are most often the result of poor drainage and waterlogging.
Geraniums and pests are aphid, mites and whitefly. You need to fight them in the usual ways. Aphids are suitable for washing the plant with a solution of soap.
From the mite, the crown of geranium is thoroughly washed with running water. The whitefly is a serious pest close to aphids, which is not so easy to cope with. The development of this pest contributes to dry hot air, and the larvae bring the most significant harm.
They are located on the lower surface of the leaves, pulling all the juice from the plants. At the same time, they contaminate the leaves with sugary secretions, on which the soot fungus develops because of this. It interferes with the normal development of the plant.
The leaves turn yellow, dry out and then fall off. Белокрылка при обработке ядами очень быстро к ним приспосабливается, поэтому, чтобы избавится от нее необходимо чередовать различные препараты. Например, Фуфанон, Актеллик, Конфидор и Зубр.
Внимательно читайте инструкцию на упаковке. С белокрылкой бороться очень трудно, поэтому следует просто предотвращать ее появление.
Возможные проблемы при выращивании герани
- Желтеют, а затем опадают нижние листья растения. Possible causes may be a lack of light, insufficient or excessive watering. With a lack of light, the leaves just turn pale, and their shape and appearance does not change. In this case, you should simply ensure that the plants are more translucent. With insufficient watering, the tips of the leaves dry, and with excess water, the leaves wither and then rot. The edges of the leaves turn red. This means that the plant is cold and should be moved to a warmer place. The herb does not bloom. This happens either with a lack of light, or at too low a temperature.
Knowing all the secrets, you can easily grow a very beautiful geranium. All types of geraniums grown in the house are united by the name “room geranium”. These are perennial grasses or shrubs with strong stems up to 60 cm high, dissected by leaves and bright flowers gathered in umbrella inflorescences on the tops of the shoots.
They come from South Africa, first appeared in Russia in 1795, and since then several centuries have been considered one of the most popular indoor flowers. Geranium is valued for its abundant flowering, which continues in good conditions from the beginning of spring to the middle of winter, its aroma, and at the same time unpretentiousness and ease of care.
Home geraniums can be divided into two groups - flowering and fragrant. The first group includes species with bright attractive buds. There are many varieties with monochrome and "speckled" (in stripes and specks), simple and terry flowers of any kind, except for pure yellow and blue, tones and shades.
The structure of the flower can be stellate, rose-shaped, cacti-shaped, tulip. Spectacular dwarf (12.5-20 cm), miniature (10-12.5 cm) and microminiature (up to 10 cm) forms were created. There are ampelous species.
With proper care, home geraniums can bloom almost all year round. The second group includes plants with a strong pleasant aroma, for which they are grown. They usually have small pink or purple ordinary-looking flowers, and deeply cut leaves.
Different species smell differently, strongly smelling geranium (P. graveolens) - rose, fragrant (P. odoratissimum) - apple, sad (P. Triste) - nutmeg. There are varieties with the scent of mint, lemon, orange. All geraniums have a specific smell of different intensity.
If you rub a leaf of this indoor flower between your fingers, the room will be filled with its aroma. At the same time, home geranium does not just smell, but releases bactericidal substances that purify and disinfect the air in the room. Additional decoration of plants can be leaves that have a different shape, from almost solid to deeply cut, and the color is green (various shades), golden , bronze, silver, often with concentric circles of transitional tones, sometimes with a white border. Under home conditions, geraniums can grow and develop within 4-5 years, and with proper care they retain their decorative effect for more than 10 years.
Geranium reproduction: planting and pruning
For reproduction, stem cuttings and seeds are used. The cuttings can be harvested throughout the year, but it is better to do this in spring, cutting them from side or apical shoots so that the cut off part is not less than 5-7 cm and has 2-3 leaves. Within a few hours, planting material is dried, then, sprinkled with a cut with crushed coal, planted in a permanent place in a small pot filled with suitable soil.
You can root cuttings in the coarse sand, followed by transplanting to a permanent place. In this case, the sand should always be slightly wet, but not wet, watering should be done so that moisture does not fall on the stems and leaves, otherwise, especially at low temperatures, young plants quickly rot.
The cuttings root better at 20–22 ° C; no additional shelter is required for them. The propagation of geranium by seeds also does not present any particular difficulties. Although the purchased seeds are quite expensive, they sprout well and allow for a short time to get a large number of seedlings.
Grown from seed plants form compact bushes and bloom 5-6 months after planting. The use of own seeds, which ripen in August-September, is possible only when cultivating varietal geraniums in favorable conditions with artificial pollination or pollination by insects. Hybrid geraniums with such a reproduction lose the characteristics of the mother plant.
To speed up the germination of the seeds themselves grown, they are scarified, that is, they are ground with fine-grained emery paper in order to violate the integrity of the hard cover scales and shells. After this, 2-3 weeks later, friendly shoots appear.
Without such treatment, the plants sprout unevenly within 3 months. Purchased seeds do not need scarification.
It is possible to sow geraniums throughout the year, provided that more fluorescent lamps are illuminated in the autumn-winter period. When planting in February-March, the length of daylight at the time of emergence of the shoots increases, and there is enough natural light for them.
Soddy soil, peat and sand can be used as a substrate at a ratio of 2: 1: 1. It is desirable to pre-disinfect it, for example, with a pink solution of potassium permanganate, since geranium seedlings are often affected by the “black leg”.
Planting cover glass, regularly moistened, to eliminate condensate daily air. The most favorable temperature for seed germination is 18-22 ° C. After germination, they are placed in a bright place, the glass is removed, the temperature is reduced to 16-20 ° C.
With proper care, seedlings develop rapidly, after 1-1.5 months they form 2-3 true leaves, after which the plants are planted in small pots, deepening to the level at which they grew before. Over 5-6 leaf shoots pinch, which contributes to tillering and a longer flowering geraniums.
Features of growing indoor geraniums in the garden - how to transplant geraniums
Unpretentiousness to the growing conditions, ease of reproduction and high decorative qualities make this homemade flower universal, as it is possible to grow geranium not only in room culture, but also in the garden as a spectacular annual. When creating favorable conditions and proper care, the plant can bloom throughout the season. For outdoor geraniums, choose an open, sunny place with loose, well-drained soil.
Planted when the danger of frost has passed, without digging into the soil below the level of growth in the pot. To avoid the growth of leaf mass to the detriment of flowering, you can not get the flower out of the pot, and prikopat in the garden with it.
To preserve soil moisture, soil under the plant is recommended to mulch. Further care of geraniums is much the same as at home.
In the absence of rain, it is watered once a week, fertilized every 2 weeks for better growth and flowering, wilted flowers, and yellowed leaves are regularly removed. In the autumn, before the onset of cold weather, the plants are cleaned into a room where, in order to prevent other household flowers from infecting with diseases and pests, the plants withstand quarantine and, if necessary, are treated with fungicides and insecticides. Wintering geraniums are kept away from heat sources, and when conditions are created they can be used to produce cuttings for the future season.
Pelargonium watering mode
Given that summer is the hottest time of the year, during this period it is necessary to ensure the plant abundant watering. However, they should be moderate to avoid flooding the plant. Otherwise, it will not tolerate a surplus of moisture and will die.
When growing geraniums in such conditions, its leaves become sluggish and rot. Subsequently, they can see gray mold, the stem begins to turn black. When these signs appear, it is necessary to reduce watering faster.
Otherwise, the root itself will start to rot soon enough, which is very likely if there is rot. Geranium is considered to be a drought-tolerant plant, but still it should not be deprived of the necessary amount of water, otherwise it will be difficult to wait for abundant flowering from it.
To determine the time when you need to carry out regular watering, you need to monitor the condition of the earthy coma. The beginning of its drying is a good tip for watering.
In the summer season, the drying up of the earth can occur at different intervals - sometimes every day, and sometimes every other day. In winter, the care of geraniums should be somewhat different: given the cooler conditions of geranium growth, watering should not be as frequent.
Geranium grows well if it is not lacking in coverage. Therefore recommended place it on the south side. However, comfortable growing conditions can be provided in partial shade.
It is not recommended that geranium is constantly under sunlight. Otherwise, it may cause burns on the leaves. To avoid such an unpleasant phenomenon is recommended at lunch. remove the flower from the window sill.
If you are going to transplant geraniums in the summer in the garden, then you should find a suitable place. It should be well illuminated by the sun and be protected from wind and drafts.
However, it is undesirable to grow geranium even in conditions of complete shading, since in this case you can be content with only small leaves. She can not please you and flowering, even if you provide her with appropriate care.
In order for geranium to grow well at home, it needs a temperature not lower than + 12 degrees Celsius. Under cooler temperature conditions, it may have problems: the leaves become wilted and the stems become bare.
If you do not change the temperature, then pelargonium will die. Pelargonium is also depressing and the air temperature is high. In such conditions, it becomes problematic flowering. Best of all this indoor flower feels at normal room temperature.
If you believe experienced growers, then geranium can grow well with any humidity. Therefore, regardless of what kind of air in the room, it does not affect the development of pelargonium.
During the care of pelargonium spraying undesirablebecause it adversely affects the condition of the flower. You can restrict yourself to regular soil moistening in the summer.
Fresh air is necessary for the normal development of the geranium, which makes it very hardy. Therefore, in the summer period it is recommended to keep it more fresh in the open air, or at least grow it on the balcony.
Top dressing room geraniums
To provide geranium nutrition is not allowed to use fresh organic fertilizer. The best to make the soil rich nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium equal amounts of fertilizer.
Feeding up the geranium in sufficient quantity of potassium, you are more likely to wait for its abundant flowering. But you need to ensure that these elements are present in the fertilizer in small quantities.
Proper care for pelargonium involves its provision of various trace elements:
To this end, you can use fertilizer for indoor plants, which can be found in a flower shop. Effective is the drug "Merry Flower Girl" for geraniums. In the absence of it can be replaced with fertilizerFor flowering plants».
Should refrain from dressing pelargonium, if the weather is hot. Otherwise, after this event, the plant will experience stress. If you have planned feeding, it is recommended to carry them out after you transfer the plant into the shade.
It is advisable to refrain from introducing liquid fertilizer into the dry soil. Need to first water the flower. Otherwise, you will harm the plant, because when applied to dry land all fertilizers burn roots.
It is recommended to carry out bait twice a month. Especially high is the need for nutrients in geraniums in spring and summer, so fertilizing should be done already in early May until the end of September.
Houseplant geranium can safely do without transplanting. But you still need to regularly monitor its condition: a transplant may be required at a time when there is no free space for the roots in a small pot.
Therefore, it is usually necessary to replant adult specimens. In addition, it is necessary to replant geranium in cases where it is too filled with water. In any case, it is recommended to select for transplantation. not very large capacity.
When choosing a pot, you need to take into account that the root system matches the volume of the pot. Before transplanting quality drainage is laid on the bottom. If you believe flower growers, then geranium can also grow well in ordinary country land.
Also for her you can cook and special soil mix, for which the following components are required:
- Leafy ground.
- Sod land.
- Humus earth.
Be sure to withstand proportions - 1: 1: 1: ½. The most favorable period for transplanting geraniums is spring.
How to propagate geranium at home
To obtain new bushes of pelargonium, you can use two main methods of reproduction. Way seed multiplication not often used by growers. It makes sense to resort to it in cases where it is planned to grow new varieties.
A serious problem for the method of reproduction through sowing seeds is that the seedlings grown from them usually have different decorative qualities from the selected variety. Therefore, often young geranium has a different shade of colors and leaves. It also differs in length, height and tillering.
In the absence of extensive experience in the cultivation of indoor plants, it is recommended to use cheap varieties of geranium flowers at first, since beginning flower growers often fail.
To grow geraniums by sowing seeds is necessary set the stage suitable composition: it should have a loose structure, so be sure to include in it humus and sand.
Usually seed sowing is carried out already early march. However, it is allowed to do this even earlier, but in this case, in order to eliminate the lack of illumination, it will be necessary to perform additional lighting with the help of artificial light lamps.
Before sowing the soil needs to be sanitized. To do this, it is watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, which minimizes the risk of developing black legs in plants. After sowing, seed powder with a layer of earth is not required.
However, they must be sufficiently buried in the soil. To accelerate the germination of seeds they need provide greenhouse effectFor this, the film is pulled over it, and the container itself is transferred to a warm place.
Reproduction by cuttings
Also for breeding geraniums at home, you can use cuttings that are harvested in the spring. To do this, prepared shoots need to be placed in a container with water.
Usually, the roots of the cuttings are formed quickly if a sufficiently high temperature is maintained in the room. After this stalk placed in a pot with soil. At the first sign of the beginning of growth you need to pinch off the top of it.
Before planting the cutting in the ground, he needs to give a little time to dry from the water. As a rule, when using the cutting method, shoots taken from the top of the plant are used. Moreover, they should have at least 3-4 leaves.
A drop of history
“She would be even sweet if it were not for her fertility,” French writer Maurice Metherlink wrote about this plant at the end of the 19th century. At that time it was difficult to find a flower more popular than geranium, its numerous varieties were grown in gardens, rooms and greenhouses. It spread throughout Europe, but especially in England, where it became a symbol of Victorian comfort and integrity. Then there were about 20 varieties of geraniums, and today there are more than 8,000!
Geranium room (zone), grade Snowball
At one time, geranium in our country began to be considered a “petty-bourgeois” flower. Because of this, the number of rolls on the windows has decreased significantly. And it was immediately noticed that the diseases of the respiratory system in humans increased significantly - asthma, tuberculosis and others. It turned out that it was the geranium that protected the dwellings from pathogenic microorganisms, disinfecting the air, collecting dust on its fluffy leaves.
Not only beauty, but also benefits
Therefore, in every home it is recommended to grow any kind of this unique flower, which also has healing properties and is widely used in traditional medicine and homeopathy. For example, if you chew a piece of geranium leaf, you can soothe a toothache, otitis can be treated by laying a crumpled leaf in your ear. And to stabilize the pressure, it is necessary to attach a large sheet to the wrist. Inhalations of geranium decoction (or with the oil of this plant) treat sore throat, sinusitis and sinusitis, a bath with a decoction of leaves is an excellent remedy for insomnia.
Collection Exotic Multiblum
Before talking about the peculiarities of growing this flower, I would like to dwell on the classification of its many varieties and species. Для удобства их делят на четыре основные группы:
Герань зональная с красивыми листьями
Первая – зональные пеларгонии, которые выращивают в основном в цветниках и в комнатах. У этих растений очень характерные округлые листья, словно кто-то вырезал ножницами по краю аккуратные полукруги. The color of the foliage can be of various colors - from deep green to bronze-brown with white edging.
Zone geranium, cultivar Americana White Splash
The second group - large-flowered, or royal English pelargoniums. Sometimes reminiscent of exquisite orchids, they are distinguished by large flowers. The top two petals are often warmer than the rest and velvety to the touch, giving the whole plant an elegant look.
The third group is ivy ampellate pelargoniums. Their stems are not erect, but creeping, drooping or cascading falling down.
And finally, the fourth group - fragrant pelargonium. It includes species with cut leaves, which, if rubbed between the fingers, have a strong characteristic odor.
In addition, now in the flower shops you can buy geraniums of the type Unicum, Angel, Succulent, the flowers can be simple and terry, in the form: Tulip, Rosebud, Cactus, Star-shaped, Formosa, Deacons, Bird eggs.
Pelargonium is cultivated in the rooms, zoned, fragrant, and ivy-like, because the large-colored form is distinguished by greater whimsicalness. Plants always need good lighting, but they do not like too wet rooms with drafts and over-fermented soil. In winter, when the plant is resting, it is better to move it to a cool place. In spring, pelargonium is transplanted into fresh ground, cutting off the longest shoots by half.
The remaining trim can be used for breeding, but make sure that each has no more than 3-4 leaves. Pelargonium bloomed at the beginning of spring at the beginning of summer, but if it is necessary to achieve early flowering in March, it will be flown at the end of summer.
If desired, and ability to get flowering, even in the middle of winter.
In the flower garden young plants need to be transplanted in the first days of June, when the threat of frost has passed. Nutritious soil contributes to the development of strong and durable plants, but will bloom weakly. In such conditions, the flower will open only in mid-September, when the probability of sudden frosts is already high. Therefore, pelargonium is grown in small pots and planted with them in a flower garden, thus limiting the roots of the plant and providing lush abundant flowering.
Geranium Tulip, Peach Tenderness
The most important thing in care is constantly wet, but not over-wetted earth, regular dressing and occasional dousing of leaves, especially for indoor plants - to wash off dust and geranium could fully clean the air.
Royal geranium, grade Black Prince
Pelargonium - a great decoration of the balcony, especially those that are located to the south or east. The plant does not require large pots, so you can simply leave them around the perimeter of the balcony. For this purpose, ileum and zonal pelargonium species are particularly suitable.
Geranium, view of an angel
In this case, they are planted in two rows: plants are allowed outside with hanging sprouts, and nearby are low, erect.
Zonal, Ivory Snow grade
Geranium, Angel type, Pompon variety
Do not be discouraged if the planting material turned out to be a bit - in one summer it will be ten times more. In winter, pelargoniums are pruned, brought from the balconies to the rooms.
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How to grow?
How to grow indoor geranium? Perhaps several options. First, you can buy a ready-grown grown potted plant. Secondly, it can be grown from cutting. Thirdly, geranium can be grown from seed. Let's tell about everything in more detail.