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Seawater poisoning

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The benefits of seawater are invaluable. Firstly, natural salt has antiseptic properties, thanks to which it destroys pathogenic microorganisms. Doctors advise such a water rinse the nasal cavity and gargle with rhinitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis. Secondly, salt absorbs liquid, thereby reducing the swelling of tissues. For example, if you wash the water from the sea sutra, you can get rid of the notorious bags under the eyes. Thirdly, sea water has a beneficial effect on the skin: suppresses inflammation, cleanses the pores, eliminates black spots.

But sea water can be harmful. It irritates mucous membranes and damaged skin. If there are wounds and scratches, the salt on them will cause discomfort and pain. Sea water is harmful to the eyes - provokes redness and tearing. If ingested in large quantities in the gastrointestinal tract, digestive disorders are possible.

How can you get poisoned with sea water?

Sea water poisoning usually occurs either when it is accidentally swallowed during a voyage (especially if there are waves), or if it gets into your mouth or nose while playing at sea. Most often, children are poisoned, as they are very fond of active activities on the beach and do not always swim well. But adults too can face a problem.

The causes of poisoning are two. The first is the irritating effect of high salt concentrations on the mucous membranes of the walls of the stomach and intestines. In fact, this cannot be called a classic poisoning, since pathogenic microorganisms are not present in the water. Yet the walls of the gastrointestinal tract are irritated and damaged, and this causes digestive disorders, very similar to the symptoms of infections.

The second reason is pathogenic microorganisms (usually viruses and bacteria) that can live in the sea. Usually they quickly die in such an environment, but if you are close to an infected person, then pathogens of infection may well get from his body into yours, which will provoke the real poisoning with all the ensuing consequences.

There is another situation that may occur when a large amount of sea water is ingested. The kidneys are responsible for the removal of fluids, and they may simply not cope with the processing if there is too much salt. And this will not only disrupt the urinary system, but also increase the risk of dehydration, because the body will attract its own moisture reserves to perform the functions of excretion.

Manifestations

The main signs of seawater poisoning are:

  • nasal discharge, sneezing,
  • sore throat, dry cough,
  • red eyes, increased tearing,
  • nausea, vomiting,
  • loss of appetite or lack of it.

If you do not start to act in a timely manner, there may be pain and cramps in the stomach, diarrhea, general weakness and deterioration of health. A child with repeated vomiting and severe diarrhea will develop dehydration, which can be recognized by dryness of the skin and mucous membranes, white plaque on the tongue, the confluence of the eyeballs and the spring (in children younger than six months), lack of urination or dark urine.

In an adult, the symptoms may be mild and self-reported on the same day. Children suffer from poisoning harder, so the manifestations are able to persist for two or three days and strongly affect their well-being.

Important! If vomiting and diarrhea do not stop, other symptoms join, and the body temperature starts to rise rapidly, most likely, you are experiencing an intestinal infection. You should immediately consult a doctor.

How to help with poisoning?

What if there is a sea water poisoning? First aid involves washing the stomach, which will release it from the contents. You should drink 1-1.5 liters of warm water and induce vomiting by pressing a finger on the root of the tongue. You can add a little potassium permanganate or baking soda to achieve additional antiseptic effects.

Usually the measures described above are sufficient, but if there is a lot of water in the stomach, or a person has chronic diseases of the digestive system, then treatment may be necessary, including several areas:

  1. Removal of excess salt and toxic substances that could be in the water. Adsorbents are used, which quickly attract and absorb all the excess and provide a natural excretion. The preparations with adsorbing properties include activated carbon, Polysorb, Smekta, Enterosgel, Polifan. These funds are taken within two to three days, depending on the state and severity of the poisoning.
  2. It is important to replenish fluid reserves, using ordinary pure water, dried fruit compotes, herbal teas (for example, with chamomile, which has anti-inflammatory effects).
  3. When vomiting and diarrhea, it is necessary to restore the water-salt balance in order to avoid dehydration. For these purposes, salt solutions are used, for example, “Oralit”, “Regidron”, “Hydrovit”. Small children should be otpaivat gently and in small portions, so as not to provoke an attack of vomiting. Give the baby a teaspoon every 3-5 minutes.
  4. With diarrhea, antidiarrheals, such as Smecta, Imodium, and Lopedium, will help.
  5. If vomiting does not stop, on the advice of a doctor, you can take an antiemetic, such as Motilium, Zerukal.
  6. Should adhere to the principles of gentle nutrition. Exclude from the diet any foods that irritate the mucous membranes of the gastric walls. These include fresh berries, vegetables and fruits, dairy products. You can eat dairy products, porridge in water, boiled or steamed vegetables (preferably ground), weak meat or vegetable broths. On the first day it is better to restrict drinking.

In seawater poisoning, it is important to provide timely assistance. But if the measures were unsuccessful, and the condition worsens, you should consult a doctor. It remains to wish you health and a pleasant holiday at the sea.

How does seawater poisoning happen?

Most often, the characteristic symptoms after being in sea water appear in young children (up to 3 years) for the following reasons:

  • ingestion of sea water during swimming,
  • involuntary entry of water into the body, including through the nose, during games in the water.

A few sips of sea water are enough for a child to make it worse.

Acute gastrointestinal upset is also possible in adults, for example, when improper use or malfunctioning of the mouthpiece of the breathing tube when swimming with a mask, repeated ingress of water through the nose during diving, bathing in a storm.

Symptoms of poisoning

When seawater is consumed, a number of symptoms of varying severity occur (depending on the amount of water ingested and the age of the victim), which are similar to the manifestations of poisoning:

  • general weakness
  • lack of appetite,
  • nausea, vomiting,
  • sore throat, rhinorrhea, sneezing.

In young children, the effects of ingesting seawater are usually more pronounced:

  • drowsiness, apathy, severe weakness,
  • pallor of the skin,
  • loose stools, nausea, vomiting,
  • decrease urination, concentrated color and acrid urine smell,
  • single fever.

These symptoms usually stop themselves within 1-2 days, are not accompanied by persistent fever, do not require special therapeutic measures.

True seawater poisoning is possible when it contains pathogens. With a viral infection, the symptoms will vary from mild to extremely severe, depending on the initial state of the immune system and the type of virus. The disease usually manifests itself 1-3 days after direct infection (although sometimes the incubation period reaches 10-14 days) with the following symptoms:

  • weakness,
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea, vomiting, mushy stools,
  • flatulence, rumbling and abdominal discomfort.

In case of mild course, there are no signs of dehydration, dyspeptic symptoms are slightly expressed, body temperature is within the normal range, for 3-4 days the condition spontaneously improves.

Infection of moderate severity and severe have similar symptoms, differing only in the degree of severity:

  • adynamia, drowsiness,
  • pallor of the skin,
  • headache, dizziness,
  • muscle and joint pain
  • chills, fever,
  • lack of appetite,
  • intense nausea, repeated vomiting,
  • abundant liquid fetid stools more often 10-15 times a day,
  • pains of a spastic nature in the epigastrium and in the umbilical region.

Symptoms of moderate and severe disease persist for 6-7 days. Due to the high probability of dehydration, special therapy is required.

First aid for seawater poisoning

Since it is not possible to independently differentiate a viral infection and an indigestion caused by ingestion of uninfected seawater, in any case it is necessary to carry out a number of general urgent measures:

  1. Gastric lavage with 1-1.5 liters of warm water or a light pink solution of potassium permanganate, for which it is necessary to drink liquid and, pressing on the root of the tongue, provoke an emetic urge.
  2. Acceptance of enterosorbent (Activated carbon, Enterosgel, Polyphepan, Polysorb).
  3. Replenishment of fluid lost with diarrhea and vomiting (saline solutions (Regidron, Hydrovit, Oralit) or salt-free (tea, water).

The volume of fluid for feeding a child: up to 2 years - 50-100 ml, older than 2 years - 100-200 ml after each bowel movement or an attack of vomiting. For an adult - 2-2.5 liters of fluid per day.

In order to prevent vomiting, the child needs to drink 1-2 tsp. every 5-10 minutes.

When is medical care required?

If you experience the symptoms after swallowing water, it is imperative to seek medical help.

The treatment consists in restoring the water-salt balance, maintaining the basic life-support systems, antibiotic therapy is prescribed during the infectious process.

Why not drink sea water

From the above, we learned that sea water contains a large number of different salts. Only in a liter of sea water there is a daily rate of the required amount of salt for humans. As you know, the fluid that enters the human body, necessarily processed by the kidneys. This is a kind of filter of our body.

If you drink water with such a concentration of salts and various chemical compounds, our kidneys need to work several times more, and this is a huge burden on the body. As a result, stones can form, various diseases can occur, and in some cases it can even be fatal. Our body simply may not have enough water to remove the excess salt. As a result - dehydration. Therefore, it is necessary to know the signs of seawater poisoning. Since small children often rest at sea, we need to know how to act if a child has poisoned with sea water, to notice the first symptoms. Next, consider why such poisonings happen.

Causes of water poisoning at sea

Sea water poisoning can occur for several reasons:

  • Water has a large number of pathogenic microbes.
  • The presence of garbage in the water, waste, and animals.
  • Located nearby industrial production.

Of course, we should not forget that unhealthy people can be near you in the same water.

All these factors can cause seawater poisoning. Young children are especially susceptible to the influence of these factors, since they have not yet formed immunity, and often children are brought to the coast after suffering diseases, and therefore their bodies are weakened. Therefore, poisoning with sea water in a child is quite possible.

How can you poison sea water

There are several ways of seawater poisoning:

  • If swallowed while swimming or diving.
  • Drinking water from shallow wells.
  • Hit of sea water in food, drinks.
  • Non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene after taking sea baths.

In children, mucous membranes and the immune system are very sensitive to climate change. Therefore, when staying at sea, the child may react sharply to the influence of saturated salt solution on the mucous membranes. For this reason, it is not necessary for the child to be in the water for a long time.

What are the symptoms of seawater poisoning?

If seawater poisoning occurs, the symptoms will be:

All these signs tell us that the intestines and stomach are irritated. Additional symptoms may appear, such as:

  • Cramps.
  • Increased body temperature to high levels.
  • Weakness.
  • A sharp decrease or increase in blood pressure.
  • Violations of the cardiovascular system.
  • Puffiness
  • Clarity of consciousness.

These are signals that a very serious infection has penetrated into the body.

In childhood, if seawater poisoning occurs, the child’s symptoms are very similar to adults, but a number of other infections and conditions can join the poisoning, such as:

  • Enteroviral enteritis.
  • A child can easily overheat or get a sunstroke.
  • Due to the imperfect system of thermoregulation, the child’s body goes through a period of acclimatization much more difficult.

Sea water, especially having a large number of pathogens, can be one of the factors that will contribute to the development of these conditions in a child.

In children, it is most often rotavirus or enterovirus infection.

Who is most often prone to seawater poisoning

There are categories of people who are most at risk to get poisoning from sea water:

  • Persons on a hungry diet.
  • If there are active motor loads for a long time.
  • When using certain medications.
  • Prolonged use of ecstasy.

Such behavior is characteristic of young people, the younger generation. You must be very careful on the water. The body can not withstand overhydration. In this case, the brain, organs, heart can not cope with excess fluid.

And of course, it is worth remembering that children are also at risk.

When you need to hurry to the doctor

Typically, seawater poisoning is rare. If, however, you have the above symptoms in a mild form, then dieting and drinking plain pure water will be enough, but if the condition does not improve and some symptoms persist, you should hurry to the doctor. Namely:

  • Vomiting does not stop during the day.
  • Diarrhea frequent and plentiful.
  • Darkened urine.
  • There was a skin rash.
  • Breath impaired.
  • Difficult swallowing.
  • Edema appeared.

In any case, it is necessary to consult a doctor if the child is less than 3 years old, even with mild symptoms of intoxication.

How to treat seawater poisoning

The treatment of this type of poisoning depends on its severity. Thus, with mild nausea and weakness, it is enough to increase the amount of fresh water in the diet. It will remove toxins, and in a day it will become much easier.

If there is diarrhea or vomiting, it is necessary to use not only fresh water for treatment. We will have to connect to therapy drugs that will not allow dehydration, such as:

Also, in order to eliminate toxins, we use:

At elevated temperatures use:

If new symptoms appear, the condition does not improve, and home remedies do not help, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor. He will prescribe antibiotic therapy. It is impossible to choose such drugs on your own, as an incorrectly chosen antibiotic will only weaken the body, but not conquer the infection.

How to treat a child with sea water poisoning

If a child suffers seawater poisoning, treatment will also depend on the severity of the intoxication.

At the first symptoms of poisoning, you must give your child more fresh water and purified water. You can add activated carbon. If a child swallows water and makes him sick, the first thing to do is to induce vomiting.

Has the child had a fever in addition to diarrhea and vomiting? Here we are talking about rotavirus intoxication or enterovirus infection. In this case, only the doctor should prescribe treatment. It makes no sense to induce vomiting, it is better to immediately call a doctor.

It is worth noting which drugs can be used in the treatment of children and what is the therapy in case of poisoning with sea water:

  • Regidron will help restore the water balance. It can be replaced with the following solution: one teaspoon of salt and five teaspoons of sugar per liter of water. You can also use mineral water without gas.
  • If, however, it is a rotavirus infection, then “Tsitovir” is widely used. An antibiotic should be prescribed only by a doctor.
  • Good use of "Smektu." It helps eliminate toxins and contribute to the normalization of the chair. It can be used between doses of drugs.
  • "Paracetamol" will help lower the fever. Использовать «Аспирин» для этого у детей небезопасно.
  • Необходимо соблюдать диету некоторое время, а в первые дни рекомендуется не употреблять никакой еды, а как можно больше пить.

Как избежать отравления морской водой

In order to prevent seawater poisoning, the symptoms and treatment should be familiar to you (for providing first aid to yourself or close people), and you must follow some rules of staying at sea:

  • Bathe only on clean beaches. Avoid places near industrial plants.
  • The accumulation of large amounts of algae also carries a danger. Especially do not allow children to swim there.
  • Do not overeat before going to the beach.
  • Be sure to bring clean drinking water and a hat.
  • In the first-aid kit should always be such drugs as activated carbon, Enterosorbent, Enterofuril, as well as Ranitidine, Omeprazole.

Sea water poisoning is a very rare occurrence. It should be in all know the measure. Be attentive to your children. And then the life-giving sea water, which stores a sea of ​​beneficial trace elements, will bring many benefits to your body. At the first signs of poisoning, especially if it is a small child, you should definitely call a doctor in order not to miss a more serious infection.

IF YOU ROSE OF SEA WATER.

Unfortunately, the rest of the sea can be darkened by poisoning. And you can suffer from sea water. Learn how to help in this situation.

PROPERTIES OF SEA WATER.

The benefits of seawater are invaluable:

Firstly, natural salt has antiseptic properties, thanks to which it destroys pathogenic microorganisms. Doctors advise such a water rinse the nasal cavity and gargle with rhinitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis.

Secondly, salt absorbs liquid, thereby reducing the swelling of tissues. For example, if you wash water from the sea in the morning, you can get rid of the notorious bags under your eyes.

Thirdly, sea water has a beneficial effect on the skin: suppresses inflammation, cleanses the pores, eliminates black spots.

But sea water can cause harm:

It irritates mucous membranes and damaged skin. If there are wounds and scratches, the salt on them will cause discomfort and pain.

Sea water is harmful to the eyes - provokes redness and tearing.

If ingested in large quantities in the gastrointestinal tract, digestive disorders are possible.

HOW CAN YOU POINT TO SEA WATER?

Sea water poisoning usually occurs either when it is accidentally swallowed during a voyage (especially if there are waves), or if it gets into your mouth or nose while playing at sea.

Most often, children are poisoned, as they are very fond of active activities on the beach and do not always swim well. But adults too can face a problem.

The causes of poisoning are two:

The first is the irritating effect of high salt concentrations on the mucous membranes of the walls of the stomach and intestines. In fact, this cannot be called a classic poisoning, since pathogenic microorganisms are not present in the water. Yet the walls of the gastrointestinal tract are irritated and damaged, and this causes digestive disorders, very similar to the symptoms of infections.

The second reason is pathogenic microorganisms (usually viruses and bacteria) that can live in the sea. Usually they quickly die in such an environment, but if you are close to an infected person, then pathogens of infection may well get from his body into yours, which will provoke the real poisoning with all the ensuing consequences.

There is another situation that may occur when a large amount of sea water is ingested. The kidneys are responsible for the removal of fluids, and they may simply not cope with the processing if there is too much salt. And this will not only disrupt the urinary system, but also increase the risk of dehydration, because the body will attract its own moisture reserves to perform the functions of excretion.

The main signs of seawater poisoning are:

* nasal discharge, sneezing,

* sore throat, dry cough,

* redness of the eyes, increased tearing,

* nausea, vomiting,

* loss of appetite or lack of it.

If you do not start to act in a timely manner, there may be pain and cramps in the stomach, diarrhea, general weakness and deterioration of health.

A child with repeated vomiting and severe diarrhea will develop dehydration, which can be recognized by dryness of the skin and mucous membranes, white plaque on the tongue, the confluence of the eyeballs and the spring (in children younger than six months), lack of urination or dark urine.

In an adult, the symptoms may be mild and self-reported on the same day. Children suffer from poisoning harder, so the manifestations are able to persist for two or three days and strongly affect their well-being.

Important! If vomiting and diarrhea do not stop, other symptoms join, and the body temperature starts to rise rapidly, most likely, you are experiencing an intestinal infection. You should immediately consult a doctor.

What if there is a sea water poisoning?

First aid involves washing the stomach, which will release it from the contents.

You should drink 1-1.5 liters of warm water and induce vomiting by pressing a finger on the root of the tongue. You can add a little potassium permanganate or baking soda to achieve additional antiseptic effects.

Usually the measures described above are sufficient, but if there is a lot of water in the stomach, or a person has chronic diseases of the digestive system, then treatment may be necessary, including several areas:

* Removal of excess salt and toxic substances that could be in the water. Adsorbents are used, which quickly attract and absorb all the excess and provide a natural excretion.

The preparations with adsorbing properties include activated carbon, Polysorb, Smekta, Enterosgel, Polifan.

These funds are taken within two to three days, depending on the state and severity of the poisoning.

* It is important to replenish fluid reserves, using ordinary clean water, dried fruit compotes, herbal teas (for example, with chamomile, which has anti-inflammatory effects).

* When vomiting and diarrhea, it is necessary to restore the water-salt balance in order to avoid dehydration. For these purposes, salt solutions are used, for example, “Oralit”, “Regidron”, “Hydrovit”. Small children should be otpaivat gently and in small portions, so as not to provoke an attack of vomiting. Give the baby a teaspoon every 3-5 minutes.

* For diarrhea, antidiarrheals, such as Smecta, Imodium, Lopedium, will help.

* If vomiting does not stop, on the advice of a doctor, you can take an antiemetic, such as "Motilium", "Zerukal."

* Should adhere to the principles of gentle nutrition. Exclude from the diet any foods that irritate the mucous membranes of the gastric walls. These include fresh berries, vegetables and fruits, dairy products. You can eat dairy products, porridge in water, boiled or steamed vegetables (preferably ground), weak meat or vegetable broths. On the first day it is better to restrict drinking.

In seawater poisoning, it is important to provide timely assistance. But if the measures were unsuccessful, and the condition worsens, you should consult a doctor. It remains to wish you health and a pleasant holiday at the sea.

Published 05/29/2018 at 20:14

Diarrhea in a child at sea. Causes of diarrhea in children at sea. Diarrhea and vomiting, diarrhea and fever. What to do with diarrhea in a child at sea?

Summer is a time for walking, traveling and, of course, relaxing by the sea. But, unfortunately, even on vacation, anyone can catch a cold, catch an intestinal infection, or simply not adapt to new environmental conditions (not acclimatize). Most often, children are subject to such adventures, especially often children of preschool age.

One of the most frequent ailments that can happen to a child at sea is diarrhea (diarrhea). The reason for this are the characteristics of the digestive tract and the immaturity of the immune system in children.

Diarrhea is called frequent (more than 3 times a day) stool liquid unformed consistency. As a rule, this ailment is accompanied by such symptoms as pain and rumbling in the stomach, sometimes vomiting and high fever.

There is a wide variety of causes of diarrhea in a child at sea. The most frequent is a food infection, which very often rages in the open spaces of many resorts. Also, the cause of diarrhea may simply be poor-quality products, which the weak intestines of the child cannot cope with. However, also some objective reason may be completely absent. In this case, we are talking about the adaptation of the child's body to new conditions (acclimatization).

The causes of diarrhea in a child at sea are:

This cause of diarrhea in children at sea is the most frequent. Unfortunately, arriving on vacation, parents no longer observe basic hygiene standards or do not prepare children for this. Some people are mistaken that it is enough to bathe in the sea and wash their hands in the same place, which is completely wrong (there is a huge amount of microbes in the sea). Also, parents often do not consider it necessary to wash the fruits and vegetables or the dishes in which they are stored. The result of this is the penetration of pathogenic bacteria into the body of a child.

To avoid this, it is necessary to realize that at sea the need for washing hands increases tenfold. It is equally important to wash the dishes in which food is brought to the beach, as well as the products themselves. Few people know that it is in the sand and seawater that the pathogenic (pathogenic) flora is contained. Therefore, it is best to take food not on the beach, but if this fails, then to ensure maximum sanitary conditions.

The frequency of food poisoning in the hot season increases significantly compared with the cold seasons. The reason for this is the increased air temperature, under the action of which even very fresh products quickly deteriorate. The cause of food poisoning at sea can also be improper storage of food and failure to follow basic hygiene rules. It is necessary to understand the difference between food poisoning and intestinal infection. In the first case, the cause of diarrhea is spoiled products, in which under the influence of certain factors accumulated pathogenic microorganisms. In the second case, we are talking about bacteria and their toxins. As a rule, these bacteria live in water and enter the body when drinking drinking water. Food infection does not occur in isolation, and proceeds in the form of epidemics. Food poisoning affects only those in whose body got spoiled products.

Among the products that most often cause diarrhea in a child at sea are:

  • dairy products - yogurt, ryazhenka, cottage cheese, cheese,
  • melon crops - watermelons, melons,
  • fruits and berries - pears, grapes, peaches,
  • sweets sold on the beach - waffles, churchkhela, baklava.
From the use of dairy products at sea (or in any other new setting) is recommended and completely abandoned. If this is not possible for any reason, then these products should be purchased exclusively in the store. Also, few people attach importance to spoiled fruits, vegetables, melons and gourds. It is believed that melon crops or fruits can not be poisoned, which is completely wrong. So, in the pulp of watermelon contains a large amount of carbohydrates (sugars), which become the favorite habitat for pathogenic bacteria. Developing bacteria provoke an intensive fermentation process. That is why the poisoning of spoiled watermelon or melon is manifested by severe intoxication. Another cause of poisoning by melon crops or fruits is their nitrate content. Once in the body, nitrates under the action of the body's enzymes turn into nitrites - toxic substances that are toxins for the body. Unfortunately, intestinal infection is not uncommon at sea. As a rule, enterovirus and rotavirus infections occur, and people have intestinal flu. However, if the family is resting on some exotic coast, the range of infections is much wider.

Among the viruses and bacteria found on the sea, most often diarrhea is caused by the following:

  • Rotavirus is most common. Mostly affects children of preschool age (2 - 3 years). Manifestation of rotavirus vomiting, diarrhea, a slight increase in temperature. Children are characterized by a combination of symptoms of intestinal disorder and signs of flu.
  • Enterovirus - is much less common. Enterovirus infection can take various forms - enteritis, angina, conjunctivitis, meningitis. The most common intestinal form (enteritis), which is accompanied by a liquid unformed stool with the presence of blood or mucus.
  • Salmonellosis is an infection that occurs not only at sea. It is manifested by nausea, vomiting, multiple watery stools, weakness.
  • E. coli - is transmitted by the alimentary (food) route, namely with polluted water and unwashed fruits. It is characterized by a polymorphic (diverse) clinical picture, the main symptom of which is diarrhea.
  • Dysentery - a disease that is characterized by severe intoxication syndrome and intestinal disorder.
Acclimatization refers to the process of adaptation to new environmental conditions, namely to the climate and new microorganisms. New microorganisms, which the child gets used to when they are at sea, live in water and food. These microorganisms are not necessarily pathogenic, they are simply “new” for the child’s body. The process of acclimatization is most pronounced in children under the age of three years, and this is due to the immaturity of the immune system. Symptoms of adaptation to new conditions appear on the second day after arriving to rest.

Manifestations of acclimatization in children at sea can be:

Diarrhea or diarrhea during acclimatization is of a reflex nature and is not associated with the penetration of pathogenic bacteria into the body. Diarrhea in this case is due to increased motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract. As a result of intestinal hyperactivity, frequent and unformed stools are noted. Also in the lumen of the intestine accumulates a large amount of mucus, which goes along with feces. The mechanism of diarrhea during acclimatization is similar to the mechanism of diarrhea in irritable bowel syndrome. The main cause of the disorder is an increased activity of the intestinal muscles as a result of irritation of the nerve fibers. In young children, acclimatization is very often accompanied by fever. Thus, an unformed organism reacts to changes in its usual conditions. However, the temperature in this case, as a rule, does not exceed 38 degrees. The acclimatization period lasts on average from 3 to 6 days. The clinical picture of an intestinal infection in a child at sea can be very diverse. It can vary from transient (passing) diarrhea to symptoms of severe intoxication and dehydration. The severity of symptoms affects both the source of the infection and the age of the baby. The main symptom is frequent loose and unformed stools, that is, diarrhea (diarrhea among people). Diarrhea or diarrhea - frequent (more than three times a day) unformed stools. The frequency of the stool depends on the cause of the diarrhea, as well as on the age of the child. The younger the child, the more often he has feces.

The disease begins suddenly with the appearance of fever and vomiting. Vomiting can be either single or repeated several times. Initially, vomit is the contents of the stomach. However, later, when the stomach is cleared, the child may vomit bile contents. Vomiting is accompanied by fever (up to 38 degrees), lethargy and weakness. The peculiarity of rotavirus infection is that initially the disease proceeds as a cold. So, the child has a runny nose, pain when swallowing and other symptoms that resemble the flu. However, on the second day, a disorder of the stool in the form of diarrhea joins the above symptoms. Rotavirus infection is characterized by liquid gray-yellow stools. If the infection also affects the liver, the stool begins to lighten (acholic feces), and blood clots appear in it.

The frequency of loose stools correlates with the risk of dehydration - the more often the baby has a stool, the greater the likelihood of dehydration. Therefore, parents should carefully monitor the condition of the child at the time of illness.

Signs of dehydration are:

Despite the fact that diarrhea is common in children and, as a rule, does not cause great anxiety to parents, its consequences can be very deplorable. The main danger is the consequences for the baby’s nervous system. Thus, during dehydration, the blood supply to the brain is impaired, after which it begins to experience oxygen deficiency (hypoxia). Hypoxia, in turn, causes the death of nerve cells. Также при обезвоживании развиваются множественные метаболические изменения, которые впоследствии влияют на работу сердца, почек, печени.

Первая помощь при поносе у ребенка – это восполнение жидкости в организме, то есть терапия регидратации. Пополнять недостаток воды при поносе и рвоте у ребенка достаточно обычным раствором регидрона или гидровита. Важно понимать, что с рвотой и частым стулом ребенок теряет не только жидкость, но и соли организма. Therefore, at the same time with the liquid it is vital to ensure the flow of salts into the body. For this, most commonly used drugs such as rehydron, hydrovit, oralit.

Fluid and frequent stools (diarrhea) often appear on the background of temperature. Increased body temperature in a child is a sign of infection. At sea, the most common infection is rotavirus and enterovirus. With rotavirus infection, the temperature can vary within 38 degrees, with enterovirus infections reach 39 degrees. As a rule, the temperature persists for 4–5 days, after which it begins to slowly decline and after 2–3 days it reaches the norm. During this period, the child looks weak, drowsy, apathetic. When the temperature starts to decrease, the child “comes to life” as it were and begins to be active again. The frequency of diarrhea, as a rule, does not correlate with the height of the temperature. This means that even at a temperature of 39 degrees, the chair can be about 3 times a day, but, at the same time, it can be observed 10 times a day at a temperature of only 37 degrees.

Temperature in diarrhea is a symptom of a general intoxication syndrome, that is, a manifestation of infection. She is accompanied by symptoms such as headache, weakness, and sometimes a rash. The flow of temperature may be wave-like. At the same time, periodic rises and decreases in temperature are noted. To eliminate elevated temperatures, antipyretic agents such as paracetamol and ibuprofen are used. However, it is important to remember that it is not recommended to bring down the temperature below 38.5 degrees.

Diarrhea in a child at sea can occur both against the background of temperature and isolated. The absence of temperature does not mean the absence of infection. The temperature may be absent with reduced immunity of the child or simply with a mild infection. Diarrhea without fever can also occur if the cause of the infection is a period of acclimatization or just food poisoning. At the same time there is no infectious factor, which is the source of temperature. However, the severity of diarrhea (namely, the frequency of stool) does not depend on it. By itself, sea water does not pose a threat to the life of a child or an adult. The exceptions are those cases when a large amount of seawater enters the body. Being salty and containing special composition, water can irritate the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract. This can cause the development of diarrhea in the child. However, in this case, diarrhea is a transient phenomenon, that is, passing. At the same time, pathogenic microbes can enter the body with seawater. Especially often this happens with young children who swim near the shore, where the probability of infection is much higher.

Pathogenic microorganisms living in seawater include:

  • rotaviruses,
  • adenoviruses,
  • reoviruses,
  • coronaviruses,
  • enteroviruses.
In case of accidental ingestion, these pathogenic microorganisms invade the gastrointestinal tract. Once in the child's body, viruses begin to multiply very rapidly. In the future, the development of the disease depends on such factors as the resistance (resistance) of the child’s body to this microbe, the state of immunity, the presence of concomitant diseases.

First aid for seawater poisoning

Sea water can be ingested by involuntary ingestion during swimming or by ingestion through the nose, for example, while playing in water.

Help is washing the stomach and provoking the gag reflex. It's enough to drink 1 - 1.5 liters of warm water, then press your finger on the root of the tongue. Potassium permanganate (popularly potassium permanganate) is not recommended for washing, as this may complicate the disease. If a small amount of seawater has been ingested, then it is enough to take adsorbents. As adsorbents are medications such as polysorb, enterosgel, activated carbon.

The tactics of treatment of diarrhea in a child at sea depends on the accompanying clinical picture. If the stool frequency is more than 5 times a day, and diarrhea does not pass after taking standard medications, you should consult a doctor. If, in addition to the liquid and frequent stools, the child has a fever, indomitable vomiting, confusion, then this is a reason for seeking emergency help. Before the arrival of the ambulance, it is important to monitor the condition of the child and, first of all, give him a drink to prevent dehydration.

In order to provide first aid for diarrhea and vomiting before the ambulance arrives, the following actions can be taken:

  • after each episode of vomiting, you must give the child to drink saline,
  • replenishment of the liquid should take place in small volumes - 15 to 30 milliliters, otherwise large volumes of water can provoke vomiting,
  • in the presence of concomitant pain in the child should not give him any painkillers,
  • it is also forbidden to give him drugs like loperamide (especially for infants),
  • during the illness the child should not be in the sun.
So, the main method of treatment before the arrival of an ambulance or before going to a doctor is rehydration, that is, replenishment of the fluid lost with vomiting and diarrhea. For this purpose, such drugs as rehydron, oral, hydrovit are used.

Medicines used in the treatment of diarrhea in children

How does water poisoning happen

Sea poisoning in an adult is quite rare. Children under the age of 3 are more affected. They ingest water by accident or intentionally - during active games, while diving and bathing. Just a few sips can worsen the condition of the baby.

Adults more often swallow water because of misuse or malfunction of the breather tube mouthpiece. In addition, even it is difficult for them to control the ingress of sea water into the nasopharynx when bathing in a storm. In this case, poisoning at sea in an adult is almost inevitable.

Main symptoms of poisoning

Dyspeptic manifestations caused by the use of a liquid with a high salt concentration are reminiscent of signs of seawater poisoning infected with pathogenic microorganisms:

  • general weakness
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • rhinorrhea,
  • sore throat,
  • frequent sneezing.

The incubation period ranges from 2-3 hours to several days, depending on the amount of fluid consumed, as well as the individual characteristics of the organism. In young children, the symptoms of poisoning are more pronounced. After swallowing sea water in babies develop:

  • severe fatigue
  • lethargic condition
  • drowsiness,
  • moodiness,
  • nausea,
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea,
  • blanching of the skin
  • decreased urination
  • dark urine, the appearance of a strong smell,
  • one-time increase in temperature.

In this case, the symptoms pass on their own within 1–2 days. After taking antipyretic drugs, the temperature drops, and no longer grows. This state does not require special therapy - it is enough to provide the body with rest, drink plenty of water, and refuse to visit the beach for a while.

It’s another thing if you get infected with a virus or a bacterial infection while bathing. In this case, seawater poisoning, symptoms and treatment will be different. Easy intoxication manifests itself:

  • nausea
  • vomit
  • mushy stools,
  • general weakness
  • flatulence
  • rumbling
  • discomfort in the abdomen,
  • loss of appetite.

The average and severe degree of intoxication is expressed by such ailments:

  • intense nausea
  • abundant vomiting,
  • adynamia
  • sleepiness
  • paleness of the skin,
  • headache
  • dizziness
  • pain in muscles and joints,
  • lack of interest in food,
  • chills
  • increased body temperature
  • fetid stool 10-15 times a day,
  • pain in the navel.

With a mild degree of intoxication, the symptoms disappear within 3-4 days, with severe poisoning it can last a week. They represent a danger to the health of the victim, as they contribute to the development of dehydration.

Sudden vomiting at sea in an adult or a child, fever, chills - a reason to see a doctor. If you cannot find it yourself, contact the rescue service representatives: they must have a first-aid kit.

Possible consequences

Lack of timely assistance and failure to comply with medical recommendations can cause serious damage to health. Among the possible complications:

  1. Dehydration - threatens with renal failure, disruption of the brain, a decrease in the protective functions of the body. In the later stages, it ends in death.
  2. Reactive inflammation of the tissues of the liver, pancreas and bile ducts - leads to destabilization of the gastrointestinal tract. This may exacerbate chronic diseases, or develop new pathologies - irritable bowel syndrome, gastritis or colitis.
  3. Convulsions accompanied by fever are most often observed in case of poisoning of small children (up to 3 years). Kids especially painfully react to the imbalance in the body. They are rapidly losing weight, which is dangerous for the health and life of the crumbs.

After poisoning is necessary to ensure the body rest. The special diet, which excludes smoked, fried, fatty foods, will also help. Before the final recovery, you must follow the drinking regime. Appropriate clean drinking water without gas, fruit and vegetable juices, compotes of dried fruits and berries.

Is it possible to poison sea water

Vacationers at sea often complain of seawater poisoning. Accompanied by illness, fever, vomiting, feeling unwell, rarely stool disorder. Young children are especially susceptible to such diseases.

What really happens? Is it dangerous to swim in the sea?

Doctors infectious disease in one voice claim that sea water itself is absolutely safe. The increased content of sea salt and iodine compounds gives it weak antiseptic properties. For this reason, seawater is not able to serve as a medium for the preservation and spread of intestinal or other infections, as is the case in polluted freshwater bodies and sources of water supply.

With saline solutions, they rinse the throat with laryngitis, they rinse the nose during a runny nose, and with them make stretching baths for purulent skin diseases. In addition, to get sick, you need to get a large enough dose of toxic substances. And this is not fresh water, you will not drink much of it.

What happens if you swallow sea water while swimming? Usually this is the sin of the children. If the baby has received a significant portion of water, then the poisoning of a child at sea may be manifested by nausea and vomiting, poor health, loss of appetite. Temperature and diarrhea will not. It is caused by the influence of salt water on the wall of the stomach. It takes place in one day, and, in order to ease nausea, it is recommended to drink a lot of ordinary water.

Causes of poisoning at sea

If there are other signs, then most likely the patient became a victim of one of the following factors.

  1. Infection. In resort areas, children, and sometimes adults, often pick up enterovirus or rotavirus enteritis. Characterized by repeated vomiting, diarrhea, temperature above 38 ° C.
  2. Food poisoning. Intestinal infection may develop as a result of food poisoning. Contribute to poor food quality hot climate, food in unsanitary conditions, exotic cuisine, changing the usual diet. Characteristic signs - vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, sometimes fever, often low (if there is no intestinal infection).
  3. Sunstroke or overheating. In case of violation of the thermoregulation of the body, body temperature rises, a person experiences weakness, fainting, headaches. Possible single vomiting, nausea. Diarrhea during heat stroke does not happen. Body temperature can rise above 38 ° C.

Common symptoms of poisoning

In intestinal infections and food poisoning at sea, symptoms can manifest themselves in varying degrees. In order to begin treatment, it is not necessary to establish the diagnosis exactly — intestinal disorders are treated equally. The danger is not to miss serious infectious diseases - typhoid, salmonella, cholera, botulism or toxin poisoning. If there is a mild poisoning or infection that can be treated at home, there will be the following symptoms:

  • vomiting
  • diarrhea,
  • heat,
  • weakness,
  • sometimes sneezing and runny nose.

The disease usually begins acutely with fever and vomiting. These disorders go away in 2–3 days. Sometimes with a slow development of the disease, diarrhea and high temperature occur on the 2nd or 3rd day from the beginning.

First aid for poisoning at sea

  1. When poisoning with sea water, if a child or adult swallowed it a lot, it is recommended to drink more fluids and eat easily digestible foods.
  2. If there is confidence that this is food poisoning, then you need to wash the stomach with plenty of salted water or a solution of weakly pink manganese — drink, tear out, drink again, and so several times until the stomach clears from the food mass.
  3. If there is a suspicion of viral enteritis, then it is not necessary to provoke vomiting. The mild form will pass in a couple of days, in case of a severe course of the disease - consult a doctor.
  4. During heat stroke, the victim is placed in the shade, wiped with cool water.

After taking the first steps, they start treating the poisoning.

Treatment of poisoning at sea

Here is an approximate scheme of how to treat sea poisoning.

  1. With severe vomiting and diarrhea, be sure to take drugs for dehydration: "Regidron", "Hydrovit." If they are not available - drink mineral water, after releasing gas from the bottle. The home analogue of “Regidron” is also suitable - sweetened water with a pinch of salt (for one liter, 1 teaspoon of salt and 4–6 teaspoons of sugar).
  2. Drugs against infection. In order not to allow opportunistic intestinal microflora to roam, Enterofuril is taken. Antibiotics are not recommended to drink (doctors prescribe them only in 10% of cases of intestinal infections).
  3. If rotavirus or coronoviral enteritis is suspected, antiviral medications are taken - Tsitovir.
  4. Universal medicine for poisoning at the sea from tourists - "Smekta". It stops diarrhea, has softening properties and is an adsorbent - a substance that absorbs toxins. Analogs "Smekty", possessing only adsorbing action (in order of decreasing efficiency): "Polysorb MP", "Enterosgel", "Polyphepan", activated carbon. It is necessary to accept them in breaks between other medicines.
  5. Antipyretic drugs are drunk at temperatures above 38.5 ° C. Remember that children should not be given aspirin, they need a paracetamol or analgin medication. In order to reduce body temperature, you can wipe the baby with a wet towel. Well beats down heat rubbing with a solution of table vinegar (9%) - 1 part vinegar to 2 parts water.
  6. Drink plenty of fluids to restore fluid loss and speed up the elimination of toxins from the body.
  7. The first day - a hungry diet, then go to a sparing food: liquid porridge, wiped soups.

If a child is poisoned at sea, it is necessary to consult a doctor in the following cases:

  • child under three years old
  • signs of dehydration (loss of skin elasticity, sunken eyes, chapped lips, little urine),
  • jaundice,
  • dark urine
  • uncharacteristic signs (difficulty swallowing, respiratory failure, rash, swelling of the joints).

It is also necessary to consult a doctor and children, and adults, if vomiting does not pass within 24 hours.

Prevention of poisoning at sea

How to avoid poisoning at sea and other troubles, so as not to spoil your rest and keep yourself healthy? Be attentive to your well-being and avoid questionable situations:

  • take the necessary medicines with you to the sea trip in advance
  • don't be in the sun at the peak of heat
  • wear hats and light clothing,
  • wash all vegetables and fruits thoroughly
  • Do not eat salads,
  • If possible, use disposable or personalized dishes,
  • try to eat in the same dining room, and not in different,
  • in the heat try not to buy meat products
  • do not buy food from private sellers who carry it on the beach,
  • Watch the quality of drinking water - it is best to buy bottled water.

Let's sum up. When resting in the coastal areas, people often encounter such troubles as intestinal infections and poisoning. Characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, fever. Symptomatic treatment: the use of reducing fluids, enterosorbents, antipyretic drugs. It is recommended to follow a sparing diet. If signs of acute intestinal infection or poisoning with strong toxins appear, immediately consult a doctor.

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