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What is anemia and how to treat it?

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Diseases of the blood system occupy one of the first positions on the prevalence in the overall structure of the incidence. Among them, the undisputed leader is blood anemia. A clear sign of anemia is pale skin. A common cause of anemia is a lack of iron in the human body, which can be caused by frequent blood loss. In more detail what it is, what are the symptoms, types and methods of treatment of anemia, later in the article.

What is anemia

Anemia is a clinical and hematological syndrome, which is characterized by a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood, with a decrease in the number of red blood cells.

Anemia weakens the body's ability to exchange gas, reducing the number of red blood cells disrupts the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide. As a result, a person may experience such signs of anemia as a feeling of constant fatigue, loss of strength, drowsiness, and also increased irritability.

Severe forms of anemia due to tissue hypoxia can lead to serious complications, such as shock conditions (eg, hemorrhagic shock), hypotension, coronary or pulmonary insufficiency.

Hemoglobin values ​​in the framework of the allowable rate:

There are no few reasons that can lead to the development of anemia. As an independent disease, anemia rarely develops. Most often, the trigger for the emergence of this syndrome are various diseases of internal organs or adverse factors that affect the composition of the blood.

The basis of anemia is:

  1. Reducing the amount of hemoglobin
  2. Reducing the number of red blood cells (occurs in most cases),
  3. Signs of impaired blood supply to the tissues and their hypoxia (oxygen starvation).

Anemia is also dangerous because it often develops in combination with diseases that can lead to serious consequences. Such diseases, for example, include various kinds of inflammatory and infectious diseases, malignant tumors.

Severe blood loss can also be the cause of anemia. A large number of red blood cells can be lost with blood during prolonged or unnoticed bleeding. Such bleeding often occurs as a result of diseases of the gastrointestinal system, such as ulcers, hemorrhoids, gastritis (inflammation of the stomach) and cancer.

With a lack of oxygen, which is carried by the bloodstream, oxygen starvation can develop. This leads to the degeneration of tissues and organs.

Anemia can be caused by an insufficient amount of iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid in the body, and in rare cases, mainly in children, deficiency of vitamin C and pyridoxine. These substances are necessary for the formation of red blood cells in the body.

Symptoms of anemia

Anemia is a dangerous condition. It is insidious, as signs of iron deficiency do not appear immediately. At the initial stages, the body first uses internal reserves and will try to cope with the illness.

Symptoms of anemia are so versatile that they affect almost every functional system of the body. Their severity depends on the degree of decrease in hemoglobin level.

Therefore, the correct interpretation and comparison of the data available to the patient will make it possible to make a correct diagnosis even during the initial examination. Quite different is the case with the definition of a specific type of anemia and its causes.

According to generally accepted criteria, anemia in men indicates:

  • decrease in hemoglobin from 130 g / l,
  • the level of red blood cells is less than 4 * 1012 / l,
  • hematocrit is below 39%.

In women, these indicators are as follows:

  • hemoglobin below 120 g / l,
  • red blood cells less than 3.8 * 1012 g / l,
  • hematocrit - 36% and below.

Common symptoms of anemia include:

  • weakness, a significant decrease in performance,
  • fatigue, irritability, drowsiness for no apparent reason,
  • headaches, tinnitus, flickering "fly" before the eyes, dizziness,
  • dysuric disorders,
  • geophagy (irrepressible desire to eat chalk or lime),
  • shortness of breath with little physical exertion or at rest,
  • trophic disorders of hair, skin, nails,
  • pain in the heart area of ​​the type of angina,
  • fainting, tinnitus,
  • muscle weakness, body aches.

Explain what anemia is and what its signs in a person can be on the skeleton of a hair condition. When erythrocyte hemoglobin concentration decreases, hair loss is observed, nails become brittle.

In elderly patients suffering from coronary heart disease, with anemia, there is an increase in angina attacks, even after some physical exertion.

Symptoms of anemia can develop, both gradually and lightning. It all depends on the cause of its occurrence.

Types of anemia

Anemias can be caused by completely different reasons, so it is common to divide all anemias according to different signs, including the reasons that cause them.

All types of anemia in humans are divided into:

  • resulting from blood loss - post-hemorrhagic (acute and chronic),
  • developed as a result of violations of the creation of red blood cells or the construction of hemoglobin: iron deficiency, megaloblastic, sideroblastic, anemias of chronic diseases, aplastic,
  • caused by increased destruction of erythrocytes or hemoglobin - hemolytic.

  • tingling in hands and feet,
  • loss of sensation of limbs
  • gait disturbance,
  • muscle spasms.

  • general weakness in the body
  • dizziness and lethargy
  • characteristic headaches
  • shortness of breath and swelling of tissues
  • body discomfort

  • strong weakness
  • pain in the region of the heart,
  • dizziness
  • irregular heartbeat
  • bruises under the eyes
  • increased fatigue.

Common symptoms of anemia of all kinds are:

  • weakness,
  • dizziness, "flies" before the eyes,
  • palpitations, shortness of breath with habitual physical exertion,
  • one of the main symptoms of anemia is pallor of the skin and mucous membranes,
  • in older people - the occurrence or increase of angina attacks,
  • clinical symptom of anemia in women of reproductive age - menstrual disorders.

There are three degrees of anemia - mild, moderate and severe, depending on the hemoglobin and red blood cells. The lower the performance, the harder it will be and the shape of this disease state.

  1. Mild or anemia of 1 degree is characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin to 100-120 g / l. There are no symptoms at this stage. To increase hemoglobin, it is enough to eat right, eat as much as possible iron-containing foods.
  2. The average or 2 stage of anemia is accompanied by a decrease in hemoglobin to 70-80 g / l. During this period, the symptoms of anemia are quite pronounced. A person feels weakness, frequent headaches, dizziness. Drugs and proper nutrition will help to increase hemoglobin.
  3. Heavy, or stage 3 - life threatening. The amount of hemoglobin in the blood is below 70 g / l. At this stage, the patient feels an abnormality in the work of the heart, the general condition of the person is significantly deteriorated.

In addition to the severity of the disease, it is customary to single out:

  • relative anemia - often characterized during pregnancy or in the framework of significant blood loss, characterized by an increase in plasma in the blood,
  • absolute anemia - a noticeable decrease in the number of red blood cells and, as a result, a decrease in hemoglobin values.

Complications

The consequences of anemia can be quite serious, in some cases we can even talk about death. Most often, anemia causes such problems:

  • decrease in immunity and, as a result, an increase in ARVI diseases,
  • the appearance of neurological disorders and even deformations of the nervous system,
  • leg swelling,
  • enlarged liver and spleen,
  • pathologies of the heart and blood vessels, etc.

Diagnostics

Diagnosing anemia involves several important steps:

  1. Determining the type of anemia, that is, it is necessary to identify the mechanism that causes a decrease in the level of red blood cells and hemoglobin.
  2. Establishing the cause of the disease underlying anemia.
  3. Conducting laboratory tests, interpretation of the results obtained during the survey.

Comprehensive examination of pathology includes a number of laboratory tests:

  • General blood analysis. The blood is taken from the finger, the level of hemoglobin is determined.
  • Complete blood count. This test allows you to determine the average amount of hemoglobin in the blood cell and the number of reticulocytes. This makes it possible to judge the state of the bone marrow.
  • Blood chemistry. In this case, blood is taken from a vein. This study allows you to determine the blood levels of iron and bilirubin levels.
  • Additional studies aimed at studying the state of the gastrointestinal tract.

To detect anemia, you must pass a complete blood count. The main signs of anemia are deviations in such indicators:

  • hemoglobin in the blood does not reach 100 g / l,
  • red blood cells less than 4 * 1012 / l,
  • iron content in blood cells is less than 14.3 μmol / l.

If there are such abnormalities, more detailed blood tests are needed to identify a specific type of anemia.

Treatment of blood anemia

Anemia, caused by a decrease in erythrocyte production and arising from chronic diseases such as cancer, infections, arthritis, kidney disease and hypothyroidism, is often poorly expressed and does not require special treatment. Treatment of the underlying disease should also have a beneficial effect on anemia. In some cases, it is necessary to cancel the drugs that suppress blood formation - antibiotics or other chemotherapeutic agents.

Treatment of anemia depends on the cause of its occurrence:

  1. If a patient has one of the varieties of deficiency anemia, medications are prescribed that are high in iron and vitamins.
  2. With a large blood loss, when the problem is recently performed operations (including plastic), injuries and other causes, blood transfusion is recommended.
  3. In children, anemia can cause worms, then prescribed antiparasitic drugs.

Drugs for anemia should be taken only on prescription. So, an overdose of iron can lead to constipation, hemorrhoids, stomach ulcers. In a situation where the results of laboratory studies confirm the deficient form of anemia, the patient is assigned one of the following drugs:

The process of blood formation is most affected by: minerals:

  • iron, copper, zinc,
  • B vitamins,
  • vitamin C,
  • vitamins A, D, E.

Treatment should take place exclusively on the advice of a doctor; you should not engage in self-treatment, especially during pregnancy, when you can expose a mature child to additional risks. Only after examination, the doctor will be able to determine what caused the anemia.

Folk remedies for anemia

Treatment is allowed folk remedies. However, most of the popular recipes are reduced to the simple use of iron-containing vegetables and fruits. Changes in your diet should also be coordinated with your doctor. These products include red meat, legumes, egg yolk, wholegrain products, and more.

  1. With a strong loss of strength it is useful to take a tablespoon of garlic, cooked with honey before eating.
  2. A teaspoon of inflorescences of meadow clover (red clover) pour 1 glass of hot water, boil for 5 minutes, drain. Take 1 tablespoon 4-5 times a day.
  3. 6 g of the roots and herbs of dandelion medicinal pour a glass of water, boil for 10 minutes, insist 30 minutes, take a tablespoon 3 times daily before meals.
  4. This recipe is a great combination of taste and benefit. Every day before eating eat a small amount of grated carrots with the addition of sour cream.
  5. Rosehip, fruit. 5 tablespoons of chopped fruit per 1 liter of water. Boil for 10 minutes. Wrap up for the night. Drink like tea at any time of day with anything. Perfectly cleanses the circulatory system, improves metabolism. The infusion is rich in vitamin “C” and is used for anemia, scurvy, kidney and bladder diseases, and a sick liver as a tonic.
  6. Infusion of the fruits of mountain ash is used as a multivitamin remedy for exhaustion and anemia. 2 teaspoons of fruit pour 2 cups boiling water, leave for 1 hour, add sugar to taste and drink for 3-4 doses during the day.
  7. Muesli is an additional source of iron. Morning breakfast with muesli contains biologically active substances that regularly accompany the iron molecules found on their way to the body. To improve the taste and value of such a quick breakfast, you can add fruits and nuts to your muesli.

Judging by the name of the disease, the patient needs correction of iron in the blood. It is necessary to take into account the interaction of iron-containing products with other components.

Useful products for anemia:

  1. meat, cream, butter - contain amino acids, proteins,
  2. Beets, carrots, beans, peas, lentils, corn, tomatoes, fish, liver, oatmeal, apricots, brewer's and baker's yeast - contain trace elements necessary for blood formation,
  3. green vegetables, salads and greens, breakfast cereals - contains a sufficient amount of folic acid,
  4. water from mineral springs with low-mineralized iron sulfate-hydrocarbon-magnesium composition of water, which contributes to the absorption of iron in an ionized form by the body (for example: mineral springs of the city of Uzhgorod),
  5. Iron-fortified foods (confectionery, bread, baby food, etc.)
  6. honey - promotes iron absorption
  7. plum juice - contains up to 3 mg of iron in one glass.

The menu is divided into 5 meals.

  • soft-boiled egg,
  • black sweet tea
  • 2 liver pate sandwiches.

2nd breakfast: apple or pear.

  • fresh vegetable salad, seasoned with vegetable oil,
  • soup with boiled meat
  • a piece of chicken with buckwheat side dish,
  • decoction of wild rose.

Lunch: diluted pomegranate juice.

  • boiled fish with potatoes
  • sweet tea with cookies.

Prevention

Prevention of certain types of anemia is very real. These are, first of all, iron deficiency types. Often this anemia occurs due to poor diet and poor lifestyle choices. Therefore, it can be prevented by following the principles:

  1. Healthy lifestyle,
  2. Periodic medical examinations,
  3. Early treatment of chronic pathology,
  4. In order to prevent the development of anemia, foods rich in iron (whole grain bread, beans, green vegetables, lettuce, greens, red lean meat) should be included in the diet.

General characteristics of the state and its danger

Anemia is a symptom of pathological processes in the body, accompanied by a decrease in the level of red blood cells and hemoglobin content per unit volume of blood.

With this pathology in the face of reduced red blood cells and hemoglobin, the transport function of the blood decreases. This leads to hypoxia - a condition in which the tissues of the body are deficient in oxygen. Such deviations are fraught with metabolic disturbances - the process of feeding the tissues and organs is disturbed, and degenerative changes develop.

All of these changes are associated with the disruption of the functioning of red blood cells: these cells provide oxygen and carbon dioxide. The erythrocyte cavity is filled with protein and hemoglobin, in the composition of which iron is present. It is hemoglobin that allows you to capture oxygen and enrich blood cells with it, which move through large vessels and small arteries to each organ.

Anemia can be caused by various pathologies - infectious diseases, benign and malignant tumor processes.

A characteristic feature of this deviation is a variety of symptoms that appear at the level of almost all functional systems of the body. The severity of signs of anemia depends on how low the hemoglobin level is.

In pregnant women, anemia can trigger placental abruption, premature birth or miscarriage. Hypoxia in the process of gestation can affect the condition of the fetus, causing a disturbance in the process of intrauterine organ formation.

Degrees of severity

Depending on the concentration of hemoglobin, it is customary to distinguish three degrees of severity of anemia:

  • grade 1 anemia is registered when the hemoglobin level decreases by more than 20% of the normal rate,
  • grade 2 anemia is characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin content by about 20–40% of the normal level,
  • Grade 3 anemia is the most severe form of the disease when hemoglobin decreases by more than 40% of the normal rate.

Definitely show that the patient has a grade 1 or a more severe stage can only be a blood test.

What it is: anemia, that is, anemia, is nothing more than a lack of hemoglobin in the blood. Namely, hemoglobin carries oxygen through all tissues of the body. That is, anemia is caused precisely by the lack of oxygen in the cells of all organs and systems.

  1. The nature of power. При недостаточном употреблении железосодержащих продуктов питания может развиться железодефицитная анемия, это более характерном для групп населения, где уже имеется высокий уровень алиментарной анемии,
  2. Нарушение в работе ЖКТ (при нарушениях процесса всасывания). Since the absorption of iron occurs in the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine, in violation of the process of absorption, the mucous membrane of the digestive tract, the disease develops.
  3. Chronic hemorrhage (gastrointestinal bleeding, nosebleeds, hemoptysis, hematuria, uterine bleeding). Belongs to one of the most important causes of iron deficiency.

Thus, the cause of anemia can be considered a lack of iron in the body, which entails a lack of hemoglobin and, as a result, an insufficient supply of blood to the body.

Iron-deficiency anemia

The most common form of anemia. It is based on a violation of the synthesis of hemoglobin (oxygen carrier) due to iron deficiency. It is manifested by vertigo, tinnitus, flashing flies before the eyes, shortness of breath, palpitations. Dry skin, pallor, marked in the corners of the mouth appear jammed, cracks. Typical manifestations are brittleness and lamination of nails, their pepper striation.

Aplastic anemia

This is often acquired acute, subacute or chronic disease of the blood system, which is based on a violation of the hematopoietic function of the bone marrow, namely a sharp decline in its ability to produce blood cells.

Sometimes aplastic anemia begins acutely and develops rapidly. But more often the disease occurs gradually and does not manifest itself as bright symptoms for quite a long time. The symptoms of aplastic anemia include all the symptoms characteristic of a lack of red blood cells, platelets and leukocytes in the blood.

B12 deficiency anemia

Occurs when there is a deficiency in the body of vitamin B12, which is necessary for the growth and maturation of red blood cells in the bone marrow, as well as for the proper functioning of the nervous system. For this reason, one of the distinguishing symptoms of B12-deficient anemia is tingling and numbness in the fingers, a wobbly gait.

Erythrocytes of a special enlarged form are found in the blood. Lack of vitamin B12 can be observed in the elderly, in diseases of the digestive tract, in the presence of parasites - tapeworms.

Hemolytic anemia

Hemolysis occurs under the influence of antibodies. These may be maternal antibodies directed against the erythrocytes of the child with the incompatibility of the child and the mother for the Rh antigen and much less often for the antigens of the ABO system. Antibodies against own erythrocytes can be active at normal temperature or only when cooled.

They can appear for no apparent reason or due to the fixation on the erythrocytes alien to the body incomplete hapten antigens.

We list the main signs of anemia that may alarm a person.

  • pallor of the skin,
  • increased heart rate and breathing
  • fast fatiguability,
  • headache,
  • dizziness,
  • noise in ears,
  • spots in the eyes
  • muscle weakness
  • difficulty concentrating
  • irritability,
  • lethargy,
  • a slight increase in temperature.

Iron preparations for anemia

Iron preparations for anemia are much more effective. The absorption of this trace element in the digestive tract of iron preparations is 15-20 times higher than that of food.

This allows you to effectively use iron supplements for anemia: to quickly raise hemoglobin, restore iron stores, eliminate general weakness, fatigue and other symptoms.

  1. Ferretab composite (0154 g of iron fumarate and 0.0005 g of folic acid). Additionally desirable to receive ascorbic acid in a daily dose of 0.2-0.3 g).
  2. Sorbifer durules (0.32 g of ferrous sulfate and 0.06 g of vitamin C) is available in pills daily dosage, depending on the degree of anemia, 2-3 times a day.
  3. Totem - available in bottles of 10 milliliters, the content of elements is the same as in the sorbifer. It is applied inside, it can be diluted with water, it can be used in case of intolerance to tablets of iron. Daily dose 1-2 reception.
  4. Fenules (0.15 g, ferrous sulfate, 0.05 g of vitamin C, vitamins B2, V6.0.005 g of calcium pantothenate.
  5. Vitamin B12 in ampoules of 1 ml of 0.02% and 0.05%.
  6. Folic acid tablets 1 mg.
  7. Ampoule iron preparations for intramuscular and intravenous administration are sold only by prescription and require injections only in stationary conditions due to the high frequency of allergic reactions to these drugs.

Do not take iron supplements in conjunction with drugs that reduce their absorption: Levomycetin, Calcium preparations, Tetracyclines, Antacids. As a rule, iron preparations are prescribed before meals, if there is no vitamin C in the medicine, then an additional intake of ascorbic acid in a daily dose of 0.2-0.3 g is required.

For each patient, the daily need for iron is calculated, as well as the duration of the course of treatment, the absorption of a particular prescribed drug and the iron content in it are taken into account. Usually, long courses of treatment are prescribed, during 1.5-2 months, therapeutic doses are taken, and in the next 2-3 months - prophylactic doses.

Effects

Iron deficiency anemia, not cured at an early stage, can have serious consequences. Severe goes into heart failure, coupled with tachycardia, edema, low blood pressure. Sometimes people go to the hospital with a sharp loss of consciousness, the cause of which is anemia that is either not cured or not detected in time.

Therefore, if you suspect this ailment or are prone to low hemoglobin, then it is necessary to take a blood test every three months.

Classification of anemia

According to the mechanism of development

According to the pathogenesis, anemia can develop due to blood loss, impaired formation of red blood cells or due to their pronounced destruction.

According to the mechanism of development, there are:

  • anemia due to acute or chronic blood loss,
  • anemia due to impaired blood formation (for example, iron deficiency, aplastic, renal anemia, as well as B12 - and folic acid deficiency anemia),
  • anemia due to increased destruction of red blood cells (eg hereditary or autoimmune anemia).

Depending on the level of hemoglobin decrease, there are three degrees of severity of anemia. Normally, the hemoglobin level in men is 130-160 g / l, and in women 120-140 g / l.

There are the following severity of anemia:

  • mildin which there is a decrease in hemoglobin level relative to the norm up to 90 g / l,
  • medium degreeat which the hemoglobin level is 90 - 70 g / l,
  • severe degreein which the hemoglobin level is below 70 g / l.

By color

The color index is the degree of saturation of erythrocytes with hemoglobin. It is calculated based on the results of a blood test as follows. The number three must be multiplied by the hemoglobin index and divided by the red cell count (comma is removed).

Classification of anemia by color index:

  • hypochromic anemia (weak red blood cell coloration) color index less than 0.8,
  • normochromic anemia color index is 0.80 - 1.05,
  • hyperchromic anemia (red blood cells are overly stained) color index more than 1.05.

By morphological basis

With anemia, red blood cells can be observed in different sizes. Normally, the diameter of red blood cells should be from 7.2 to 8.0 microns (micrometer). The smaller size of red blood cells (microcytosis) can be observed with iron deficiency anemia. Normal size may be present with post-hemorrhagic anemia. Larger size (macrocytosis), in turn, may indicate anemia associated with a deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid.

Classification of anemia by morphological basis:

  • microcytic anemiain which the diameter of red blood cells is less than 7.0 microns,
  • normocytic anemiain which the diameter of red blood cells varies from 7.2 to 8.0 μm,
  • macrocytic anemiain which the diameter of red blood cells is more than 8.0 microns,
  • megalocytic anemiain which the size of red blood cells is more than 11 microns.

According to the bone marrow's ability to regenerate

Since the formation of red blood cells occurs in the red bone marrow, the main symptom of bone marrow regeneration is an increase in the level of reticulocytes (erythrocyte progenitors) in blood. Also, their level indicates how actively the formation of erythrocytes proceeds (erythropoiesis). In normal human blood, the number of reticulocytes should not exceed 1.2% of all erythrocytes.

According to the ability of the bone marrow to regenerate, the following forms are distinguished:

  • regenerator form characterized by normal bone marrow regeneration (the number of reticulocytes is 0.5 - 2%),
  • hyporegenerative form characterized by a reduced ability of the bone marrow to regenerate (reticulocyte count is below 0.5%),
  • hyperregenerator form characterized by a pronounced ability to regenerate (reticulocyte count is over two percent),
  • aplastic form characterized by a sharp suppression of regeneration processes (reticulocyte count less than 0.2%, or lack thereof).

Causes of anemia

There are three main reasons leading to the development of anemia:

  • blood loss (acute or chronic bleeding),
  • increased red blood cell destruction (hemolysis),
  • reduced red blood cell production.
It should also be noted that, depending on the type of anemia, its causes may differ.

Factors affecting the development of anemia

  • hemoglobinopathies (a change in the structure of hemoglobin occurs in thalassemia, sickle cell anemia),
  • Fanconi anemia (develops due to an existing defect in a cluster of proteins that are responsible for DNA repair),
  • enzymatic defects in red blood cells
  • cytoskeleton defects (cell frame located in the cytoplasm of the cella) red blood cell
  • congenital dyseritropoetic anemia (characterized by impaired red blood cell formation),
  • abetalipoproteinemia or Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome (characterized by a lack of beta-lipoprotein in the cells of the intestine, which leads to impaired absorption of nutrients),
  • hereditary spherocytosis or Minkowski-Chauffard disease (due to disruption of the cell membrane, red blood cells take a spherical shape).
  • iron deficiency
  • vitamin B12 deficiency,
  • folic acid deficiency
  • ascorbic acid deficiency (vitamin C),
  • fasting and malnutrition.

Chronic diseases and neoplasms

  • kidney disease (for example, liver tuberculosis, glomerulonephritis),
  • liver disease (eg hepatitis, cirrhosis),
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (eg, gastric and duodenal ulcer, atrophic gastritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease),
  • collagen vascular diseases (for example, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis),
  • benign and malignant tumors (for example, uterine fibroids, polyps in the intestines, cancer of the kidneys, lungs, intestines).
  • viral diseases (hepatitis, infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus),
  • bacterial diseases (pulmonary or renal tuberculosis, leptospirosis, obstructive bronchitis),
  • protozoal diseases (malaria, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis).

Toxic chemicals and medications

  • inorganic arsenic, benzene,
  • radiation,
  • cytostatics (chemotherapeutic drugs used to treat neoplastic diseases),
  • antibiotics
  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • antithyroid drugs (reduce the synthesis of thyroid hormones),
  • antiepileptic drugs.

Causes of iron deficiency anemia

Violation of iron in the body

  • vegetarianism due to the disuse of animal protein (meat, fish, eggs, dairy products),
  • socio-economic component (for example, not enough money for good nutrition).

Iron absorption disorder

Iron absorption occurs at the level of the gastric mucous membranes, which is why such diseases of the stomach as gastritis, peptic ulcer or resection of the stomach lead to impaired iron absorption.

Increased body's need for iron

  • pregnancy, including multiple pregnancy,
  • lactation period
  • adolescence (due to rapid growth),
  • chronic diseases with hypoxia (for example, chronic bronchitis, heart defects),
  • chronic suppurative diseases (for example, chronic abscesses, bronchiectasis, sepsis).

Iron loss from the body

  • pulmonary hemorrhage (for example, in lung cancer, tuberculosis),
  • gastrointestinal bleeding (for example, gastric and duodenal ulcer, stomach cancer, intestinal cancer, esophageal and rectal varicose veins, ulcerative colitis, helminthic invasions),
  • uterine bleeding (for example, premature placental abruption, rupture of the uterus, cancer of the uterus or cervix, interrupted ectopic pregnancy, uterine myoma),
  • renal bleeding (eg kidney cancer, kidney tuberculosis).

Treatment of iron deficiency anemia

Nutrition for anemia
In nutrition, iron is divided into:

  • heme, which enters the body with products of animal origin,
  • non-haem, which enters the body with products of plant origin.
It should be noted that heme iron is absorbed in the body much better than non-heme.

The amount of iron per hundred milligrams

Food
an animal
of origin

  • liver,
  • beef tongue
  • rabbit meat,
  • turkey,
  • goose meat
  • beef,
  • a fish.
  • 9 mg,
  • 5 mg,
  • 4.4 mg,
  • 4 mg,
  • 3 mg,
  • 2.8 mg,
  • 2.3 mg.

Foods of plant origin

  • dried mushrooms,
  • fresh peas
  • buckwheat,
  • Hercules,
  • fresh mushrooms,
  • apricots,
  • pear,
  • apples,
  • plums
  • cherries,
  • beet.
  • 35 mg,
  • 11.5 mg,
  • 7.8 mg
  • 7.8 mg
  • 5.2 mg,
  • 4.1 mg,
  • 2.3 mg,
  • 2.2 mg,
  • 2.1 mg,
  • 1.8 mg,
  • 1.4 mg.

If you follow the diet, you should also increase the intake of foods containing vitamin C, as well as meat protein (they increase the absorption of iron in the body) and reduce the consumption of eggs, salt, caffeine and calcium (they reduce the absorption of iron).

Drug treatment
When treating iron deficiency anemia, the patient is prescribed iron supplements in parallel with the diet. These medicines are designed to compensate for iron deficiency in the body. They are available in the form of capsules, dragees, injections, syrups and tablets.

The dose and duration of treatment is selected individually depending on the following indicators:

  • age of the patient
  • the severity of the disease
  • causes of iron deficiency anemia,
  • based on test results.
Iron supplements are taken one hour before meals or two hours after meals. These drugs can not drink tea or coffee, as well as reduced absorption of iron, so they are recommended to drink water or juice.

Take one gram three to four times a day.

Take one tablet per day, in the morning thirty minutes before meals.

Take one tablet one to two times a day.

These drugs are recommended to be prescribed together with vitamin C (one tablet once a day), since the latter increases the absorbability of iron.

Preparations of iron in the form of injections (intramuscular or intravenous) are used in the following cases:

  • with severe anemia,
  • if anemia progresses, despite taking iron doses in the form of tablets, capsules or syrup,
  • if the patient has gastrointestinal diseases (eg, gastric and duodenal ulcers, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease), as the iron supplement taken can aggravate the existing disease,
  • before surgery to accelerate the saturation of the body with iron,
  • if the patient has an intolerance to iron supplements when taken orally.
Surgery
Surgical intervention is performed when the patient has acute or chronic bleeding. For example, during gastrointestinal bleeding, fibrogastroduodenoscopy or colonoscopy can be used to identify the bleeding area and then stop it (for example, a bleeding polyp is removed, and a gastric and duodenal ulcer is coagulated). When uterine bleeding, as well as bleeding in the organs in the abdominal cavity, laparoscopy can be used.

If necessary, the patient can be assigned a red blood cell transfusion to fill the circulating blood volume.

B12 - deficiency anemia

This anemia is caused by a lack of vitamin B12 (and, possibly, folic acid). It is characterized by the megaloblastic type (increased number of megaloblasts, red blood cell progenitor cells) of the blood formation and is a hyperchromic anemia.

Normally, vitamin B12 enters the body with food. At the level of the stomach, B12 is associated with the protein produced in it, the gastromucoprotein (an internal Castle factor). This protein protects the vitamin in the body from the negative effects of intestinal microflora, and also contributes to its absorption.

The gastromucoprotein and vitamin B12 complex reaches the distal (lower part) of the small intestine, where this complex breaks down, the absorption of vitamin B12 into the intestinal mucous layer and its further entry into the blood.

From the bloodstream, this vitamin comes:

  • in the red bone marrow to participate in the synthesis of red blood cells,
  • to the liver where it is deposited,
  • into the central nervous system to synthesize the myelin sheath (covers the axons of the neurons).

Symptoms of B12-deficiency anemia

  • weakness,
  • increased fatigue
  • headache and dizziness,
  • pale skin with an icy tinge (due to liver damage),
  • noise in ears,
  • flashing flies before his eyes,
  • dyspnea,
  • heartbeat
  • with this anemia, an increase in blood pressure is observed,
  • tachycardia.
  • the tongue is shiny, bright red, the patient feels the burning of the tongue,
  • the presence of ulcers in the oral cavity (aphthous stomatitis),
  • loss of appetite or its decline,
  • feeling of heaviness in the stomach after eating,
  • weight loss,
  • there may be painful sensations in the rectal area,
  • violation of the chair (constipation),
  • enlarged liver (hepatomegaly).

These symptoms develop as a result of atrophic changes in the mucous layer of the mouth, stomach and intestines.

  • feeling weak in the legs (during long walking or when climbing up),
  • feeling of numbness and tingling in the limbs,
  • violation of peripheral sensitivity,
  • atrophic changes in the muscles of the lower extremities,
  • convulsions.

Treatment of B12-deficiency anemia

All patients are hospitalized in the hematology department, where they receive appropriate treatment.

Nutrition for B12-deficiency anemia
Diet therapy is prescribed, which increases the consumption of foods rich in vitamin B12.

The daily intake of vitamin B12 is three micrograms.

The amount of vitamin B12 per hundred milligrams

Drug treatment
Drug treatment is prescribed to the patient according to the following scheme:

  • For two weeks, the patient receives 1000 µg of cyanocobalamin intramuscularly daily. Within two weeks, the patient’s neurological symptoms disappear.
  • Over the next four to eight weeks, the patient receives 500 micrograms daily intramuscularly to saturate the depot of vitamin B12 in the body.
  • Subsequently, the patient receives intramuscular injections once a week for 500 µg for life.
During treatment simultaneously with Cyanocobalamin, the patient may be prescribed folic acid intake.

Patient B12-deficient anemia should be observed for life by a hematologist, a gastrologist and a family doctor.

Folic acid deficiency anemia

Folic acid deficiency anemia is a hyperchromic anemia characterized by a lack of folic acid in the body.

Folic acid (vitamin B9) is a water-soluble vitamin, which is partly produced by the intestinal cells, but mainly must be supplied externally in order to replenish the norms necessary for the organism. The daily intake of folic acid is 200 to 400 micrograms.

In food products, as well as in the cells of the body, folic acid is in the form of folates (polyglutamates).

Folic acid plays a large role in the human body:

  • participates in the development of the body in the prenatal period (contributes to the formation of the nerve conduction of tissues, the fetal blood system, prevents the development of certain malformations),
  • participates in the growth of the child (for example, in the first year of life, during puberty),
  • affects the blood,
  • together with vitamin B12 is involved in DNA synthesis,
  • prevents the formation of blood clots in the body,
  • improves the regeneration of organs and tissues,
  • involved in the renewal of tissues (eg, skin).
Absorption (absorption) of folates in the body is carried out in the duodenum and in the upper small intestine.

Symptoms of folic acid deficiency anemia

In case of folic deficiency anemia, the patient has an anemic syndrome (symptoms such as fatigue, palpitations, pale skin, decreased performance). Neurological syndrome, as well as atrophic changes of the mucous membrane of the mouth, stomach and intestines with this type of anemia are absent.

Also, the patient may experience an increase in the size of the spleen.

Treatment of folic acid deficiency anemia

Nutrition for folic deficiency anemia plays a big role, the patient needs to consume foods rich in folic acid every day.

It should be noted that with any culinary treatment of food folates are destroyed by approximately fifty percent or more. Therefore, to provide the body with the necessary daily requirement, it is recommended to use fresh foods (vegetables and fruits).

  • beef and chicken livers
  • pork liver
  • heart and kidney,
  • fat cottage cheese and cheese,
  • cod,
  • butter,
  • sour cream,
  • beef meat
  • rabbit meat,
  • chicken eggs,
  • hen,
  • mutton.
  • 240 mg,
  • 225 mg,
  • 56 mg,
  • 35 mg,
  • 11 mg,
  • 10 mg,
  • 8.5 mg,
  • 8,4,
  • 7.7 mg,
  • 7 mg,
  • 4.3 mg,
  • 4.1 mg,
  • asparagus,
  • peanut,
  • lentils
  • beans,
  • parsley,
  • spinach,
  • walnuts,
  • Wheat groats,
  • fresh white mushrooms,
  • buckwheat and barley groats,
  • wheat, grain bread,
  • eggplants,
  • scallions
  • Red pepper (sweet),
  • peas,
  • tomatoes,
  • White cabbage,
  • carrot,
  • oranges.
  • 262 mg
  • 240 mg,
  • 180 mg,
  • 160 mg,
  • 117 mg,
  • 80 mg,
  • 77 mg,
  • 40 mg,
  • 40 mg,
  • 32 mg,
  • 30 mg,
  • 18, 5 mg,
  • 18 mg,
  • 17 mg,
  • 16 mg,
  • 11 mg,
  • 10 mg,
  • 9 mg,
  • 5 mg.

Drug treatment of folic acid deficiency anemia involves taking folic acid in an amount of from five to fifteen milligrams per day. The required dosage is established by the attending physician, depending on the patient's age, the severity of the anemia and the results of the research.

The prophylactic dose includes taking one to five milligrams of vitamin a day.

Symptoms of aplastic anemia

Clinical manifestations of aplastic anemia depend on the severity of pancytopenia.

With aplastic anemia, the patient has the following symptoms:

  • pallor of the skin and mucous membranes,
  • headache,
  • cardiopalmus,
  • dyspnea,
  • increased fatigue
  • swelling in the legs,
  • gingival bleeding (due to a decrease in the level of platelets in the blood),
  • petechial rash (red spots on the skin of small sizes), bruises on the skin,
  • acute or chronic infections (due to a decrease in the level of leukocytes in the blood),
  • ulcerations of the oropharyngeal zone (the oral mucosa, tongue, cheeks, gums and throat are affected),
  • yellowness of the skin (a symptom of liver damage).

Treatment of aplastic anemia

With properly selected maintenance treatment, the condition of patients with aplastic anemia is significantly improved.

In the treatment of aplastic anemia, the patient is prescribed:

  • immunosuppressive drugs (eg, cyclosporin, methotrexate),
  • glucocorticosteroids (for example, Methylprednisolone),
  • anti-lymphocytic and anti-platelet immunoglobulins,
  • antimetabolites (for example, Fludarabine),
  • erythropoietin (stimulates the formation of red blood cells and stem cells).
Non-drug treatment includes:
  • bone marrow transplantation (from a compatible donor),
  • transfusion of blood components (erythrocytes, platelets),
  • plasma exchange (mechanical blood purification),
  • compliance with the rules of asepsis and antisepsis in order to prevent the development of infection.
Also, in case of severe aplastic anemia, the patient may need surgical treatment in which spleen is removed (splenectomy).

Depending on the effectiveness of the treatment in a patient with aplastic anemia can be observed:

  • complete remission (attenuation or complete disappearance of symptoms),
  • partial remission
  • clinical improvement
  • lack of effect of treatment.

  • hemoglobin index of more than one hundred grams per liter,
  • granulocyte index more than 1.5 x 10 to the ninth degree per liter,
  • platelet count over 100 x 10 to the ninth degree per liter,
  • no need for blood transfusions.
  • hemoglobin index of more than eighty grams per liter,
  • granulocyte index more than 0.5 x 10 to the ninth degree per liter,
  • platelet count more than 20 x 10 to the ninth degree per liter,
  • no need for blood transfusions.
  • improved blood counts
  • reducing the need for blood transfusions for two months or more.

Lack of therapeutic effect

  • no improvement in blood counts
  • There is a need for blood transfusions.

Causes of hemolytic anemia

Premature destruction of the red blood cell may be due to the following reasons:

  • internal erythrocyte membrane defects,
  • defects in the structure and protein synthesis of hemoglobin,
  • enzymatic defects in the erythrocyte,
  • hypersplenomegaly (enlargement of the liver and spleen).
Hereditary diseases can cause hemolysis as a result of abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane, enzymatic defects and abnormalities of hemoglobin.

The following hereditary hemolytic anemias exist:

  • enzymopathies (anemia, in which there is a lack of enzyme, deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase),
  • hereditary spherocytosis or Minkowski-Chauffard disease (erythrocytes of irregular spherical shape),
  • thalassemia (violation of the synthesis of polypeptide chains included in the structure of normal hemoglobin),
  • sickle cell anemia (a change in the structure of hemoglobin leads to the fact that red blood cells take a sickle shape).
Acquired causes of hemolytic anemia include immune and non-immune disorders.

Immune disorders are characterized by autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

Non-immune disorders can be caused by:

  • toxic chemicals (for example, pesticides, benzene),
  • drugs (for example, antiviral drugs, antibiotics),
  • physical damage
  • infections (eg malaria).
Hemolytic microangiopathic anemia leads to the production of fragmented erythrocytes and can be caused by:
  • defective artificial heart valve,
  • disseminated intravascular coagulation
  • hemolytic uremic syndrome,
  • thrombocytopenic purpura.

Symptoms of hemolytic anemia

The symptoms and manifestations of hemolytic anemia are varied and depend on the type of anemia, the degree of compensation, as well as on what kind of treatment the patient received.

It should be noted that hemolytic anemia can be asymptomatic, and hemolysis can be detected by chance during routine laboratory testing.

In hemolytic anemia, the following symptoms may occur:

  • pale skin and mucous membranes,
  • brittle nails,
  • tachycardia,
  • increased respiratory movements
  • lowering blood pressure
  • yellowness of the skin (due to increased levels of bilirubin),
  • there may be sores on the legs,
  • skin hyperpigmentation,
  • gastrointestinal manifestations (for example, abdominal pain, abnormal stool, nausea).
It should be noted that with intravascular hemolysis, the patient is deficient in iron due to chronic hemoglobinuria (the presence of hemoglobin in the urine). Due to oxygen starvation, heart function is impaired, which leads to the development of symptoms such as weakness, tachycardia, shortness of breath and angina pectoris in a patient (with severe anemia). Due to hemoglobinuria, the patient also has a dark urine.

Prolonged hemolysis can lead to the development of gallstones due to a violation of bilirubin metabolism. However, patients may complain of abdominal pain and bronze skin color.

Hemolytic anemia treatment

There are many types of hemolytic anemia, so treatment may differ depending on the cause of the anemia, as well as the type of hemolysis.

In the treatment of hemolytic anemia, the patient may be prescribed the following drugs:

  • Folic acid. A prophylactic dose of folic acid is prescribed, because active hemolysis may consume folate and subsequently lead to the development of megaloblastosis.
  • Glucocorticosteroids (for example, Prednisolone) and immunosuppressants (for example, Cyclophosphamide). These groups of drugs are prescribed for autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
  • Red cell transfusion. The patient is individually selected washed red blood cells, as there is a high risk of destruction of transfused blood.
Splenectomy
Splenectomy may be the initial option in the treatment of certain types of hemolytic anemia, such as, for example, hereditary spherocytosis. In other cases, such as for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, splenectomy is recommended when other treatments fail.

Iron therapy
In hemolytic anemia, the use of iron preparations in most cases is contraindicated. This is due to the fact that the level of iron does not decrease with this anemia. However, if the patient has constant hemoglobinuria, then there is a significant loss of iron from the body. Therefore, if an iron deficiency is detected, the patient can be given appropriate treatment.

Symptoms of post-hemorrhagic anemia

Manifestations of anemia will depend on the following factors:

  • how much blood was lost
  • how fast blood loss occurs.
Symptoms of post-hemorrhagic anemia are:
  • weakness,
  • dizziness,
  • pallor of the skin,
  • heartbeat
  • dyspnea,
  • nausea, vomiting,
  • hair section and brittle nails,
  • noise in ears,
  • flashing flies before his eyes,
  • thirst.
With acute blood loss, the patient may develop hemorrhagic shock.

There are four degrees of hemorrhagic shock.

Factors of anemia

Various forms of anemia can occur during pathological processes that cause blood loss, low levels of red blood cell production or their increased destruction. Such a deviation is the result of a number of factors, which include:

  • genetic pathologies (violation of the cell membrane, violation of the formation of red blood cells, changes in the structure of hemoglobin),
  • nutritional deficiencies due to starvation,
  • active growth of the body or its depletion,
  • state of pregnancy
  • deficiency of vitamins B12 and C, iron, folic acid,
  • mechanical effect on organs and tissues
  • thermal effects,
  • diseases of the liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract,
  • tumors of the internal organs of a malignant or benign nature,
  • diseases caused by bacteria and viruses
  • radiation exposure
  • poisoning with poisons, toxic substances,
  • antibiotics, chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of neoplastic diseases, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Different types of anemia occur for various reasons. For example, iron deficiency is the result of a lack of iron in the body, resulting from poor nutrition, impaired absorption of this element from the intestines, and pregnancy. Hemolytic anemia occurs with the rapid destruction of red blood cells, which is provoked by genetic and autoimmune diseases, chemical poisoning, taking certain medications.

Classification of anemia

There are several varieties of anemia, which are classified according to a certain criterion.

Depending on the cause of development, they distinguish the following types:

  • anemia caused by blood loss,
  • anemia caused by disturbed blood formation,
  • anemia resulting from the rapid destruction of red blood cells.

On the basis of severity, three degrees of anemia are distinguished:

  • easy
  • average
  • heavy

Depending on the reason that provoked the development of anemia, the following types of it are distinguished:

  • hemolytic, resulting from increased destruction of red blood cells,
  • iron deficiency caused by a lack of iron in the body,
  • post-hemorrhagic, which is caused by the loss of hemoglobin caused by bleeding,
  • hypoplastic, metaplastic and aplastic, provoked by insufficient production of red blood cells in the bone marrow,
  • megaloblastic, due to the violation of the synthesis of red blood cells,
  • mixed, which develops due to a combination of several pathological factors.

Ways to detect anemia

If anemia is suspected, a specialist collects anamnesis, conducts a medical examination, assigns tests and instrumental examinations.

The specialist, conducting the survey, specifies the data regarding the place of birth and residence of the patient, medication, the presence of a disease of internal organs, pathologies that are available to close relatives.

During the medical examination, the doctor examines the condition of the skin and mucous membranes, lymph nodes, reveals the presence of deviations in peripheral sensitivity, impaired pulse rate.

In addition, prescribe the following diagnostic studies:

  • Oak
  • blood chemistry,
  • stool examination to detect bleeding in the digestive tract,
  • red bone marrow puncture to assess cellular elements,
  • X-ray examination of the lungs
  • CT scan
  • Ultrasound.

Instrumental and laboratory diagnostic methods allow to identify diseases that could be the impetus for the development of anemia. Read more about blood tests for anemia - read here.

Traditional medicine

With anemia, patients often resort to the use of folk remedies. It should be borne in mind that such a method, although they can raise the level of hemoglobin, but will not help in the treatment of the underlying disease that provoked anemia.

  • One of the ways in which hemoglobin can be increased is to prepare and receive rosehip infusion. You need to take a tablespoon of fresh fruit and pour 200 ml of boiling water, then pour the liquid into a thermos and insist for 8 hours. It is recommended to take such a drink three times a day, instead of tea.
  • Vegetable juice is another remedy that helps to cope with anemia.You need to take 1 carrot, beet and black radish in the raw, peel and grate the vegetables on a fine grater, squeeze the juice. All liquids mix, pour them into a container and put in the oven. To simmer the juice mixture for 3 hours. When the medicine is ready, cool and take. Adults drink a tablespoon of juice three times a day, children take tea.
  • Rich vitamin mixture consisting of honey, dried apricots, lemons, walnuts, prunes, cranberries and raisins. Honey is taken in the amount of 200 g, the remaining components are random, in equal parts (for example, 100 g each). Dried fruits, lemon and berries are crushed, poured honey. Use 1 tablespoon of the mixture several times a day.
  • When anemia is useful to use garlic and various tools based on it. One of the effective recipes is garlic alcohol tincture. For its preparation, you need to take 300 g of peeled and chopped garlic, pour it with a liter of alcohol. The mixture must be prepared in a glass container. Infusion time - 20 days. After the tool is ready, you need to start a course of treatment, taking from 3 to 4 dessert spoons of the tool per day. Tincture need to drink a small amount of milk.

Diet for anemia

In the process of eliminating the symptoms of anemia, the diet of the patient is important. Diet for anemia involves eating foods that are rich in iron. These include:

You should also eat more foods that are rich in vitamin C - it is necessary for the absorption of iron. It:

  • oranges,
  • grapefruit,
  • Strawberry,
  • Bulgarian pepper
  • kiwi,
  • greenery,
  • broccoli.

In case of anemia, it is necessary to limit fat intake to 70-80 grams per day, because with this deviation, fats inhibit blood formation.

It is also recommended to limit the consumption of tea and coffee, products containing calcium (mainly dairy products), whole-grain products that can slow down the absorption of iron.

Prognosis and possible complications of pathology

The prognosis for anemia depends on the form of the pathology, the degree of its development, and the general condition of the patient.

Iron deficiency anemia can be complicated by:

  • reduced immunity
  • heart failure
  • exacerbation of the course of already existing diseases,
  • condition of hypoxic coma,
  • delayed growth and mental development in children (see iron deficiency anemia in children),
  • premature delivery risk in pregnant women.

This type of anemia is treatable. If time does not begin therapy, the disease will progress further.

When aplastic anemia are often observed such complications as:

  • frequent infectious diseases
  • skin diseases
  • infections of the genitourinary system
  • hemorrhagic syndrome
  • anemic coma - complete loss of consciousness caused by oxygen starvation of the brain,
  • violations of the gastrointestinal tract, heart, kidney, liver.

With this form of anemia, the prognosis in most cases is disappointing. Recovery is observed only in those cases if the patient is young and the disease is not too pronounced. If anemia was started, the disease becomes irreversible and leads to death.

In hemolytic anemia, complications are an increase in the symptoms of jaundice, the appearance of trophic ulcers on the lower limbs. In severe cases, the disease can lead to disability. In rare cases, this form of anemia leads to patient death caused by severe anemia, spleen infarction.

Is it possible to prevent the development of anemia?

Prevent anemia can, if you follow the preventive rules:

  • timely treatment for helminthic invasions, since intestinal parasites often lead to anemia,
  • eat well, ensure that the diet contains all the necessary for the full functioning of the body vitamins and minerals,
  • do not delay the treatment of diseases of the stomach - they affect the absorbability of vitamins and minerals,
  • exercise (physical activity, even moderate, has a beneficial effect on blood circulation and increases the number of red blood cells),
  • stop smoking (substances contained in cigarettes have a negative effect on the state of blood vessels and affect the blood composition),
  • limit contact with toxic chemicals that negatively affect functional blood units,
  • pregnant women should eat right, eating foods with iron content (if necessary, the doctor may prescribe a dose of prophylactic doses of drugs containing iron),
  • to organize the nutrition and mode of the child, starting from an early age.

Anemia Video

You can hear the opinion of the therapist about anemia and get more useful information about this pathology from this video:

Anemia is a pathological phenomenon that indicates deviations in the functioning of the body. The sooner anemia is detected, the greater the chances of recovery. In order to prevent the development of anemia, it is important to properly organize the diet and the regime of activity and rest, in time to treat existing diseases and play sports.

Anemia - Symptoms

The severity of the disease depends on its specific type. In most cases, anemic syndrome is discovered by chance during laboratory tests of a patient’s blood. Regarding the asymptomatic anemia, it can be said that this fact is caused by the tendency of patients to write off the manifestations of low hemoglobin as a change in weather, fatigue and other provoking factors, unaware of the true causes of their occurrence. As a result, the reader needs to pay close attention to the following general signs of anemia:

  • fatigue
  • decrease in motor activity
  • dizziness,
  • irritability,
  • constantly cold limbs
  • headache,
  • drowsiness,
  • hair loss,
  • body aches.

Signs of anemia in children

Normal levels of hemoglobin in the blood contributes to the active growth and development of the child. With a lack of this protein, children experience multiple unpleasant syndromes. Thus, the child’s nervous system deserves special attention. The brain in the conditions of anemia is experiencing hypoxia, against which the young patients often develop hypotrophy, delayed psychomotor development. On the part of the gastrointestinal tract can also be observed negative effects in the form of constipation or diarrhea. In addition, the symptoms of anemia in children often manifest as:

  • hypotension,
  • tearfulness
  • pallor of ear lobes,
  • flatulence
  • reduced appetite
  • cracks in the palms,
  • fainting.

Anemia - causes

Anemia develops due to the negative impact of many factors. The study of the latter should be based on a clear understanding of the issue. If anemia is supposed - what it is, be sure to know. Medical sources under this disease understand the group of clinico-hematological syndromes, a common point for which is a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood. An insufficient level of iron-containing protein may have the following etiology:

  1. increased destruction of red blood cells
  2. bleeding
  3. insufficient red blood cell production.

Causes of anemia in women - this is heavy menstruation, and postpartum hemorrhage. An important role in the development of anemia is also played by long-term breastfeeding of the child. Nevertheless, some experts do not recommend that pregnant and lactating women take synthetic vitamins and nutrients. It is also taken into account that artificial macro- and microelements with low hemoglobin are poorly absorbed.

Pernicious anemia

This kind of pathology occurs due to lack of vitamin B12 (folic acid). Pernicious anemia, or hyperchromic anemia, like other deficient forms of the disease (for example, macrocytic) develops due to malnutrition. A balanced diet in the normal situation solves the problem of the lack of certain nutrients. Mostly pernicious anemia is diagnosed in patients over 60 years of age.

Sickle Anemia

Anemia of this type refers to congenital ailments inherited. Sickle anemia of a hyporegenerative nature occurs when hemoglobin acquires an S-shaped crystalline cell structure. Erythrocytes carrying such an iron-containing substance have a different form than the normal one, which makes it difficult for them to move actively through the small vessels (capillaries) of the bloodstream.

The degree of anemia in hemoglobin

A decrease in the concentration of the protein responsible for the transport of oxygen in the blood can be manifested by various symptoms. Minor deviations from the norm are rarely accompanied by any negative states. If the hemoglobin level falls below 90 g / l, the patient begins to develop anemia symptoms. The severity of hemoglobin anemia can be represented by the following table:

Classification of pathology depending on its severity

Hemoglobin concentration (g / l)

What is dangerous anemia

Most of the population suffers from deficient (microcytic) forms of anemia. Responding to a question from patients about the danger of iron deficiency anemia, doctors warn that with a severe degree of the disease, the risk of serious complications increases. Chronic iron deficiency in the body leads to a significant decrease in hemoglobin levels. In addition, the lack of this nutrient does not support the process of gas exchange. As a result, the internal organs of a person experience hypoxia, which can lead to coma.

Laboratory diagnosis of anemia

Pathology detection is performed through a general blood test. This laboratory study allows to determine the level of hemoglobin and hematocrit. In addition, a blood test for anemia shows the ratio of the formed elements. In this case, special attention is paid to the volume of red blood cells. If there are suspicions of deficient types of anemia, biochemical blood tests are prescribed for patients.

Anemia - treatment

Therapy of the disease is carried out taking into account the cause of its occurrence. Deficient forms of anemia require the appointment of iron and vitamins. Treatment for anemia resulting from acute post-hemorrhagic syndrome is carried out by urgent blood transfusion. Patients with slightly lower hemoglobin doctors usually advise to revise the diet in the direction of increasing the consumption of protein products.

Iron preparations for the treatment of anemia

Severe hypochromic anemia is eliminated by prescribing medication to a patient. Iron deficiency is compensated by the use of special medicines in which this nutrient is in a bioavailable form. Drugs for anemia should be taken only on prescription. So, an overdose of iron can lead to constipation, hemorrhoids, stomach ulcers. In a situation where the results of laboratory studies confirm the deficient form of anemia, the patient is assigned one of the following drugs:

Vitamins for anemia

Anemia develops on the background of a violation of the synthesis or lack of necessary substances for the body. Thus, it is possible to cure deficient forms of anemia by taking synthetic macro- and microelements. It is important to draw the reader’s attention to the fact that vitamins for anemia should only be ingested in a bioavailable form. The process of blood formation is most affected by:

  • minerals: iron, copper, zinc,
  • B vitamins,
  • vitamin C,
  • vitamins A, D, E.

Treatment of anemia with folk remedies

The experience of the older generation has often helped patients cope with the most severe forms of anemia. Drugs have a mass of side effects, which often overlap the positive properties of the drug. Natural compounds, in contrast, help to increase hemoglobin without any negative effects. The only contraindication to the use of a prescription for anemia is the presence of an allergy to its components. So, treatment of anemia with folk remedies may involve the use of:

  1. This strawberry. Dry berries need to pour a glass of boiling water and leave under the lid for 3-4 hours. Freshly prepared filtered infusion with anemia is used at a time.
  2. Tea from wild rose and chokeberry. An equal amount of dry ingredients is mixed and placed in glass or enamel ware. Next, the vegetable components are poured boiling water and infused for about half an hour. Increase hemoglobin in this tea should be several times a day.

What to eat for anemia

Great importance in overcoming the deficient states that provoke anemia, is given to a balanced diet. Lack of iron and other nutrients develops due to the presence of improperly shaped gastronomic preferences. It is known that sugar, coffee and tea provoke anemia due to their negative impact on the absorption of many of the elements necessary for a person. Nutrition for anemia in adults must include:

  • fatty fish
  • eggs,
  • beef
  • liver,
  • dried fruits.

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