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Urinary system diseases: symptoms, treatment

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Among the vital organs required for a full and normal human life, it is necessary to select the urinary system. When the normal functioning of this body is disrupted, a variety of diseases arise that can cause a person significant discomfort.

In general, such disorders are diagnosed in women due to the particular location of the urethra. There are many different reasons for the occurrence of such diseases, in particular, such as hypothermia or casual sex. Many patients do not immediately turn to the doctor when symptoms arise, because they believe that such pathological processes do not carry any threat. However, this is far from the case and they can provoke serious consequences.

The most common diseases

If you experience the slightest discomfort and symptoms of bladder disease, you should not postpone the visit to the urologist. The lack of timely treatment at the initial stages threatens the rapid progression of the pathological process and the development of severe consequences.

The most common diseases of the bladder, which are often referred to a doctor, are:

  • cystitis,
  • stone formation and salt deposition
  • neurogenic diseases
  • malignant neoplasms,
  • endometriosis,
  • leukoplakia,
  • cystocele,
  • bladder hyperactivity.

Such violations are most common and have fairly pronounced symptoms. When the first signs appear, you need to consult a doctor, as the consequences can be very complex.

Urolithiasis disease

Among the diseases of the bladder can be distinguished urolithiasis, as well as the deposition of salts. This problem is well known to men and women, since the cause of the development of the pathological process is the inaccuracy of nutrition and hereditary predisposition.

In addition, the formation of stones is often the cause of incompletely cured cystitis and urethritis. In addition to the signs that accompany many diseases of the bladder, symptoms include headaches, dyspeptic disorders, reduced urinary frequency. It leads to the scaling of the abuse of junk food, salty and smoked dishes. For recovery, you need not only to carry out treatment, but also to follow a diet.

Cystitis - bacterial inflammation of the inner wall of the bladder. The causative agent of this disease is often E. coli and Trichomonas, but it can also be Staphylococcus aureus. Pathogenic microorganisms penetrate into the cavity of the bladder from the rectum or external genital organs. Cystitis is mainly observed in women, since their urethra is much shorter and wider.

It is worth noting that the provoking factor is a decrease in immunity, which occurs as a result of chronic inflammatory processes occurring in the body and hypothermia. Among the main signs of cystitis are:

  • paroxysmal pain and cramps
  • frequent urination,
  • burning and itching when urinating,
  • clouding of urine and the appearance of streaks of blood.

According to the form of flow, acute and chronic cystitis are distinguished. Since the symptoms of cystitis in women are similar to the symptoms of other pathologies of the bladder, before conducting treatment, complex diagnostics are required. The treatment of this disease is antibacterial and in order to prescribe the required drugs, urine must be done to determine sensitivity to antibiotics.

For greater effectiveness of therapy, other drugs may be additionally prescribed, folk therapy drugs, and adherence to a special diet is important. That is why it is necessary to exclude spicy and salty dishes from the usual diet. Cranberry fruit drink is well suited as a drink, as it has antimicrobial properties.

Leukoplakia

Among the diseases of the bladder you need to select leukoplakia, manifested in the form of changes in the mucous membrane (its thickening and keratinization). The epithelium becomes more rigid that interferes with its normal functioning and contractile ability.

Symptoms of leukoplakia are similar to the course of the inflammatory process, which is mainly observed in urolithiasis or cystitis. It is worth noting that there are no characteristic signs of the course of this disease, which is why complex diagnostics are required to determine the presence of a problem.

The treatment requires the use of anti-inflammatory, antibacterial agents, vitamins, as well as a course of physiotherapy. This will allow the bladder walls to return elasticity.

Neurotic diseases

Many patients are interested in which urinary diseases are neurogenic. They are united in a separate group, and a distinctive feature is that they arise as a result of a disturbance of the psycho-emotional background. Such disturbances in their symptoms are somewhat similar to cystitis, but the pathogens are completely absent.

Among the main symptoms of diseases of the bladder associated with psychological overstrain can be identified involuntary urine, and the desire to go to the toilet all the time. Most often, this problem occurs due to a violation of nerve impulses. In addition, other pathologies of the body can provoke the occurrence of diseases, in particular, such as:

  • multiple sclerosis,
  • neuropathy
  • tuberculosis,
  • diabetes.

They all have a negative impact on the functioning of the nervous system. It should be noted that psycho-emotional disorders are further aggravated against the background of manifestations of neurogenic diseases. The person is in constant nervous overstrain due to the fear of involuntary urination among strangers.

Malignant neoplasms

Since the signs of bladder diseases of a malignant nature appear only in the later stages, the prognosis for recovery is rather unfavorable. Most often, a benign tumor is formed initially, which, without appropriate treatment, increases in size and transforms into a malignant tumor.

Among the main symptoms of the presence of cancer can be identified such as:

  • pain in the pubic area,
  • offensive smell of urine
  • blood impurities in the urine
  • discharge from the urethra.

Urolithiasis, untreated cystitis, malnutrition, alcohol abuse, tobacco smoking and many other negative factors can provoke the development of cancer.

Bladder hyperactivity

The specific state of the urinary system occurs when bladder hyperactivity syndrome occurs. Among the main signs of the occurrence of this disease can be distinguished by frequent urination. Mostly at risk are people of advanced age. Among the main reasons provoking such a violation, it is possible to distinguish such as:

  • caffeine abuse
  • tobacco smoking
  • pregnancy and childbirth,
  • injuries and damages
  • improper treatment of inflammatory processes.

At the initial stage, the doctor prescribes certain drugs and physiotherapy for the treatment, and if they do not bring any result, then surgical intervention is indicated.

Other diseases

Diseases of the kidneys and the bladder can be quite complex and dangerous, since they provoke a breakdown in the functioning of these organs. Such violations include:

Among the diseases of the bladder in women, endometriosis must be distinguished. It is based on a violation in the work of the sexual sphere. With the release of menstrual blood from the ovaries, it falls on the bladder mucosa, which contributes to the spread of endometriosis. Symptoms of bladder disease in women manifest as:

  • the presence of blood impurities in the urine,
  • nausea
  • increased painful sensations before menstruation,
  • burning lower abdomen
  • pain in the legs.

Pathology treatment is carried out exclusively by surgery after conducting a whole range of studies.

In addition, in women, cystocele is quite common, which is characterized by the prolapse of the urinary and vagina simultaneously. It can provoke ruptures of the perineum during childbirth, as well as the abnormal development of the organs of the genitourinary system. The disease manifests itself in the form of urinary incontinence and frequent urging to the toilet. If symptoms of bladder disease occur in women, the treatment is carried out immediately by surgery, followed by a long period of rehabilitation.

Sometimes a disease such as a diverticulum develops. With this pathology, one or more protrusions on the bladder may occur. At the same time, a cavity is formed inside the body, resembling a bag in which urine accumulates. Against the background of the pathology in patients, pyelonephritis or inflammation often occurs.

Among the diseases of the bladder in men need to distinguish a hernia. Often it occurs in older people and with the release of turbid urine. The patient can detect a volumetric neoplasm in the lower abdomen, which becomes somewhat smaller after emptying. If you experience the first symptoms of bladder disease in men, you need to consult a doctor for a comprehensive examination. Hernia removal is performed exclusively by surgery.

The causes of the pathology of the bladder are very different, which is why the treatment is chosen individually. Independently determine the signs of the occurrence of a particular disease is quite difficult, so if you experience the first signs you need to contact a doctor who can prescribe a comprehensive treatment.

The main symptoms

Painful urination significantly impairs the quality of life. In order to conduct high-quality and comprehensive treatment, it is necessary to determine the symptoms of the course of diseases. Among the main signs are considered such as:

  • painful and frequent urination,
  • lower abdominal pain,
  • discoloration of urine and unpleasant smell
  • incontinence,
  • the appearance of turbid impurities.

Sometimes diseases are accompanied by weakness, nausea, fever. Each of these signs indicates the beginning of the inflammatory process, which is why you need to visit the doctor and conduct a comprehensive diagnosis.

Diagnostics

Symptoms and treatment of diseases of the bladder can be very different, so you first need to conduct a comprehensive diagnosis to determine the nature of the course of pathology. The diagnosis is established by a specialist oncologist and for this specific research is carried out:

  • urine and blood tests
  • ultrasound diagnosis of the pelvic organs,
  • cytological examination
  • cystoscopy,
  • tests for tumor markers,
  • tomography.

All this will allow to determine the course of the pathological process and prescribe a complex treatment, which will make it possible to eliminate the existing violations quickly and efficiently.

Treatment

Prescribe treatment of diseases of the bladder should only a qualified doctor, who previously conducts diagnostics to determine the course of pathology. Therapy consists in taking anti-inflammatory, antibacterial drugs, as well as herbal remedies.

In the course of inflammatory processes, dieting is additionally shown. If the mucous membrane of the bladder is damaged, it is instilled. Its principle is the introduction of drugs into the cavity of this organ for anti-inflammatory and healing effects.

Medication

Drug treatment of diseases of the bladder in women and men is chosen individually, depending on the particular course of the pathology. Mostly prescribed drugs to help eliminate inflammation, normalizing the flow of urine.

When leukoplakia occurs, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents are prescribed, as well as vitamin complexes. Antibiotics are required to treat tuberculosis and ulceration. In the presence of cystitis, doctors prescribe painkillers, anti-inflammatory drugs and immunostimulants.

Folk therapy

Treatment of the initial stages of the disease involves the use of folk remedies and techniques. However, prior to their use, consultation with the attending physician is required in order to avoid the occurrence of adverse events.

To eliminate the unpleasant symptoms, you can use herbal collection, prepared on the basis of St. John's wort, bearberry, knotweed, chamomile. To remove inflammation, a healing broth is prepared on the basis of corn stigmas and horsetail. To enhance the soothing effect you need to add juniper and violet to the finished product.

Surgical intervention

Bladder and kidney surgery is required for malignant processes, complications and organ breaks. It is also carried out in the formation of large stones, which are not amenable to medical treatment.

The operation is carried out in several ways, depending on the complexity of the pathology. In some cases, complete organ removal may be indicated. After surgery, the patient must follow a diet.

Features of prevention

Be sure to carry out preventive measures, implying:

  • hygiene,
  • avoid hypothermia
  • take medication only as prescribed by the doctor.

If a person has severe pain in the lower abdomen, then this may indicate a course of diseases of the urogenital system. Be sure to visit the doctor for examination and subsequent treatment. Timely therapy ensures a quick healing process without consequences.

How the urinary system works

Every person should know the structure of the urinary system. This is especially true for people with chronic illnesses.

The human urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. The urinary tract is physiologically related to the reproductive organs. It is for anatomical features that the common causes of the development of pathologies of the urinary system are various infections, parasites, viruses, bacteria, fungi that are transmitted sexually.

The main organ of the urinary system are the kidneys. To perform all the functions of this body requires intense blood flow. Approximately a quarter of the total blood volume thrown out by the heart is accounted for only by the kidneys.

The ureters are tubules that descend from the kidneys to the bladder. During the contraction and expansion of their walls, urine is chased away.

In the ureters with the help of muscle formations (sphincters) urine enters the bladder. As it fills, urination occurs.

The urethra in men passes through the penis and serves to pass sperm. In women, this organ performs only the function of urine excretion. It is located on the front wall of the vagina.

In a healthy person, all organs of the urinary system are smoothed. But as soon as the functions of one link of a complex mechanism are violated, the entire organism fails.

The role and function of the kidneys in the body

In humans, the kidneys perform the following functions:

  1. Adjusting the water balance - the removal of excess water or its preservation when there is a shortage in the body (for example, a decrease in the amount of urine in the case of intense perspiration). Due to this, the kidneys constantly keep in the body the volume of the internal environment, which is vital for human existence.
  2. Mineral reserves management - the kidneys are able to analogously remove from the body an excess of sodium, magnesium, chlorine, calcium, potassium and other minerals, or to create reserves of deficient trace elements.
  3. Removal from the body of toxic substances ingested with food, as well as products of the metabolic process.
  4. Regulation of blood pressure.

Types of Diseases

All diseases of the urinary system by the reasons of education are divided into congenital and acquired. The first type includes congenital malformations of the organs of this system:

  • kidney underdevelopment - manifested by their edema, increased blood pressure, impaired metabolic processes. The presence of such symptoms increases the risk of developing blindness, dementia, renal sugar and diabetes insipidus, gout,
  • патологии в строении мочеточников и мочевого пузыря, которые провоцируют частое мочеиспускание.

Многие врожденные заболевания органов мочевыделительной системы эффективно лечатся при своевременном оперативном вмешательстве.

Acquired diseases mainly result from infectious inflammation or physical injury.

Consider the most common acquired pathology of the urinary system.

This is an infectious disease as a result of which inflammatory processes develop in the urethra. The main manifestations of the disease are:

  • pain and burning during urination,
  • characteristic discharge from the urethra,
  • a large indicator of leukocytes in the urine.

Urethritis is mainly caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi entering the urethra. Among the possible causes of the development of the disease, non-observance of the rules of hygiene is noted, sexual contacts, very rarely, infection occurs by the introduction of painful microorganisms through the blood vessels from lesions present in other organs.

It is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bladder. The following factors affect the development of the disease:

  • urine stasis,
  • general hypothermia
  • excessive use of smoked meats, various spices, alcoholic beverages,
  • violation of hygiene rules,
  • inflammation of other organs of the urinary system,
  • the presence of stones and tumors in the bladder.

Incontinence in women is considered the most common disease affecting the quality of life. Cystitis can be acute or chronic. In acute cases, the patient complains of very frequent painful urination in small portions, while the urine is cloudy. In the lower abdomen, pains of a different nature (cutting, dull) periodically appear, which are aggravated at the completion of urination.

Acute urinary incontinence in women in 8 out of 10 cases is provoked by Escherichia coli. Another reason for the development of the disease is considered to be staphylococcus living on the skin. Highly effective antibiotics are used to combat these pathogens.

Many diseases of the kidneys and urinary system are quite often accompanied by the development of the chronic form of cystitis. During its exacerbation, symptoms characteristic of acute urinary incontinence appear.

Pyelonephritis

This is a bacterial inflammatory disease that affects one or two kidneys. This is the most dangerous infectious disease of the urinary tract. Pyelonephritis often occurs during pregnancy, which is associated with an increase in the uterus and its pressure on the ureters. In old age, the disease develops among the male population. The fact is that in men over the years there is an increase in the prostate gland, which disrupts the process of urine outflow.

Pyelonephritis is one- and two-sided, and depending on the cause of the occurrence, it is primary (an independent disease) and secondary (as a complication of other diseases of the urinary system).

Acute pyelonephritis in primary disease is manifested by pain in the lower back and in the sides, fever, as well as signs of infection of the urinary tract. Chronic pyelonephritis mainly develops as a consequence of the acute form. The disease is diagnosed based on the results of urinalysis, computed tomography and emergency urography. In case of purulent inflammation, a long course of antimicrobial therapy is prescribed. When stones are found, the issue of their prompt removal is resolved.

Kidney disease

According to medical statistics, this is the most common kidney disease. The formation of stones and sand contributes to the use of excessive amounts of salts, phosphoric and oxalic acid. They accumulate over time, forming crystals. In the early stages, the disease does not manifest itself. But as the formations grow, symptoms may appear: piercing pain, turbid urine, urination disturbance.

In most cases, the stones are removed by surgery, so it is important to engage in prevention in order to prevent this dangerous disease.

This is the most common urinary tract infection among men. Many suffer from the chronic form of the disease. Inflammation of the epididymis (epididymitis) is very dangerous to the reproductive function of men.

Diseases of the urinary system in children

Diseases of the urinary system in children can occur at any age. The development of inflammation is largely influenced by such factors:

  • toxicosis during childbirth,
  • chronic infections in the mother,
  • genetic predisposition to the development of renal pathology,
  • pyelonephritis pregnant.

Types of diseases in children

In childhood, these diseases of the urinary system are common:

  • pyelonephritis,
  • urethritis,
  • cystitis,
  • urinary tract infections.

The most difficult is pyelonephritis. In children of the first year of life, the main causes of primary pyelonephritis are intestinal infections, acute respiratory viral infections and changes in nutrition. Among older children, the disease manifests itself as a complication of coccal infections that provoke angina, otitis, tonsillitis, vulvitis, cystitis and intestinal infections.

Secondary pyelonephritis occurs against the background of congenital abnormalities, among which kidney doubling, their displacement, disturbances in the structure of the bladder, ureters and other organs of the system are most often diagnosed.

Features of treatment

The doctor determines the tactics of treatment of diseases of the urinary system on the basis of their causes. Often, therapy is carried out in a hospital under medical supervision. Depending on the characteristics of the pathology, treatment may be conservative or surgical.

The patient must undergo a full treatment in order to prevent the recurrence of the disease and the development of the chronic form. During therapy it is very important to follow the diets and dietary patterns recommended by the doctor. During the rehabilitation period, sanatorium treatment and physiotherapy are used.

Treatment and prevention of diseases of the urinary system are successful in fulfilling all the recommendations of the doctor. The observance of the rules of hygiene, the complete cure of acute respiratory diseases, the timely treatment of infectious diseases guarantee the prevention of the development of many pathologies.

Types of diseases

If during a diagnostic examination a patient develops bladder diseases, the symptoms of this condition can signal the presence of various pathologies in this area. In order to determine what exactly caused the pathological condition, a thorough differential diagnosis is carried out.

This is the most common disease that develops as a result of infection in the bladder.

It is characterized by frequent urination to excrete a small amount of urine. Patients complain of pain in the lower abdomen, sometimes shooting in the groin and in the anus. The body temperature may rise, a drop of blood appears in the last portion of urine.

Urolithiasis (stones and sand in the bladder)

Causes: genetic predisposition, metabolic disorders, chronic gastrointestinal diseases, urination, lack of vitamin D, prolonged dehydration.

Patients complain of pain in the lower back, pain during urination, frequent urination. Hypertension develops, subfebrile condition is sometimes noted, urine becomes turbid.

Such pathologies account for 4% of the total number of bladder diseases. They can be malignant and benign, form in the epithelial layer, or be created from connective tissue fibers (adenomas, papillomas, endometriotic formations, etc.).

In clinical practice, of all forms of cancer, cell cancer (90%) is the most common cause of bladder lesions. Squamous cell form and adenocarcinoma in this case develops only in 10% of cases.

This terrible disease most often occurs in smokers, as well as in individuals who, by the nature of their work, are forced to constantly encounter aniline dyes. Also, the pathological process can occur with abnormalities of the pelvic organs, chronic inflammation of the bladder, after irradiation and regular use of saccharin, cyclamate and a number of medicines.

Note: such diseases of the bladder in women are very rare, more often they are affected by men.

Bladder tuberculosis

Every fifth patient suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis is simultaneously affected by the tuberculosis of the excretory organs (due to the transfer of the pathogen with blood).

This form of pathology is almost asymptomatic. Only general malaise, lack of appetite and increased sweating at night can be noted. With the development of the pathological process, pain occurs when urinating in the perineal region, urine excretion increases up to 20 times a day, dull pain develops in the lower back, pus appears in the urine.

Bladder neck sclerosis

This pathology arises due to the replacement of normal tissue with connective tissue fibers (scarring). The cause of this condition is the inflammatory process, and it can also be a consequence of the operation to remove prostate adenoma.

The pathological process begins at the top of the bladder. The resulting ulcer is round, festering and bloody. The symptoms of this condition resemble the symptoms of cystitis.

Most often, this pathology develops in older men due to the penetration of the bladder wall through the hernial ring.

Endometriosis

Occurs due to the penetration of endometrial cells during menstruation from the anterior wall of the uterus. They can also get from the ovaries or enter the bladder during a cesarean section.

This condition is characterized by heaviness in the lower abdomen, aggravated before menstruation, and frequent painful urination with blood in the urine.

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Common Bladder Diseases

  • The main signs of disease
  • Diagnosis and causes of disease
  • Diagnostic tests

The feeling of pain in the pelvic area is a common complaint of patients receiving a general practitioner. Basically, the bladder has an infectious disease. Pain can occur only during urination (intermittent) or be stable. In men, this problem occurs 3 times less frequently than in women.

The main signs of disease

Painful urination affects the quality of life of a person. To help, you need to identify the symptoms of the disease. The main ones are:

  • frequent and very painful urination,
  • lower abdominal pain
  • urinary incontinence,
  • discoloration and disgusting smell,
  • night urinary incontinence,
  • the appearance of turbid impurities and blood.

Each of these signs indicates the beginning of the inflammatory process. A visit to the urologist can not be delayed.

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Ailments of the bladder create problems that reduce a person’s ability to work for a long time. Many pathologies are identified when talking to a patient. But the final diagnosis is established only based on laboratory diagnostics. A general analysis of urine and blood, ultrasound of the urinary system. If necessary, resort to instrumental methods of diagnosis: MRI, CT, cystoscopy and x-rays.

Frequent and severe pain urine is always observed in dangerous infectious diseases. These include gonorrhea and herpes. Similar symptoms have malignant tumors.

Cutting during urination accompanies all infectious and inflammatory diseases. These are diseases of the kidneys and ureters, bladder, urethra, vagina and ovaries of the uterus, vulva, fallopian tubes, prostate, etc.

The inflammatory process is easily caused by pathogenic microbes (fungi, bacteria, viruses, etc.). Infectious process is caused by pathogenic microorganisms: staphylococcus, streptococcus, trichomonas.

Common symptoms for most inflammatory processes in the bladder are burning and itching at the time of urine release.

The disease in a chronic form can resume after hypothermia, transferred stress. A serious factor is considered to be ignoring the rules of personal hygiene.

The occurrence of even one of the symptoms indicates a possible pathology in the urinary system and should serve as a reason for contacting the urologist. It is dangerous to delay the treatment of infectious diseases.

  1. Cystitis. Its main symptoms are urination in small portions, frequent and painful. Always accompanied by itching. Fresh blood clots rarely enter urine. The patient complains of severe pain in the lower abdomen, cannot hold the urine, the smell of which becomes unpleasant. Does not experience a feeling of comfort after emptying. The general condition of the sick person also suffers: there is a malaise, weakness, fever. Its performance decreases. Antibiotics give a good result in the treatment of cystitis. If the cystitis is chronic, strong remedies are required. They are appointed by the urologist after examining the patient.
  2. Hematuria. The impurity in the urine is a blood flake. There are 2 types of impurities. Gross hematuria and microhematuria. In the first case, the impurity can be seen independently. In the second case, it is detected by macroscopic examination. In cancer, gross hematuria occurs in 70% of cases. But the most common cause of blood in the urine is urinary tract infection. Bladder stones can also cause hematuria. In diseases of the bladder urine staining occurs only in the last portion. But it happens during the full act of urination. Blood may also appear in the urine in case of infectious diseases, certain medicines and kidney disease. Therefore, we must immediately contact a specialist for diagnostic studies.
  3. Crayfish. Oncological disease is often confused with cystitis. Develops after 40 years in men and women. Blood appears in the urine, which may be absent for a long period. The urge to urinate increases. When the tumor begins to grow, there is a slight pain, extending into the crotch and sacrum. In the later stages, patients drastically reduce their weight and quickly tire.

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The diagnosis is established by an oncologist. For this specific research is conducted:

  • Ultrasound of the pelvic organs,
  • excretory urography (in the presence of blood in the urine),
  • urine cytology,
  • cystoscopy,
  • tests for tumor markers and CT.

Treatment depends on the stage of the tumor and includes: chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. Immunotherapy is prescribed for all patients. The drugs increase the protective functions of the body.

This type of cancer is prone to relapse. Therefore, during the first two years it is necessary to be examined at least once every six months. Leukoplakia. In case of disease, the layer lining the cavity of the bladder changes the structure of the cellular composition. Cells of the upper epithelium are replaced by flat. The layer is predisposed to keratinization. Women face it more often.

Causes of leukoplakia. The main reason is infection. Chronic inflammation can be obtained from genital infections trapped in the urethra. E. coli and staphylococcus can cause disease. And predisposing factors are the following:

  • chronic foci of infection
  • deviations in the structure,
  • endocrine diseases
  • stresses and weakness of the body,
  • sexual intercourse without contraception.

How is leukoplakia manifested? The most common signs of leukoplakia are the following:

  • aching or dull abdominal pain, in the pelvic region, always constant,
  • a slight increase in urination with burning and cracking,
  • spasms during urine excretion,
  • frequent recurrence of cystitis, resistance to standard cure.

Treatment methods. If a disease is suspected, cystoscopy is performed. Examine the suspicious area and with the help of a biopsy. Treatment begins with conservative methods:

  • Antiviral and antibacterial drugs are prescribed to eliminate the root cause,
  • physiotherapy with medications,
  • magnetic therapy and cauterization of leukoplakia with a laser,
  • when hormone imbalances, hormonal preparations and immunity enhancing agents are prescribed.

If this therapy has no effect, then resort to surgical methods.

As a result, not treated infections can begin adhesions. Its purpose is to protect the body against the spread of inflammation in the pelvic area. Adhesive disease has different symptoms. It depends on the number of adhesions and affected organs. In their treatment using antimicrobial drugs.

Cistocele. This is a prolapse of the bladder. It happens because of a decrease in the tone of the musculo-ligamentous apparatus, which supports it. As a result, there is a change in its position.

Pathology occurs during pregnancy, as well as during menopause, when the level of hormones responsible for the state of the muscles of the pelvic floor, is significantly reduced.

Gymnastics is appointed. Exercise strengthens the muscles of the pelvic floor. Exercises are recommended both for prophylaxis and for the therapy of ptosis of the bladder at an early stage of pathology.

For the treatment of diseases of the bladder are prescribed pills. This is the most effective way to relieve inflammation. But self-treatment should be excluded.

Pick up the drug can only doctor on the basis of tests. In this case treatment will be successful.

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Болезни мочевого пузыря

Цистоцеле — является не чем иным, как грыжей мочевого пузыря. This anatomical problem arises due to the weakening of the muscles supporting the organs of the small pelvis. Transurethral resection of the bladder is a surgical procedure that is used to thoroughly examine the entire surface of the organ from the inside. In addition, TOUR allows. Polyps in the bladder in men are detected at an earlier stage than in women. About half of the cases observed them. What is a neurogenic bladder? The characteristic symptoms of pathology in women and men. The main methods of treatment. Endometriosis of the bladder can only be detected by detailed examination. Symptoms are similar to the manifestations of other diseases of the genitourinary system. The treatment is carried out. Why there is sclerosis of the bladder neck in men. The main symptoms of the disease and treatment methods. Suspensions in the bladder are one of the symptoms of urinary tract malfunction and metabolic processes. To clarify the diagnosis is usually carried out. Causes of sand in the bladder in women and men. Factors contributing to his education. Diagnostic options, symptoms and treatment tactics. What causes the thickening of the bladder walls in men and women. Symptoms and treatment of the disease. Irritable Bladder Syndrome - what is it? Causes of development and characteristic symptoms. Diagnostic methods and treatment options.

Symptoms of bladder disease

Constant pain in the bladder area occurs during heavy physical exertion, driving on a rough road, and so on. Such pains are characteristic of urolithiasis and occur during the movement of stones in the bladder cavity. In children and men, pain is given to the penis. Therefore, when a child complains of pain in the penis (his head), and there are no local changes (such as phimosis or balanoposthitis), the child should be examined in the hospital for the presence of stones in his bladder.

In the urine with urolithiasis, leukocytes and red blood cells are detected. Retention of urine complicates the course of diseases such as prostate adenoma or urethritis. In this case, the patient complains of unbearable, acute pain in the area of ​​the bladder and agrees to any procedure, including the operation, just to stop the pain. The patient has a constant urge to urinate, but cannot urinate, the bladder is stretched. Pain in the bladder can be triggered by the growth of a malignant tumor. Such pains sharply increase with the disintegration of the tumor.

The pain experienced by the patient during urination is often associated with the development of various forms of cystitis. When inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bladder pain occurs when the accumulation of urine. At the end of urination, they increase, and then subside before filling the bladder and the emergence of new urinary urges. With severe cystitis, pain occurs almost constantly, the intervals between painful attacks become very short. In cervical cystitis, when inflammation covers only the exit from the bladder, painful sensations appear at the end of urination and immediately after it. This is due to convulsive phenomena in the urinary sphincter, which continue after the removal of all urine and injure the mucous membrane of the bladder, which is already inflamed. Cystitis has the following main features: the presence of urine in the urine, painful and frequent urination.

Pain during urination is also characteristic of cystalgia. Its symptoms are similar to those of cystitis, but the bladder mucosa is not inflamed, pyuria is absent. However, the pain in cystalgia can be very strong.

Often the causes of impaired urination and acute pain in the bladder area are various diseases of the female genitals (parametrites, adnexitis).

Urgent care for bladder diseases

If renal colic occurs, then heat, painkillers (atropine, papaverine, promedol subcutaneously, but-shpa inside), intramuscular administration of antibiotics (etazol, furadonin, streptomycin, penicillin) are indicated. With stones and cystitis, antibacterial therapy is carried out (warmth on the lower abdomen, atropine, papaverine subcutaneously, methylene blue is ingested, etazol, chloramphenicol, furadonin).

Patients who develop hemorrhagic cystitis, urine retention occurs, renal colic does not stop, should be immediately hospitalized. In all other cases, patients are sent to the urologist.

Bladder Stones

Stones in the bladder are also quite common.

The main symptoms that indicate the presence of stones:

  • frequent urination,
  • pain during urination (often quite severe, cutting),
  • the presence in the urine of suspended matter, sand, blood impurities,
  • the occurrence of edema and the associated increase in blood pressure,
  • intermittent stream of urine
  • the need for effort during urination,
  • inability to empty the bladder even with strong urging.

The causes of stone formation include inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system, diseases characterized by impaired metabolic processes, as well as poor nutrition (stones can form when there is an excess in the body of certain substances coming from food).

To eliminate bladder stones today, both conservative and radical methods are used. The first includes various procedures aimed at crushing and removing stones (for example, using ultrasound).

Some medications are also used, such as diuretics, antispasmodics, antibiotics. If the stones are impressive in size, surgery will be required. In addition, in most cases, a customized diet is required.

Hyperative bladder

Overactive bladder - a disease in which there are uncontrolled contractions of the walls of the bladder, leading to strong and sudden urge to urinate, and sometimes to the subsequent release of urine.

The main symptom of this disease is the sudden urge to urinate. They appear sharply and quite often. Sometimes the desire to empty the bladder is so strong that it is very difficult to hold back the urine, which leads to its leakage.

The causes of hyperactivity are not precisely established, but some diseases and injuries of the spinal cord or brain (multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke, etc.), diseases of the genitourinary system or tumor processes, as well as taking certain medications can be considered as negative factors of influence.

The treatment of such an unusual disease should be aimed at eliminating its causes and alleviating the symptoms. So, to restore the normal functioning of the walls of the bladder can help some exercises and physiotherapy procedures (for example, neuromodulation - stimulation by current). Effective can be a drug treatment, which includes taking a sedative, as well as antispasmodics.

The doctor may recommend a diet that involves the exclusion from the diet of beverages and foods that irritate the mucous membranes of the walls of the bladder. In extreme cases, surgery is indicated.

Bladder tumors are also quite common, but, fortunately, benign tumors prevail among them, and malignant tumors occur only in 5-10% of all cases. The most common tumors: polyps, hemangiomas, papillomas, adenomas, pheochromocytomas.

The main signs of the presence of a tumor in the bladder:

  • discomfort, pain, pain in the lower abdomen,
  • frequent urination,
  • difficulty urinating,
  • intermittent stream of urine
  • impurities in the urine
  • painful urination,
  • urine leakage
  • feeling of incomplete emptying of the bubble.

Any tumor will require surgery. If the tumor is malignant, then chemotherapy or radiotherapy may be needed.

Other diseases

Other diseases of the bladder that are less common:

  • Bladder tuberculosis is often a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs or kidneys. Symptoms may be absent, treatment should include antibiotics.
  • Leukoplakia is a disease in which changes occur in the structure of the mucous membranes of the walls of the bladder, as a result of which some of their areas become horny and coarse. Causes include chemical or mechanical stress. Signs: frequent urination, discomfort, pain. Therapy should be aimed at eliminating the causes of the disease and removing cornified areas.
  • Cystocele is a prolapse of the bladder, which occurs most often in women after multiple or complicated births. The main symptoms include leakage of urine, frequent urination to urinate. The most effective treatment is surgery.
  • Atonia is a disease in which the walls of the bladder are weakened. This condition arises due to damage to the nerve fibers from the bladder to the spinal cord. The most common cause is spinal injuries that lead to damage to the spinal cord. Signs: constant bladder overflow, no urge to urinate, urine leakage, jet weakness, delayed onset of urination. Exercises, procedures, myotropic drugs, anticholinergics and antidepressants are used for treatment. The extreme measure is surgery.

Be careful to notice the disease in time.

Urination disorders

Pain when urinating is usually accompanied by burning and cutting.

It is caused by the irritating effect of urine on the inflamed mucosa in a bladder disorder such as cystitis. Cystitis pain occurs at the end of urination. Acute cystitis is also characterized by lower abdominal pain. Complaints of frequent and painful urination are most common in women 15–44 years old. In these patients, in 15% of cases, these symptoms are caused not by cystitis, but by vaginitis. In addition, postmenopausal women often have painful urination, since a decrease in the level of estrogen in the blood leads to atrophy of the epithelium of the bladder and urethra.

Malignant tumors of the bladder, infections (gonorrhea, herpes), urolithiasis (bladder stones) can be considered as the most dangerous diseases, manifested by frequent and painful urination.

With such complaints, climacteric syndrome, prostatitis, a foreign body in the bladder and lower urinary tract should be excluded from the patient. Sometimes pain occurs with fever, high acidity of urine with metabolic disorders. Similar symptoms can also cause ulcers and diverticula (protrusions) of the bladder and urethra, prostate adenoma, phimosis, and ptosis of the vagina.

Do not forget that the frequent and painful urination can be a symptom of depression, diabetes, side effects of drugs.

Hematuria is an admixture of blood in the urine. Distinguish between gross hematuria (an admixture of blood visible to the eye) and microhematuria (detected by microscopic examination). For the development of gross hematuria, adding 1 ml of blood to 1 liter of urine is sufficient.

In bladder cancer, gross hematuria occurs in 70% of cases. On the other hand, the most common cause of blood in the urine is urinary tract infection (especially cystitis in women). Hematuria can also be caused by bladder stones.

In diseases of the bladder, staining of urine with blood can appear only in the last portion of urine or during the entire urination act.

Blood in the urine can also occur in many kidney diseases, infectious diseases, and medication. That is why if such a symptom occurs, it is necessary to consult a doctor for diagnosis.

The most common diseases of the bladder

The most common diseases of the bladder are its inflammation (cystitis) and urolithiasis.

In addition, there are hernia, tuberculosis, syphilis, parasitic diseases of the bladder. In the bladder can develop benign and malignant neoplasms. Separately, a condition called “overactive bladder” is isolated.

The main symptom of cystitis is frequent, painful urination in small portions. Sometimes (quite rarely) in the urine is visible an admixture of fresh blood, which appears at the end of the process of urination. The patient is worried about cutting, sometimes very severe pain in the lower abdomen, in the pubic region, especially when urinating. There is urinary incontinence, as well as a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder. Urine can get an unpleasant smell. Sometimes (quite rarely) the general condition suffers: an increase in body temperature, weakness, malaise, decreased performance can occur.

Bladder stones are manifested mainly by acute paroxysmal pain extending to the groin and perineum. Often there is frequent painful urination.

A sliding hernia of the bladder is a condition in which the wall of this organ protrudes through a hole in the muscle wall of the abdominal cavity, mainly in combination with other organs (epiploon, intestine). The most common inguinal, inguinal-scrotal, femoral hernia. This condition can be suspected when observing a hernia: it varies in size depending on the degree of filling of the bladder. It is characteristic urination in two doses. Sometimes there is urinary retention or frequent urination.

Bladder tuberculosis is a complication of kidney tuberculosis. The clinical picture is uncharacteristic, symptoms of cystitis prevail. In severe bladder lesions, stranguria occurs - difficulty urinating, accompanied by spastic pain. Syphilis of the bladder also has no peculiarities in the clinic, it is characterized by a long persistent flow.

Parasitic diseases of the bladder include schistosomiasis, echinococcosis, trichomoniasis, and manifest by frequent painful urination, often with blood in the urine.

The same symptoms are observed in bladder leukoplakia, a condition that develops as a result of chronic inflammation of this organ and manifested by keratinization of the surface epithelial cells lining the mucosa.

Symptoms of a bladder tumor are determined primarily by its location and attitude to the mouths of the ureters. Among benign tumors, bladder papillomas predominate. They are usually located near the openings of the urethra and ureters, manifest bleeding. The most common malignant tumor is papillary cancer, which is also primarily manifested by the presence of blood in the urine. In the later stages, signs associated with tumor invasion in neighboring organs, cancer cachexia, distant metastases are added.

Bladder hyperactivity is a pathological condition associated primarily with impaired innervation of this organ. It manifests itself in the inability to control the process of urination, as a result of which it becomes involuntary, often in small portions, frequent. Unlike cystitis, pain is not typical.

Thus, the symptoms detected in time can help the patient to suspect bladder disease and to consult a specialist in time, this will speed recovery and ease the patient's condition.

Which doctor to contact

If the pain and frequent urination occur suddenly, after hypothermia, it is enough to turn to the therapist. In other cases, a urologist examination is required. Sometimes consultation of the infectious disease specialist, oncologist, venereologist, gynecologist is required.

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