Pancreatitis never passes without a trace. Once having allowed the development of the disease, the patient will constantly have to adhere to a certain framework. But this is not a sentence. Taking a qualified treatment and observing the prescribed diet, you can fully live and avoid complications. If you run pancreatitis, the consequences are unpredictable. Up to lethal. What is the recommended diet for pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)?
In search of information on this topic, users often use the erroneous wording: “a diet for pancreatitis of the pancreas.” However, this is incorrect. The correct name of the disease consists of one word - “pancreatitis”. What is translated from Latin as "inflammation of the pancreas."
The pancreas is one of the digestive organs. Its weight does not exceed 80 g, but its role in ensuring the vital activity of the human body is incommensurable. No other body is even partially able to "replace" the pancreas.
It can be compared with a secret laboratory for the production of digestive enzymes and hormones. And any invasion of this "object" is fraught. We talked in more detail about the problems of pancreatitis with a member of the International Club of Pancreatology, a gastroenterologist Andrei Naletov.
Why pancreatitis is dangerous
The pancreas synthesizes enzymes, without which the body can not digest food. The body also produces the hormones insulin and glucagon necessary for the body. They are commonly known as hormones responsible for maintaining the necessary concentration of glucose in the blood. But their functions are much wider: insulin and glucagon have a multifaceted effect on metabolic processes in almost all tissues of the human body.
When the pancreas works without failures, it instantly reacts to food intake in the body. Man eats, and iron prepares for digestion, the food eaten. Intensive digestion of the digestive juice begins, which the pancreas takes along its duct to the duodenum.
Problems arise if an obstacle appears in the way of removing enzymes. Then the outflow of enzymes intended for the breakdown of nutrients is disturbed. What is the result? Inflammation, swelling, tissue damage.
Drunkenness, overeating and other causes of illness
“You’ve already drunk your cistern,” doctors say to patients with a diagnosis of pancreatitis, categorically prohibiting the slightest use of alcohol. It is regular “one hundred grams” for a high-calorie, fatty snack in 50% of cases that cause the development of this ailment. Why?
To digest alcohol, more enzymes are needed. Pancreatic juice is obtained saturated, concentrated and can "work" before, not reaching the intestine.
In addition, alcohol alone causes a spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. This is a kind of valve that regulates the process of pancreatic juice in the duodenum. In this case, the digestive juice seems to fall into a trap - it is blocked in the ducts. Increases the pressure at which the enzymes are in the surrounding tissues, starting to digest them. Intoxication of the body develops. A variety of organs are affected, including the brain and heart.
Other common causes of the disease.
- Stones in the gallbladder. In 20% of patients, pancreatitis is diagnosed as a complication after cholelithiasis. Stones of the gallbladder can prevent the outflow of pancreatic secretions.
- Obesity. Another 20% of patients with pancreatitis is associated with obesity.
- Injuries. About 5% of patients with pancreatitis are people who have injured a stomach. For example, a strong blow, injury or surgery on organs located in the abdominal cavity.
- Diseases of the digestive system. Pancreatitis can develop on the background of gastritis, peptic ulcer, liver disease. Therefore, it is so important to always respond to the slightest indisposition in the abdomen, and seek qualified help.
- Uncontrolled appetite. Especially increases the risk of pancreatitis, if lean on fat and fried. It turns out the same principle overloading the body, which provokes and alcohol. So, changes in nutrition are important not only in the treatment of pancreatitis. A healthy diet is an important preventive measure. It is not by chance that physicians note an increase in the number of patients with pancreatitis during the New Year holidays. By tradition, people gather for magnificent feasts and cannot stop until the “basin” of Olivier and the “bucket” of champagne are empty. Even more dangerous situations develop on Easter days. After the end of Lent and prolonged food restrictions, a generous break-in with shish-kebabs takes place.
Some drugs are also capable of provoking pancreatitis. For example, hormonal drugs for prolonged use. Pancreatitis develops as a complication after viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections. Lead to pancreatitis can poisoning - food, alcohol, chemical. Some patients have a genetic predisposition to the pathology of the digestive system, including pancreatitis.
The nature of the disease and its symptoms
In the case of acute pancreatitis, there is a chance that the pancreas will return to a relatively normal functional mode. But provided that the patient promptly asked for help. But in chronic form, the disease leads to a gradual, irreversible decrease in organ function. And then the disease remains with the patient forever: periodically takes a "time out", and then returns to relapses in the form of exacerbation. Acute pancreatitis may eventually become chronic.
Acute pancreatitis is a sudden and rapidly increasing inflammation of the pancreas. The patient requires immediate medical attention. Even hospitalization in the intensive care or surgical department is possible. Self-treatment is unacceptable, since in 15% of patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, the disease can be fatal. The symptoms are bright, you will not ignore them.
What happens to the patient:
- pain in the abdomen, which is localized just above the navel, more to the left, encircling,
- vomiting that does not bring relief
- increased heart rate
- flatulence (bloating),
- the stool becomes fatty, the food goes undigested.
Chronic pancreatitis has been able to remain outside of the patient’s history for decades. The disease in this form during remission (outside the period of exacerbations) does not produce severe symptoms. At the first stages, a person with such a diagnosis feels discomfort after eating, especially if he has allowed himself something harmful.
Nausea, bloating, diarrhea are possible. But the patient does not associate these unpleasant sensations with a malfunction in the pancreas. And after the attack continues, live as he lived and eat as he ate. Meanwhile, the disease progresses, and the pancreatic tissue gradually necrotic, die. And instead of a functioning organ tissue, connective tissue grows.
And here certain clinical symptoms are manifested:
- pain in the abdomen, in some cases without clear localization,
- nausea, loss of appetite,
- loose stools, sometimes with drops of fat,
- increased gas formation,
- increased fatigue
- pale and dry skin
- dramatic weight loss, although a person may not adhere to any food restrictions.
Diet for pancreatitis: 5 stages
Pancreatitis treatment requires an integrated approach. And it is not only about medical methods. With complications, surgery is possible. But in any case, a patient with a diagnosis of pancreatitis must adhere to therapeutic nutrition. The fact that you can and can not eat with pancreatitis, says Andrei Naletov.
Andrei Vasilyevich said that the medical diet of a patient with a diagnosis of pancreatitis is prescribed depending on the form of the disease and the characteristics of its course. For example, a diet with exacerbation of pancreatitis first generally provides for the rejection of food. It is important to stop the intense synthesis of enzymes, reduce inflammation.
The doctor stresses that in case of pancreatitis it is important to remove products that stimulate the secretion of food glands from the menu. These are coffee, chocolate, strong tea, rich broths from meat and fish, mushroom soups. Foods rich in coarse fiber are also excluded. Fatty foods will also provoke the persistence of pancreatitis symptoms and disease progression.
The doctor identifies five main stages of a change in the patient's diet in acute pancreatitis or exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis.
- Hunger. It is indicated for patients with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in the presence of severe pain syndrome and signs of intoxication. Hunger for such a patient is prescribed in a hospital for up to three days. Prohibited any food. Only frequent drinking in small portions is permissible. Most preferably alkaline water without gas. But hunger should not be long. Otherwise, the process of decomposition of its own energy resources and tissues is launched, the immunity and function of the gastrointestinal tract are reduced.
- Intravenous nutrition. Against the background of the restriction of food intake through the mouth, the patient is prescribed parenteral nutrition. It is administered intravenously. In this case, nutrients enter the body bypassing the gastrointestinal tract.
- Special blends. As the dyspeptic disorders disappear in a patient, he is transferred to the next stage of the diet - enteral nutrition. Namely: feed mixtures through a probe.
- Diet number 5p. It is prescribed after mixtures with acute pancreatitis and with exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis. In acute pancreatitis, this can occur on the fifth or sixth day. And with exacerbation of chronic - from the second or third day. The diet is designed specifically for the needs of people suffering from pancreatitis. In the diet of the table number 5P emphasis is placed on protein food, but the amount of fat and carbohydrates is minimized. Such nutrition during pancreatitis, among other things, reduces the load on the liver and gall bladder. Patients adhere to the specified diet within a week.
- Diet number 5. Table No. 5 is prescribed to patients during periods of acute pancreatitis and chronic remission. It is also prescribed for cholecystitis, gastritis and ulcers. In terms of product range, this diet is similar to table number 5p, but here more carbohydrates appear and you can already eat not only rubbed food. Make meat from meat and fish. Porridge is cooked with milk. You can have a little more sweet and sugar. Doctors advise to adhere to the recommendation of the diet number 5 for at least two to four months. And ideally - especially not to go beyond the rest of his life. Details of the rules diet table number 5 and a sample menu for the week are described in a separate article.
Diet rules number 5P and grocery table
The fifth table, labeled "p", is intended for food in acute pancreatitis and during the exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis, provides a special approach to cooking. Products must be heat treated. All dishes are cooked, cooked in a double boiler or in a water bath. Occasionally, baking is permissible.
At the same time, food should be eaten only in a shabby form. Even the first dishes. In order to achieve a mucous, liquid consistency, the food is ground with a blender or passed through a sieve with a metal base. Hot and cold is impossible. The permissible amount of salt is not more than 10 g per day. Sugar should be limited as much as possible to 30 g. In some cases, it is recommended to use a sugar substitute.
When planning meals for pancreatitis, you should focus on the list of products that recommends and categorically prohibits table number 5p. The table below describes the main food "can" and "can not" with pancreatitis.
Table - How to eat with pancreatitis: acute and exacerbation of chronic
Medical nutrition in chronic pancreatitis and cholecystitis
Pancreatitis is a problem with the pancreas, and cholecystitis is a disease of the gallbladder. Symptoms of these diseases are similar, and their diet is the same. Food for pancreatitis or cholecystitis depends on the stage of the disease. In chronic disease, the main goal to be achieved with nutrition is rest of the pancreas and gall bladder, so the diet provides for a complete rejection of:
When pancreatitis is in a chronic stage, doctors recommend the following foods to a patient:
- meat, fish steamed,
- vegetarian entrees,
- cereals and steamed vegetables,
- fruits with minimal acidity,
- cottage cheese,
- mineral water without gas, jelly.
Proper nutrition in acute pancreatitis or exacerbation of chronic
With the exacerbation of the chronic form of cholecystitis or pancreatitis for the first two days, starvation is indicated. It is allowed only to drink 5-6 times a day about 200 ml of alkaline mineral water or rosehip broth. If the exacerbation is too strong, then drinking is prohibited, and intravenous nutrition is administered. Two days later, next week, special nutrition is introduced for pancreatitis - diet number 5p, which includes several options. Sample diet menu number 5p:
- First breakfast: steam omelette without yolks, oatmeal, which should be rubbed, tea.
- Second breakfast: low-fat cottage cheese, rosehip decoction.
- Lunch: boiled meat, rice soup, wheat rusk, fruit jelly.
- Lunch: apples baked.
- Dinner: steamed carrot soufflé, boiled sea fish, tea.
- Dinner two: dogrose broth.
Features diet after an attack
Diet is the main way to treat pancreatitis, so after an attack, the patient is tested to check for pancreatic enzymes, and then, depending on their condition, the doctor prescribes a diet food. As the enzymes decrease, the diet expands and already on day 3 it is allowed to eat 4 to 6 times a day in small portions in order not to provoke a new attack of pancreatitis and not to overload the pancreas. The photo shows where the pancreas is:
What is shown after the attack?
- Boiled, baked, steamed food. Fish should be only low-fat varieties, such as sturgeon, carp, silver carp or catfish.
- From meat products choose low-fat varieties: chicken, rabbit, turkey, beef. Fatty meat irritates the abdominal cavity, causing pain.
- Drinking weak tea, fresh juices, kefir. But the juice must be diluted with water, so as not to provoke a new attack.
Dietary food after an attack of pancreatitis should be rich in proteins that the stomach needs, so doctors recommend adding products such as low-fat cottage cheese, a low-fat hard cheese, low-fat cheese, mashed potatoes, compotes, low-fat milk, yogurt to the daily diet. . The diet should be a lot of greens, fresh vegetables, fruits, a little sugar, salt. Such nutrition will allow the patient after an attack of pancreatitis to quickly enter into the usual rhythm of life.
Baby Food Mode for Pancreatitis
Although it is generally accepted that pancreatitis is an adult disease, children suffer from it at least. Gastroenterologists are sounding the alarm, and more and more often babies turn to doctors with chronic pancreatitis. Feeding a child with such a dangerous diagnosis combines two main postulates: food should be warm and feeding should be done in several stages. Meals should be gentle: reduce the amount of carbohydrates, and increase protein intake. It is desirable to give food to the child in the wiped look, especially at an exacerbation of pancreatitis.
Children with a disease should not be given:
- Fish, meat or mushroom broths.
- Canned food, marinades, spices.
- Fat, spicy, fried, smoked.
- Fresh fruits, sorrel, juices, berries.
- Products containing elevated protein.
- Carbonated drinks.
- Strong coffee, tea.
- Creamy, pasta.
- Fresh bread.
Children with pancreatitis are allowed:
- Low-fat dairy products.
- Milk diluted with water.
- Vegetable puree, soups.
- Oatmeal, buckwheat porridge.
- Omelette, steamed patties.
- Lean fish, meat.
In order to avoid the development of this dangerous disease, as a measure to prevent the onset of gastritis, a child needs to be trained to eat right from the first years of life, to avoid over-eating, to minimize the amount of sweets, soda, fast food, chips and other harmful foods. Regularly carry out the prevention of worms and follow the correct diet. What should be the diet of the child so that he does not have problems with the gall bladder, we learn from Dr. Komarovsky from the video below:
Foods that can be included in the diet
For pancreatitis or cholecystitis, the daily diet should contain:
- Carbohydrates, not more than 200 g.
- Fats, not more than 60 g, proteins 150 g, of which vegetable - 30%, and animals - 70%.
The main factor in the development of these diseases is unhealthy diet, so the diet should be followed not for 3-4 months, but for the rest of your life, in order not to provoke more serious illnesses. Питание должно быть дробным, то есть нужно кушать через каждые два или три часа маленькими порциями. Рекомендовано за сутки употребить не более 3 кг продуктов питания и не менее 2 литров воды.
Правильные продукты не только ослабят панкреатит, переведут его в стадию ремиссии, но и будут отличной мерой профилактики дальнейшего его развития. Foods that doctors recommend to include in the diet for pancreatitis:
- Herbal decoctions.
- Steamed vegetables.
- Low-fat dairy products.
- Non-acidic fruit.
- Liquid cereals: oatmeal, buckwheat, semolina, rice.
- Steam omelets from egg whites.
- Baked pears and apples.
- Unrefined vegetable oil.
- Natural yogurt without any additives, better cooked at home.
- Vegetable soups.
- Stale bread.
- Lean meat and fish.
Recipes diet for pancreatitis of the pancreas
If there is a certain imagination and desire, then it is easy to follow proper nutrition for pancreatitis. Especially now, when modern technologies have made life easier for us, and in stores, steamers, yogurt makers, multicookers and the rest of modern equipment for healthy nutrition are no longer a problem. For patients with chronic pancreatitis, delicious meat salads with vegetables, various puddings and souffles are relevant. We offer at your discretion a couple of simple tasty recipes:
- Pumpkin porridge is a healthy dish for pancreatitis.
For its preparation, you need to take a ripe, sweet pumpkin, cut off the peel, cut into large cubes and pour water in a saucepan so that it completely covers the vegetable. Boil the pumpkin for about 20 minutes, then add 7 tablespoons of washed rice, mix and cook until ready. Then in a pumpkin-rice porridge should add a glass of milk, bring to a boil. If you stir the porridge until a homogeneous mass, it will be very easy and tasty dish.
- Cauliflower puree soup is a tasty dish for pancreatitis.
It requires an average cauliflower, pre-disassembled into inflorescences, which are mixed with chopped onions and carrots. Vegetables are boiled in water and milk, mixed 1: 1 until cooked, and then whipped on a blender, salted a little, sprinkled with hard cheese, grated on a grater. Our tender soup is ready! Be healthy!
Principles of therapeutic nutrition in cholecystitis and pancreatitis
First of all, pancreatitis talks about problems with the pancreas. Cholecystitis, on the other hand, signals the disruption of the gallbladder. These diseases are the same in their symptoms and diet.
Food in chronic pancreatitis and cholecystitis directly depend on the stage of the disease.
For example, at a chronic stage the goal is pursued: peace of the gallbladder and pancreas. Summing up, it is worth listing that such a diet does not include:
- Salty, fried, smoked, spicy dishes
- Sausage products
- Canned food
Food for chronic pancreatitis, most doctors recommend the following:
- steamed fish and meat
- stewed vegetables and cereals
- vegetarian entrees
- cottage cheese
- fruits with minimal acidity
- Kissel and mineral still water.
What should be used after an attack?
- Baked and boiled dishes, as well as steam food. Fish is only low-fat: carp, silver carp, catfish or sturgeon.
- Lean meat: rabbit, veal, chicken and turkey. Fatty meat irritates the stomach, causing pain.
- You can drink fresh juices, weak tea or kefir. Juices should be diluted with water.
Diet after an attack of pancreatitis should be rich in protein, so doctors advise to enter into the diet one egg (1 time in 7 days), low-fat cottage cheese, hard cheeses, mashed potatoes, compotes, fruits, salt, sugar, yogurt, greens.
Meals with such products will provide an opportunity to quickly get in shape after an attack of pancreatitis.
How to eat with acute pancreatitis?
There are the following rules of nutrition in acute pancreatitis:
- In the first two or three days, it is strongly recommended to stop eating,
- After the stabilization of the state, it is necessary to restore a full meal, especially protein food, as early as possible.
- The gradual expansion of the diet and the amount of food intake,
- Saving intestines nutrition is required: non-irritating, not hot and not rough.
With suspected and likely diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, hunger is required for the first two or three days. Water is allowed to use in the amount of 1.0 - 1.7 liters per day. They recommend drinking weak tea, water at room temperature.
After a few days, you can proceed to the appointment of food, first in small quantities, and later in medium volume:
- Begin with liquid and semi-liquid mucous porridges, kissels, milk mashed soups, vegetable purees, which are chemically neutral, mechanically sparing.
- Food should be warm or room temperature, but by no means hot or cold.
- Eating should be fractional: about 5 - 7 times a day, in small portions.
- Food can be cooked or steamed.
- This diet is recommended to follow about 3 - 4 days.
- Then move to a more advanced menu, but the food should remain mechanically gentle.
- Reception of such sparing food should continue for another 3 to 8 weeks.
How to eat with chronic pancreatitis?
At a time when chronic pancreatitis is exacerbated, patients are fed on the same principles as nutrition in acute pancreatitis (see above). Chronic pancreatitis and diet 5 should become permanent companions, and even during the remission of pancreatitis, you should follow the Pevzner diet number 5, since this is a condition for long-term stabilization of the state.
The basic rules of nutrition in patients in remission:
- There is a sufficient amount of protein foods, and 60% should be animal protein. The amount of protein consumed 120 - 130 g / day.
- The amount of consumed daily fat should be no more than 60 - 80 g. This fat should be distributed to meals throughout the day.
- The proportion of carbohydrates should account for a large part of the daily diet: about 350 g / day. Carbohydrates can be replenished in the form of sweet fruits, sugar, honey, jam, various cereals.
- The caloric content of food is 2500 - 2800 kcal / day.
- The amount of salt is reduced to 6 g / day.
- Refuse to take alcoholic beverages.
- The list of approved products is gradually expanding, but not by many. The consistency basically changes: instead of mucous liquid porridges thick crumbly can be used, instead of semi-liquid soups, mashed potatoes, you can eat vegetarian soups. You can also eat macaroni, non-sharp cheese and cooked doctor sausage, a piece of boiled meat, vegetables, baked fish, and fruits.
- Food is taken fractionally 5 - 6 times / day in small portions.
- The food is steamed, boiled or in the oven.
- Food can not be cold (the temperature of food is not lower than 17 degrees Celsius) and hot (not more than 60 degrees Celsius), but should be warm.
What products can pancreatitis?
After 1 to 3 days of hunger, when the patient's condition improves slightly, you can begin to eat.
Food should not irritate the gastrointestinal tract, should not be rough, spicy, fried, oily, as well as cold and hot.
Gastroenterologists and nutritionists recommend resuming meals from pureed mucous porridges, dairy liquid soups, carrot puree, jelly. It is necessary to observe at a pancreatitis a diet № 5 according to Pevzner.
Pevzner table number five is prescribed to patients with liver diseases: cirrhosis of the liver and hepatitis, gall bladder: cholecystitis, as well as cholelithiasis.
In all cases, this diet table is prescribed outside the exacerbations of the disease or in the phase of unstable remission, as well as in the absence of active gastrointestinal diseases.
Table number 5 is modified and slightly modified for the treatment of pancreatitis and is called diet 5p.
Diet 5p should be divided into two types:
- For patients with acute pancreatitis and exacerbation of the chronic form,
- Diet number 5 for patients with chronic pancreatitis during remission of the disease.
Diet 5 p in case of pancreatitis, the first modification is prescribed from the 2nd - 3rd day from the attack of acute pancreatitis, exacerbation of chronic, when the medical hunger ends.
The principle of diet:
- Exclude products that have the property of enhancing pancreatic secretion,
- Exclude products that have an aggressive effect on the wall of the gastrointestinal tract,
- Exclude food that has a direct toxic effect on the pancreas,
- Exclude hard-to-digest food.
All dishes should be steamed or boiled, grilled after cooking, or turned into mashed potatoes using a blender, served in the form of heat. It is very important to eat every 2 hours in small portions 8 times a day.
What products are allowed to use:
- Cereals: semolina, rice, oatmeal, buckwheat - are used to make vegetarian cereals and soups. Porridge boiled on water or on water with milk, they must be in a semi-liquid state,
- White bread should be stale, preferably yesterday, crackers. Pasta is allowed,
- The meat must be consumed, but in the form of minced meat or soufflé, you can beat it up to a puree in a blender. Use lean meat: rabbit, chicken, veal, turkey, beef. First you need to clean the meat from tendons, fat,
- Milk can be consumed exclusively for cooking,
- Fish, low-fat: haddock, pike perch, cod, pollock, pike - steamed,
- Dairy products are low-fat and fresh: kefir, ryazhenka, yogurt. Without artificial colors and additives
- Butter: a small amount can be added to the prepared food (up to 5 g). It is advisable to exclude the use of this product to 14 days from the onset of the disease,
- Drinks: non-carbonated mineral water, dogrose broth, dried fruit compote, tea, lightly brewed, jelly,
- Vegetable puree: carrots, broccoli, cauliflower, pumpkin, potatoes, zucchini,
- Fruit purees: boiled or baked apples,
- Eggs are cooked in the form of an omelet, also steamed.
Diet 5p: second modification
This diet is prescribed during the period of remission of chronic pancreatitis. The purpose of this diet is to prolong the remission of the disease, exclude products that increase pancreatic secretion, and toxic to the pancreas.
And also an important point is the prevention of complications of chronic pancreatitis (namely, diabetes) by reducing carbohydrate intake, eliminating alcohol.
Food should be rich in vitamins, minerals, proteins.
They serve food in the form of heat, the principle of fractional feeding remains: meals about 5 times / day, the interval between them is about 4 hours. The volume of food should be at the time of one meal 550 - 600 grams.
At the beginning of treatment, the food must be crushed, then it is possible to eat in chunks, but be sure to chew carefully. You can stew and bake, as well as cook for a couple, boil.
What products are allowed:
- Cereals: allowed in the form of cereals and soups, semolina, rice, buckwheat, wheat and oat,
- Milk is allowed only for cooking,
- Low-fat meat: chicken, turkey, rabbit, beef, pork and lamb. It is advisable to remove the skin, tendons and fat,
- Fruits, berries: apples, watermelon, cantaloupe, cherry, plum, apricot - be sure to peel and seed.
- Dairy products: yogurt, yogurt, kefir, ryazhenka low-fat,
- Butter is allowed up to 20 g / day, vegetable oil - up to 15 g.
- Fish: herring, haddock, humpback, tuna,
- Vegetables: broccoli, potatoes, carrots, beets, eggplant, zucchini,
- Drinks: jelly, berry and vegetable, fruit fresh juices - always diluted, non-carbonated mineral water, weak tea, chicory, compotes, rosemary broth,
- Legumes are allowed: fresh peas and beans,
- Eggs: scrambled eggs and casseroles,
- Honey, jam, marshmallow, marmalade. With diabetes, these products are impossible.
Diet 5p excludes the use of the following products: alcohol, fatty meat and fish, meat and fish broth, condensed milk, chocolate, coffee, carbonated drinks, products containing dyes, preservatives, mushrooms, pickles and pickles, smoked meats, seasonings, fried food, meat by-products, vinegar, ice cream, kvass , cocoa, onion, garlic, lemon, grapefruit, sorrel, pastry, rye bread, bran bread, fresh wheat bread.
There is another diet that can be used for acute pancreatitis and, of course, exacerbation of the chronic variant of pancreatitis. Also, diet 5a is prescribed to patients with acute cholecystitis, with exacerbation of gallstone disease, with acute hepatitis, with liver cirrhosis.
This diet has a sparing effect on the mucous membrane of the stomach, duodenum. Diet 5a is physiological, as it is as close as possible to the normal composition of the diet of a healthy person: carbohydrates 350 g, fat 75 g, protein 80 g, salt up to 7 g per day. Calorie 2400 kcal per day. Food should be either baked or steamed, or boiled.
You can use: yesterday's stale wheat bread, crackers, oatmeal, semolina, rice, buckwheat, lean meat and fish: steam and boiled, low-fat fermented milk products, eggs in the form of a protein omelette, mashed potatoes, carrot, beetroot, ripe non-acidic soft fruits and berries, drinks : compotes, jellies, weak tea, juices from non-acidic fruit.
Are excluded food and drinks that cause fermentation and rotting in the intestines: kvass, beer, buns, fresh wheat bread, rye bread, bran bread, airan, brewer's yeast.
And also it is impossible fatty meat: duck and goose, legumes, processed cheese, curd cheese, cakes, pastries, cookies with filling, mushrooms, meat broths, animal fats: beef and mutton.
What are the signs determine
It is very important to detect the disease in time so that the chronic form does not occur. The acute form develops rapidly, having quite bright symptoms.
The patient's condition is deteriorating dramatically and there are signs such as:
- Excretion of vomitus with bile. In this case, the patient does not feel relief.
- Persistent nausea.
- Dry mouth.
- Bitter belching.
- Strong and sharp pain in the right hypochondrium. The location can sometimes shift. Everything will depend on the affected area. If the entire pancreas is covered, the pain may be shingles.
- Gastrointestinal dysfunction.
- White, non-removable plaque on the surface of the tongue.
- Temperature may rise.
- Increased sweating.
- Pallor of the skin.
- Blood pressure jumps.
When a person observes such symptoms in himself, he should immediately seek help from a specialist. In case of serious condition, an ambulance is called to the house.
Essence of the diet
As such, meals start from 3 days. This is enough to remove the peak exacerbation. In the early days should be therapeutic fasting. Allowed only to use the broth hips.
With this type of disease, diet No. 5 is most often used. It has long been developed by experienced specialists, especially for such patients.
Its main condition is more protein, less carbohydrate and fat. Food should be taken in frequent but small portions.
A person must abandon products that can increase acidity and activate the efficiency of enzymes.
Diet number 5 should last about a year after a person showed pancreatitis. In the case of the chronic form, then a special diet should exist throughout the rest of life.
Without such adherence, recovery is impossible. Especially it concerns the periods of an aggravation.
At such moments a person is haunted by severe excruciating pain. To reduce their manifestation, just need a strict diet.
How to eat with pancreatitis? Basic rules to follow:
- You need to eat at least 6 times. In this case, the portions should be small.
- At the time of exacerbation it is required to eat food only in the shabby look. It should be well cooked or steamed. Such cooking has a sparing effect.
- Steam food retains more nutrients. In this form, it can not harm the body.
- The temperature of the food must be observed. Any drops can negatively affect the health of the pancreas. The temperature should only be warm.
- Only small portions should be consumed. Any overeating is a stress, both for the organ itself and for the entire digestive tract.
- Daily intake of carbohydrates - 350 grams, fat - 80 grams.
- The intervals between meals - 3 hours.
- Exclude all fried, spicy and smoked products.
- Do not drink any liquid while eating.
- Every piece of food should be chewed thoroughly.
What to eat
Well, if the patient learns to cook dishes for a couple and get maximum pleasure from it. Fried and stewed products should be excluded.
Food for pancreatitis includes:
- Steam vegetables.
- Eggs in the form of an omelette on a pair. It is better to cook from proteins.
- Meat and fish low-fat varieties.
- Berries and fruits in a fresh form is not necessary, it will be much more useful to include them during cooking or bake. The most suitable fruits are sweet apples, bananas, pears. From berries eat better strawberries.
- Many types of porridges are also allowed. In particular, the diet should be rice and buckwheat.
- Soups in vegetable or meat broth. However, they should not be very fat. After boiling vegetables or meat, they can be diluted with water.
- Kissel. Well, if the patient is more familiar with this category of food. They are very useful if you know from what and how to cook them.
Только после того, как состояние больного стабилизировалось можно рассчитывать на то, что врач разрешит добавить в меню еще некоторые продукты.
В любом случае, организм должен получать все необходимое. Это и витамины, и микроэлементы.
As for dairy products, they are allowed to use even in acute form. At the same time, you need to comply with important conditions - fat and freshness.
Buying in the store, on the label is the percentage of fat content of a product. It should not exceed 2.5%. It is better if there is an opportunity to purchase home-made kefir somewhere.
The chronic form of the disease implies a much varied list of dishes and foods.
During the chronic form, experts recommend adhering to a protein diet.
Protein food will allow the body to recover faster, and tissue cells of the pancreas will begin a serious regeneration.
The basis is protein and the rest is already distributed on a par between fats and carbohydrates. The energy value of food per day is 3000 kcal.
In this case, be sure to use at least 150 grams of protein. Protein can also include animal origin. The more food is fortified, the better.
Permitted foods (dishes) for chronic inflammation:
- Vegetables and fruits - apples, corn, carrots, persimmon, carrots, strawberries, pears, cabbage. Use in raw, fresh, boiled or cooked steam way.
- Chicken's meat.
- Low fat dairy products.
- River fish.
- Steamed cutlets.
- Groats - millet, semolina, rice, millet, buckwheat.
- Wheat bread. It is desirable that he was yesterday.
- Beef is lean.
- Mashed potatoes.
- Soups in a weak broth.
- Pumpkin porridge.
- Natural juices. To reduce their concentration, diluted with warm clean water.
- Mineral water.
- Freshly squeezed juices. With problems with the pancreas, potato, carrot and beetroot are considered the most promising and healthier.
- Weak tea
- Lovers of sweets are allowed to eat honey. However, there is a limitation. There is a need in small, rare doses, preferably after all the unpleasant symptoms disappear.
What you need to limit yourself
If pancreatitis is diagnosed, then you need to get used to the fact that some familiar, beloved, but often harmful ingredients will have to be excluded. These are:
- Rye bread.
- Meat and fish fatty varieties.
- Sour berries and fruits - tangerines, lemons, grapes, oranges.
- Chocolate and other sweets.
- Canned food.
- Smoked meats.
- Fresh white bread and sweet pastry.
- Coffee. Replace can be chicory. It also has an invigorating effect, but it does not have any negative effect on the pancreas. On the contrary, chicory root is very therapeutic for a similar disease, if you know how to use it.
- Carbonated drinks.
All permitted drinks should be drunk before or after eating. When pancreatitis food is not recommended to drink.
Course of diet therapy
Many patients are concerned about the question: how long will the diet last? No one can give a definite answer, since everything will depend on the individual characteristics of the organism and the course of the disease.
In acute form, immediately determine the patient in the hospital. It is there that he will be prescribed medications that normalize the patient's condition.
With severe pain in the first days of hospitalization, doctors unequivocally determine medical fasting.
The chronic form is characterized by a lifelong presence in the pancreas.
In order to maximally shield oneself from outbreaks of exacerbation, patients are periodically prescribed drug therapy.
It is very important to follow the rules of nutrition. Only in this case, you can count on a safe course of the disease and maximum comfort.
Usually chronic pancreatitis is cured even at the time of the exacerbation of the house. Only in some difficult situations is determined in the hospital.
For therapy in acute form allocate at least 14 days. This does not mean at all that, going home, a person can return to his usual ration again.
Diet must be observed at least another 6-8 months.
Although doctors recommend to look at a similar diet for life. At a minimum, a person will protect themselves from new outbreaks. For many, it will be a nice bonus - losing weight.
What can you eat with pancreatitis? To make the right menu and determine those or other products should the attending physician, focusing on different features of the patient. Options can be very diverse.
Most often, a person is prescribed a diet number 5. It is best suited for patients with pancreatitis.
If such food is assigned, then the menus try to diversify as much as possible. For breakfast you can cook:
- Pumpkin porridge and uzvar.
- Low-fat cottage cheese and dogrose infusion.
- Cheese with biscuits and rosehip infusion.
- Salad from beet and compote.
- Oatmeal with jelly.
- Steamed omelette and weak cracker tea.
- Buckwheat cereal and weak tea.
- Baked apples with dried apricots.
- Boiled beets.
- Rice with raisins.
- Pumpkin and carrot puree.
- Whipped whites.
- Carrot salad.
For lunch you can cook:
- Cottage cheese casserole.
- Soups in a weak broth or borscht.
- Chicken cutlet.
- Fish with rice.
- Boiled beef.
- Pasta in a fleet.
- Vegetable roll.
- Sandwiches with cheese and butter.
- Fruit jelly.
- Baked potatoes.
- Kissel from non-acidic berries.
- Fruit pudding.
- Bean puree.
The last reception in the evening may include:
- Vinaigrette and Matson.
- Apples puree and low-fat yogurt without additives.
- Rice pudding and yogurt.
- Rice with raisins and varenets.
- Cauliflower in boiled and sour milk. Well, if this is a homemade dairy product.
- Omelette steamed protein and ryazhenka.
- Caviar squash and kefir 1%.
Food in the acute form of the disease
At the peak of the aggravation, the patient will have to completely abandon the use of any food. At this point, only allowed to drink water. It is advisable to cook broth hips.
On the day they drink 5 glasses. Mineral alkaline water will do. For example, Borjomi. Reception is carried out throughout the day for 1 glass 4-5 times.
In severe cases, food is provided by drip through the veins. It lasts 2 days.
After the exacerbation is removed, the patient is instructed on further nutrition. The menu should include only low-calorie foods.
They begin to consume food in very small doses and look at the state of health. Do not allow the load on the pancreas.
From the second week begin to dilute the diet. Enter there can:
- Vegetables and fruits that contain an increased amount of antioxidants.
- Freshly squeezed and diluted juices.
- Green tea.
- Liquid porridge.
- White chicken meat.
- Various foods rich in protein.
If you adhere to proper nutrition, then soon the patient will notice a positive development of treatment.
A failure in the digestive system is triggered by various factors. But more often it is a violation in the diet. Insufficient production of gastric juice complicates the breakdown of food, leading to an acute stage of the disease. With further disregard for the diet, the disease is already chronic.
To facilitate the duodenum to perform its immediate function, the basis will have to take therapeutic nutrition for pancreatitis, interpreted by the following rules:
- fatty, fried, smoked dishes are excluded,
- only dietary recipes are used in cooking,
- the principle of fractional feeding is introduced - in small portions every 3 hours,
- only ground food in a warm state is used,
- eat on the move, slowly chewing food
- take the food do not drink.
It is important to comply with energy standards in products - an average of 350 g of carbohydrates and 80 g of fat. In parallel with pancreatitis due to improper dietary problems with the stomach, there is inflammation of the biliary tract, develops diabetes. This is taken into account when selecting the therapeutic menu - diets are prescribed based on the associated problems.
Diet in the acute stage
In acute inflammation of the pancreas gland, the patient is transferred to a 2-day fast. The patient is allowed only drinks - from rosehip decoction or infusion, teas and filtered water (up to 5 receptions per day). The next couple enter the power drop by drop. Then gradually supplement the diet with low-calorie meals in small doses.
Diets with pancreatitis in the acute phase diversify from the 2nd week. The main batteries are:
- light soups,
- liquid porridge,
- protein products (in particular, steam cutlets from fish fillets or chicken),
- fruits with a high content of antioxidants,
- from drinking - green teas, fresh juices, liquid kissels.
If you do not restrict yourself to these recommendations or completely ignore the diet, the acute form will very quickly turn into a chronicle. Then the dietary requirements will be even tougher.
Chronic Stage Diet
Having started the disease, they live with it for several years. Here, involuntarily, one has to reckon with diets, carefully selecting the products in the menu:
- Every day the body is saturated with proteins in the amount of 130 g (2/3 of them are of animal origin),
- butter is allowed in small amounts - it is added to porridges,
- milk is not recommended in its pure form - it is better to cook recommended dishes on it, to make sauces,
- useful kefir fresh low-fat,
- Laxative products are recommended - dried fruits from plums and apricots.
Food for chronic pancreatitis in a light form is diverse and contains cheeses, steamed omelets, etc. When the disease worsens, food restrictions are imposed. For two days the patient is kept only on drinks. From the 3rd day, small meals are given in small portions cooked in milk diluted with water. When the pain subsides, pancreatitis diets in adults diversify, but the dishes are allowed frayed, although dense in consistency.
Fully or partially restricted products
The table above suggests a basis for a pancreatitis diet. There is also a list of products partially permitted or completely prohibited:
- broths based on fish, mushrooms, meat, and dishes prepared on them, as well as okroshka,
- everything fried, stewed and containing fats,
- smoked foods, pickles, spices,
- sausages, fish roe, preservation,
- cutting, pshenka, barley, maize are excluded, the rest of the cereals are allowed in crumbly form,
- due to the high cholesterol content, by-products are derived from the diet,
- raw fruit and berry assortment is introduced with care and not constantly,
- foods and dishes containing coarse fiber, the patient should be excluded (mushroom, legumes, most root vegetables, blue ones, white cabbage),
- simple carbohydrates contained in dates, all grape varieties, bananas, provoke bloating,
- Milk with a high percentage of fats, spicy salty cheese, sour curd is not recommended,
- completely exclude boiled and especially fried eggs,
- It is not advisable to use culinary fats and lard, and vegetable oil is better to use in small quantities for dressing dishes,
- completely exclude chocolate and butter products, flour (wind and fried), all sorts of ice cream,
- bakery fresh pastries are not recommended, and products made from rye flour should be completely abandoned,
- taboo imposed on black tea varieties, grape juice, coffee drinks, soda and alcohol.
Although the above list is called partially limited, with this disease it is better to completely eliminate the ingredients from the list. This will help to avoid many problems with the digestive tract.
Menu for inflammation of the pancreas (diet) Some patients complain that the menu for pancreatitis is too depleted. But it is also easy to diversify it, alternating types of cereals, introducing either meat or fish dishes. If you properly distribute the products by day of the week, the diet does not seem so fresh.
All allowed products are included in the “food pyramid”, so the menu is quite balanced, it is necessary for the normal functioning of the body. Restrictions (or prohibitions), which are introduced, do not impoverish the diet at all. With the withdrawal of harmful foods and drinks from consumption only harmful factors that adversely affect the work of the diseased gland are eliminated. Table 2
Rules of diet for pancreatitis
In many people, the disease quickly becomes chronic. If acute pancreatitis is diagnosed, diet 5p reduces the risk of such a prospect and protects against the development of diabetes. Table 5a is prescribed when pancreatitis is complicated by inflammation of the biliary tract, and table 1 is indicated for diseases of the stomach. Diet for pancreatic diseases in a chronic form during exacerbations is more severe.
The basic rules of a diet for pancreatitis are prescribed to the patient:
- comply with the rate of fat - 80 g, carbohydrates - 350 g,
- give up smoked products and fried foods,
- prepare food according to dietary recipes,
- eat every 3 hours,
- eat warm food in shabby form,
- eat dishes in small portions,
- eating slowly, chewing food for a long time,
- do not drink food.
What can you eat with pancreatitis
With all the restrictions and limitations of the menu can be very diverse. What can you eat with pancreatitis? In the diet include:
- salads, vinaigrettes, mashed potatoes (boiled carrots, beets, potatoes, zucchini, cauliflower, baby beans),
- celery (in remission),
- vegetable soups, borscht,
- meat dishes from boiled lean chicken, beef, fish,
- vegetable oils,
- any low-fat dairy products (including cream, yoghurts), cottage cheese, cheeses,
- oatmeal, buckwheat, pumpkin porridge with milk,
- chicken egg whites
- compotes (fresh fruits, berries, dried fruits),
- non-acidic iron-rich apples,
- lightly stale bread.
What not to eat with pancreatitis
The inflamed organ is in dire need of a respite, in a sparing mode of operation. What you can not eat with pancreatitis of the pancreas? Completely prohibited:
- fatty, rich first courses,
- pork, lard, lamb, goose, duck, offal,
- smoked meats, sausages,
- fatty fish
- any canned pickles, marinades,
- fried main dishes (including scrambled eggs),
- hard-boiled eggs
- fast food,
- hot sauces, seasonings,
- raw onion, garlic, radish, radish, bell pepper,
- sorrel, spinach,
- bananas, grapes, pomegranate, figs, dates, cranberries,
- sweet desserts
- cocoa, coffee, soda,
- fresh bread, pastries, muffins.
Diet for chronic pancreatitis
It is very important that a sick organism daily receives about 130 g of proteins, which are necessary for optimal metabolism. Moreover, about 90 g should be animal products (boiled or cooked according to recipes for steaming), and vegetable - only 40 g. Consumption of lean products protects the patient from the risk of liver obesity.
Animal fat in the diet with pancreatitis should be 80%. Butter is better to add to ready meals. Do not forget about the recipes with laxative products (prunes, dried apricots). Milk is better to use in soups, cereals, sauces, kissels. Much healthier fresh kefir. Nutrition for pancreatitis of mild chronic form can be varied low-fat cheeses, omelettes steamed. Carbohydrates daily the body should not receive more than 350 g
A diet with exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis should give a breathing space to an exhausted pancreas. The first 2 days of a severe attack of the disease can only be drunk with warm hips, tea, Borjomi. On the third day, the patient with pancreatitis is allowed to give liquid mashed soups, porridges on the water, milk jelly. After the disappearance of pain, the diet is carefully expanded, adding more dense, non-rubbed dishes.
Diet for acute pancreatitis
The first 2 days of the disease also shows complete abstinence from food - you can only drink water, tea, dogrose infusion (4-5 glasses each). The next 2 days food is administered with droppers. Then the diet during inflammation of the pancreas in the acute phase is formed on the basis of extremely low-calorie foods. Give them in very small quantities, so as not to harm.
Diet in acute pancreatitis during the second and subsequent weeks becomes more diverse. The menu includes:
- soups, liquid porridges and jelly, juices, green tea,
- lean chicken (especially steam patties) instead of red meat, other protein products,
- Antioxidant-rich vegetables and fruits.
How long is the diet for pancreatitis of the pancreas?
Terms of compliance with the rules of diet for both adults and children depend on the type of disease. Treatment of the disease in the acute form should be carried out only inpatient, and exacerbation of the chronic stage - on an outpatient basis. How long is the diet for pancreatitis of the pancreas in the acute stage? The course of treatment takes about 2-3 weeks. Diet after discharge should be observed for at least six months.
Proper, gentle treatment of the pancreas prevents future exacerbation of the disease and protects the patient from the onset of diabetes. If the inflammation has become chronic, then the person should follow the dietary menu for pancreatitis all his life. Even after the transition of the disease in the stage of persistent remission should not delude ourselves in the hope of complete recovery.
Sample diet menu for pancreatitis for a week
A variety of options are acceptable. The main thing is that if diet 5p is prescribed, the menu for the week for pancreatitis should be varied. For example:
- beet salad, compote,
- cottage cheese, dogrose infusion,
- steamed omelette, tea and biscuits,
- oatmeal, jelly,
- тыквенная каша, узвар,
- сыр с галетами, настой шиповника,
- каша гречневая, чай.
- рис с изюмом,
- салат из моркови,
- яблоко, запеченное с курагой,
- морковно-тыквенное пюре,
- boiled beets,
- whipped whites,
- baked apple.
- lean soups, borscht,
- fish with rice
- Boiled beef,
- cottage cheese casserole,
- chicken cutlet
- naval pasta,
- fruit jelly,
- vegetable roll,
- berry jelly,
- fruit pudding
- baked potato,
- sandwich with cheese and butter,
- bean puree.
- applesauce, yogurt,
- rice with raisins, varenets,
- vinaigrette, yogurt,
- boiled cauliflower, sour milk,
- squash caviar, kefir,
- omelette, ryazhenka,
- rice pudding, yogurt.