- How to grow a raspberry tree
- Growing and caring for raspberries
- What are the raspberry varieties
A raspberry tree can grow up to 2 m tall, in contrast to the undersized bushes of ordinary raspberries. Despite the short time since its removal, it immediately fell in love with amateur gardeners. And the main reason for this is that the crimson tree practically does not grow and gives little cuttings. Therefore, it does not have much time to spend on removing new shoots. And in taste of its berries, it is in no way inferior to ordinary raspberries. Also the raspberry tree will perfectly decorate any garden with its decorative appearance.
Planting Crimson Tree
When purchasing seedlings need to take into account the main nuances. The root system of a real crimson tree does not grow to the sides, but outwardly it looks like a fruit shrub. And one more main feature: it has very thick branches, unlike other types of raspberries, and closely spaced internodes (leaf attachment points).
When choosing a landing site, it is taken into account that a raspberry tree grows best on the place where legume plants were before it. Also choose a bright and open space on the south side of the infield. Raspberry tree does not like groundwater located close to the surface of the earth. This also needs to be considered when choosing a landing site.
Landing time choose the most convenient for your area. In the spring they plant a raspberry tree immediately after the snow melts, and in the fall it is better to do it in October. For planting prepare pit size of 50 * 50 cm and make humus, peat and mineral fertilizers. Before that, the roots of the seedlings are dipped for 30 minutes into the clay mash. Next, take them and lowered into the landing hole. Then sprinkle it with fertile soil, and from above they mulch with peat or humus. After this planting plentifully watered, and the seedlings are shortened by 5-10 cm.
Proper care of a raspberry tree
When choosing this plant, it is necessary to take into account such a fact - you yourself will have to grow a real tree from a common bush. This is achieved by proper and regular pruning. Otherwise, you get ordinary raspberries. After shortening the shoots during planting, they are re-pruned by 10-20 cm next spring or autumn. Also, in the autumn, branches are removed, in the place of which new ones grow. If you follow all the subtleties of pruning you will grow a real raspberry tree.
As for the care, it is very unpretentious. The crimson tree only needs regular watering and some fertilizer application. Pour it abundantly on 1-2 buckets of water under a bush every 5-6 days. Fertilizers are applied in early spring (urea or ammonium nitrate), during the formation of buds (superphosphate) and in the middle of autumn before winterization (potash salt). You can also feed it with organic fertilizers: chicken manure or extract mullein. The soil under a raspberry tree is constantly weeded and loosened.
During the preparation of an adult plant for winter shoots of a crimson tree, bend as low as possible to the ground, remove all foliage and cover with any material, for example, agryl. Before that, shoots sprinkle with soil to a height of 20 cm.
The same pests and diseases are infested on a raspberry tree as on ordinary raspberries. It is undesirable to grow strawberries nearby. From it can get weevils. Also crimson beetle, gallitsa and raspberry fly can harm this plant. To combat them, use various drugs (karbofos, Atellik) and folk remedies (infusions of bitter wormwood or horse sorrel).
Raspberry tree begins to bear fruit around the middle to end of July, depending on the region and the plant variety. Berries are desirable to collect every two days, not allowing them to linger. Collecting them after the rain is undesirable - they will not be stored for a long time.
Among the varieties of crimson tree are particularly distinguished: Tarusa, Fairy Tale, Fortress, Bogatyr and others. Also there are remontant varieties of this plant: Penguin, Eurasia, and so on.
Observing all the basic rules for growing raspberry tree, you can get a beautiful filling of your garden and a tasty and healthy harvest of berries.
A raspberry tree is not a type of plant, but a method of cultivation in which the bush is formed in such a way that it begins to resemble a tree thanks to its lush crown and strong trunk. This term applies to standard raspberry varieties, which include Tarusa, Fortress, Fairy Tale, Galaxy.
Almost all varieties can reach 1.5-2 meters in height and have quite large, sweet and juicy berries. Thanks to the use of a special method of forming bushes, the active development of lateral shoots begins, the number of which can reach ten to fifteen pieces. With proper care, the yield from one shtamba can reach 4-5 kilograms.
Advantages and disadvantages
First, consider all the advantages of crimson wood:
- The strong and strong trunk in most cases eliminates the need to form a support. But still, in some cases, the props will be superfluous and will allow to maintain the evenness and verticality of the bush.
- In terms of yield, the standard raspberry species significantly exceed the usual ones, which is achieved by stimulating the development of fruit-bearing lateral shoots.
- Uncomplicated care. Raspberry tree can not be called capricious and whimsical plant.
- Some varieties are characterized by the almost complete absence of thorns, which makes the collection more comfortable. Also, convenience is provided by the shape of the bush, which provides open access to all fruiting shoots.
- Resistant to cold. Fruits will gradually ripen to almost frost. A strong bushes can withstand frosty winters with low temperatures.
- Standard raspberry looks spectacular, so it will improve the garden and give it a decorative look.
- An excessively humid climate can reduce yields, make berries less sweet and more watery, and also cause plant death due to rotting of the root system.
- Standard raspberry varieties require occasional pruning and pinching to form a upright shrub with a lush crown.
Site selection and soil preparation
Raspberry tree will feel comfortable and enjoy high yields, if you choose a suitable garden plot and soil. Growing your own hands is best done in a well-lit place, as shading can adversely affect the growth and ripening of fruits. You can select a whole array or to plant bushes along the fence, which will protect the landing from strong gusts of wind.
The soil on the site should be quite loose, not very heavy and not acidic. Suitable loam or sandstone. A raspberry tree will grow well and bear fruit only in rich soil, therefore it is necessary to fertilize it. It is advisable to make organic or mineral fertilizer in advance - about a month before planting. After applying the soil need to loosen to a depth of about 20 centimeters, so that it is saturated with oxygen. If the acidity is increased, it can be reduced with lime applied about 700 g per square meter.
It is important to know: in the place of landing of crimson trees the groundwater level should be no higher than one and a half meters.
Landing should be carried out in the spring, when the air will be stably heated to 15 degrees. Frosts for the plant are destructive, so in the fall it is better not to plant it: it may not have time to get stronger and die.
Bushes of crimson trees are planted at a distance from each other, amounting to about 50-90 cm. If you plan to plant several rows, then maintain between them 1.5 meters or more to make it comfortable to move. For each seedling, dig a not very deep hole; place an escape in it, deepening to the level of the root collar. Sprinkle the roots with soil and tamp them down. Water the bushes (each will take about five liters) and try to protect from direct sunlight and wind.
How to care for a raspberry tree?
Caring for a raspberry tree includes several highlights:
- Abundant and timely watering. One adult bush requires a bucket of water. Watering is carried out once a week, but in hot weather, the frequency can be increased. If precipitations are abundant, then they will be sufficient, since waterlogging for a crimson tree is detrimental and can lead to decay of the root system.
- If the summer is hot and dry, the soil around the bush can be mulched to preserve moisture in it and prevent premature evaporation. For such purposes, you can use the onion peel or sunflower, mixed with dry grass.
- Often weed the soil to remove weeds that will interfere with normal growth.
- Be sure to loosen the soil in order to saturate it with oxygen and prevent over-wetting of the root system.
- Fertilizers are applied twice during the entire growing season: immediately after planting and around September-October before preparing the bushes for cold weather.
- In winter, crimson tree branches can be bent to the ground and tied up to protect against frost.
- Collect the fruits in time to stimulate the ripening of the next batch of berries and maintain the decorativeness of the bushes.
- From the second half of the summer, you should begin to remove the branches that have already been hatched. And in the second half of September, you can form a crown: cut off the top shoots, leaving 20-25 cm, as well as remove weakened or faded side shoots.
- Care must include protection against diseases. Raspberry trees are threatened by crimson beetles, which eat foliage and inflorescences, significantly reducing crop yields and causing damage to the entire plant. For their destruction used insecticidal specialized drugs. Also other insect pests, such as raspberry flies, weevils and moths, can attempt on raspberry trees. Insecticides are also used to combat them. It is better to delete the affected shoots. Another threat is root decay, which can only be avoided by maintaining proper irrigation.
How to multiply?
The reproduction of the plant is carried out by shoots, which is rapidly developing and well take root. Any shoot that has reached 25 centimeters can be separated and planted in a new place for rooting. But the process must be lignified, matured and completely healthy. It is better to propagate bushes in the second half of spring or early summer, but before fruiting.
Plant an interesting raspberry tree in your garden and enjoy its juicy and tasty fruits.
Description of the raspberry tree
Tree raspberry has attracted not only amateur gardeners. In such an industry as malienovodstvo, the breeding of standard berry berries has become one of the most promising areas. The reason for this - in the undoubted merits of culture. The following characteristics are noted in the description:
- The height of the bush, which does not require support, is about one and a half meters. During one season at least ten shoots of substitution and root shoots are formed.
- Shoots plants - stocky, straight. Bushes have a dense wood and inflexible tip. All this creates the impression of a compact tree.
- Stems, densely dotted with fruit buds, both during flowering and during the fruiting period give the plant an extraordinarily decorative appearance.
- The root system is similar to the root of a tree, it does not form a numerous seedling, sprawling on the site.
- At the annual shoots there is a sign of the stem form - shortened internodes.
- Excellent yield due to several orders of branching fruit branches. With proper pruning can produce two crops per season.
- As well as ordinary raspberry, it is a biennial plant in terms of fruiting - mid-late.
- Berry shrub belongs to the large-fruited varieties. Sweet fragrant berries of elongated shape weigh up to 12 grams.
- On one branch can mature up to 40 berries. With one bush you can collect 5 kilograms of berries, and if you carefully follow all the rules of care, the harvest can be 7 kilograms.
- In the Moscow region and central Russia, berries have been sown since mid-July, in the Kuban region and in other southern regions - from the second decade of June.
- Standard bushes winter well, quite resistant to diseases and the invasion of pests. Even the infected plant most often continues to bear fruit.
For reference. More than thirty years ago, the first domestic varieties of tree raspberry were presented by Professor Victor Kichina. This was the result of the crossing of the Stambov-1 and Stolichnaya varieties. Now there are many standard raspberry species, including the remontant ones.
Three varieties of crimson trees have gained the most popularity in Russia. They mostly have similar characteristics, but there are some minor differences:
- Tarusa. The root system of the bush is similar to the rhizome of a tree. This red raspberry tree is quite difficult to propagate, but it makes sense to work because of the high yield and large sweet berries.
- Sturdy. It has a well-developed root system, which facilitates the process of reproduction.
- Fairy tale. This variety is derived from Tarusa, so they are similar in many characteristics. On the shoots there are no thorns, the yield is high. Disadvantage: poorly tolerates winter cold.
The benefits of raspberry tree varieties Tarusa
- Raspberry is unpretentious for planting - there is no need to attach to the trellis, as Tarusa refers to the standard grades.
- It has a high yield, which increases over the years.
- Does not require cutting the shoots.
- Resistant to disease and pest damage. Even if the tree itself is damaged by some kind of infection, it will not affect its fruiting and yields will not decrease.
- Tarusa fruits all summer without fail, from the beginning of July until the end of August.
How to plant a tree Tarusa
Experts recommend planting large-fruited raspberries on the beds. Raspberry tree, the reproduction of which occurs seedlings, planted as follows:
- On the plot, determine the rows, the distance between which should be 170 cm.
- Dig holes 30 cm deep and place seedlings one or two in each well.
- Pre-add one tablespoon of nitroammofoski and mix well with the earth right in the hole.
- Sprinkle the seedling with earth, deepening the root neck by 2-3 cm.
- Next, cut off the shoots so that 25-30 cm above the ground remains.
- Around the bush ground mulch, putting a small layer of humus.
- And at the end of planting, water each seedling with water at the rate of 5 liters per well.
The raspberry tree, which is planted and cared for both in autumn and spring, is planted under a shovel. When you dig up seedlings, you immediately need to remove all the leaves and shorten the planting material to 70 cm in height.
The best time for planting seedlings of a raspberry tree Tarusa in the fall is the first decade of October, and in the spring - the beginning of March - the end of April. Do not buy seedlings with leaves and dug in advance. They take root poorly, they may die at all.
Raspberries are usually planted for a long time, ten years or more. But with good and proper care a raspberry tree can not reduce the yield for twenty years.
Raspberry tree care
On how correct and timely care will get raspberry varieties Tarusa, depends on its yield. Care involves feeding, watering, pruning and hiding.
The raspberry tree of Tarusa is responsive to fertilizing with manure and other fertilizers. In the spring, before the flowering of the tree and after it, feed the infusion of mullein or liquid solution of complex fertilizers. In the fall, feed each raspberry tree with manure, evenly distributing it on the ground. Sprinkle manure on top with sawdust.
Instead of manure, you can take peat mixed with urea or saltpeter. In the spring, do not use mineral nitrogen fertilizers, otherwise the shoots of replacement will be weak or not grow at all. It is better to feed the soil with them in the fall, in the middle of October.
Raspberry tree, planting and caring for which involve not only feeding the plant, but also watering it, likes moist soil. Therefore, it should always be watered: during planting of seedlings, in the spring before flowering, during drought, in the autumn during the period of fruit ripening. The lack of moisture will adversely affect fruiting, and you can not wait for a high yield.
Raspberry tree is a winter-hardy plant that can withstand temperatures up to thirty degrees. But if a raspberry tree grows in areas with a more severe climate, the shoots are bent down to the ground should be covered with snow. They need to bend down at the end of September, at the end of fruiting, when they are still well bent. At this time of the year there are a lot of green foliage on raspberry branches, let it not frighten you.
Shaping and trimming the Tarusa tree
Formed a raspberry tree Tarusa way double pruning. Первый раз побеги прищипываются в мае в год посадки, когда их высота достигает 60 см. Стебли нужно укоротить на 5-10 см. Благодаря этой процедуре в пазухах верхних листочков начнут пробуждаться почки. А осенью на побеге вырастут боковые разветвления.
Вторая прищипка проводится следующей весной, но прищипываются уже боковые приростки. При наступлении морозов срочно обрезайте разветвления, иначе побеги к осени не вызреют. Таким образом, прищипывая веточки по своему усмотрению, сами формируете дерево нужной формы. After the second pinching, many fruit-bearing branches appear on the stem, from which you can harvest a rich harvest in the fall.
Useful properties of raspberry
Raspberry tree, the photo of which is presented in the article, gives tasty, fragrant and very useful fruits. They have a large set of healing properties and are widely used in traditional medicine. The berry is rich in organic acids, minerals and tannins, essential oils, glucose and fructose.
Traditionally, fruits, leaves and flowers of crimson trees are used for colds, flu, for the treatment of pain in the joints and back. Raspberry helps to cope with fever and neurological diseases, has antipyretic, hemostatic and antitoxic properties. It has a tonic effect on the skin of the face, normalizes blood pressure.
Raspberry leaves contain stimulating intestinal wall substances. These berries are always present in the diet of pregnant women, since the folic acid they contain is necessary for the formation of the fetus. Raspberries, unlike other berries, do not lose their beneficial properties during and after heat treatment.
Storage of raspberry Tarusa and its preparation
Raspberry Tarusa has many useful properties. Raspberry tree brings fruits suitable for harvesting and long-term storage.
- The easiest way to harvest berries for the winter is drying. To do this, hold the berries for some time in the sun, and then dry them in the oven. If the raspberry is dried properly, then its berries will have a raspberry gray color and aroma of fresh fruit.
- Excellent preserved frozen raspberries. All useful substances are stored in it, in this form it can be stored for a long time.
- The most common way to store raspberries is jam. Berry is good in compotes, jams, jam.
- Useful properties are preserved in a grated berry with sugar. Such raspberries should be stored in the refrigerator or cellar.
Regular raspberry fruits once a year in summer. At a time when last year's stems are harvesting, young people grow around. The harvest on them will be next year.
Not so long ago, repair raspberry varieties became popular. They bear fruit all summer and autumn. But the fruits ripen on more than one stem. In spring, they are formed on last year's shoots, and towards the end of summer - on young ones, which appeared in spring.
If last year's shoots are cut from autumn or early spring, then the entire crop will be formed on the young. The fruits will begin to ripen a little earlier, there will be more.
One of the disadvantages of this kind of varieties is the thickening of the raspberry plantings. By the middle of summer, young lashes grow, last year’s weaves are woven with them, and they all collapse to the ground. Standard raspberry varieties are largely devoid of these shortcomings. Stems are strong, they can hold the crop and the mass of leaves. Although tying on the trellis does not hurt them. Root growth is destroyed soon after its appearance.
In fact, the crimson tree is a representative of the new generation of this plant. So called varieties of intensive type with long strong stems.
One of the progenitors of many varieties of the intensive type is the Glen Ampl variety (Scotland). 3.5 kg of fruit from the bush gives this red raspberry tree. Reviews of gardeners say that about 20 kg of fruits are harvested per hectare during industrial plantings.
Subsequent varieties of steel Glen Fayn with an extended fruiting period, Glen Lyon early. The fruits of the Magna variety are larger than those of the Glen Ampl. Many promising raspberry varieties have been created, including remontants.
The color of the berries is different raspberry gold. Reviews of consumers say they are tasty and fragrant.
Standard varieties of Russian breeding
In the last decades of the last century, standard varieties of Russian breeding were created. This is Tarusa, Fortress, Monica, Fairy Tale. The varieties of Tarusa and Fortress are similar to each other by external data. Slightly differ in the appearance of leaves and roots. Experts believe that it does not make sense to grow both varieties. Raspberry tree Fortified reviews are advised to grow gardeners engaged in reproduction and sale of bushes, and those who grow berries - Tarusa.
The stem of Tarusa differs from many others in the absence of thorns. Brown colour. The height of the shoots is about 2 m. The leaves are large, with noticeable streaks. Young stalks are covered with a wax raid. Fruits are oblong, oval, red in color, the weight of one can reach 12 g. It tastes sweet, delicate, with a pleasant taste and aroma.
Raspberry sellers often announce a yield of up to 15 kg per bush. But experienced gardeners who cultivate these varieties claim that with good care it’s possible to gather up to 4 kg of berries from a bush. An error may occur when assessing the number of ripening berries. If you multiply the average weight of one fruit by the approximate number of ovaries, this figure will be inaccurate. After all, most often a significant number of them do not ripen, dry out in the absence of moisture or have a weight that is significantly less than average.
To form a raspberry of this type in the form of a tree, it is necessary to prune the stems in two stages. The first time the tops of young shoots pinch at the beginning of summer. At the same time, they should grow to not less than 1 m 20 cm. They are torn down to 10 cm, which stops the growth and causes the formation of lateral literals. By the fall of them formed about ten. The length of each is from 40 to 90 cm.
In the spring of next year, the old stalk is cut out, and the lateral shoots are shortened so that they are about 40 cm long. On these laterals, up to 2 dozen berries are formed and ripen.
This method increases the yield of raspberries. But if the first pinching is late, the side branches will not have time to mature and freeze.
Multiplication of standard raspberries
The raspberry tree propagates in two ways:
- root cuttings
- root shoots.
There is a difference between varieties. To determine the variety of raspberry wood, reviews advise to look closely at the root. Tarusa usually has a small amount of cuttings. Its root is rather thin. At the Fortress it is much bigger, in form - mychy. From it you can get a lot more planting material.
Raspberry Krepysh (raspberry tree) reviews are advised to propagate shoots from the roots. No need to cut it around the bush in the summer.
Shovel dig up the resulting shoots together with part of the root. Planted in a permanent place. Bushes are watered regularly, especially if they are not mutilated.
Reproduction by root shoots
A little harder to propagate Tarusa (raspberry tree). Reviews advise to do this root cuttings. First, they dig up a bush, choose roots with buds and cut cuttings from them.
Cultivation of cuttings is carried out in a mixture of peat with coarse sand. When sprouts appear, the cuttings are transplanted into another dish. The following spring they are planted in the ground.
Stimulate the emergence of shoots can be cutting off the stem of a crimson tree.
Planting and care
Reviews of gardeners show that growing this type of raspberry is easy.
Of great importance is the quality of the soil. She must be fertile. To improve the quality of the soil make humus, compost. If it is too sour, bring slaked lime. In loose soil, raspberry roots will be easier to reproduce, releasing shoots.
Where does raspberry Tarusa (raspberry tree) best grow? Reviews gardeners say that a place for planting looking sunny, but in some cases it grows well in partial shade. This can save from drought if it is not possible to water the plantations. Berries may be less sweet, but larger. Often a raspberry tree is planted on the border of the garden on the south side. But in dense shade the fruits will be sour, and the plants are weak. At the same time, the root growth of raspberries can interfere with the care of trees.
Groundwater should not come close to the soil surface. This can lead to decay of the roots. If there are no such sites, you can plant bushes on high ridges.
Before planting on the bottom of the pit or trench lay layers of peat, humus, sawdust, compost, sprinkling them with earth.
The stem is cut to 40 cm, planted a bush in the ground. The remains of the stem are cut off after new stems reach 25 cm.
Types and varieties
Raspberries, growing in the form of a full-fledged tree, do not yet exist in nature, as there is no curling strawberries. Thanks to the selection, Professor Kichine V.V. It was possible to create a variety with a very durable shtamb, and a tree is made of it by a gardener with the right formation. Varieties, known as raspberry trees, it is more correct to call standard. Simultaneously with Kichina, Professor Kazakov also worked on breeding standard varieties. He managed to get standard repair varieties.
- Tarusa. This is the first standard grade bred by Viktor V. Kichina. The shoots are low - up to 1.5 m. Produces in mid-late periods.
- Advantages: large - up to 16 g of berries, high - up to 4 kg from a bush harvest, lack of thorns, strong shtamb.
- Disadvantages: sour taste of berries, insufficient frost resistance - up to -30 degrees. Tarusa's weakness in the ability of a crimson tree is weak - there is enough to replace the seed-bearing shoots, there may be problems with reproduction.
- Burly. The variety has more delicious berries than Tarusa. But their value is less - up to 8 g, respectively, a little less and yield - up to 3.5 kg from a bush. Frost varieties at the level of Tarusa. But the flight ability is much more, to multiply this variety is simple. Fruits in mid-term. Berries ripen unevenly and require frequent fees. Transported well.
- Fairy tale. The ripening period is medium, the fruit bearing is extended. High shoots - up to 2.5 m. Berries are not inferior in size to Tarusa - up to 15 g, but the crop is much higher - up to 10 kg from a bush. The taste is good with high sugar content. The weak point is the low frost resistance of -25 degrees, the limit for it, and bending down the standard grade for hibernation under cover is a thankless task.
- Eurasia - the first grade of standard raspberry with remontant fruiting. The height of the shoots is 1, 7 m. Frost-resistance in this case does not matter, the shoots are cut in the fall at the root. The variety is distinguished by moderate shoot-formation, which is rather a plus than a minus: this raspberry will not spread apart in all directions. The berries of Eurasia ripen in early August, and by the end of September, it completely gives the crop. Berries are large - up to 6.5 g of a beautiful dark crimson color. Their tasting score is 3.9 points, probably because of perceptible acidity, but it accumulates up to 35 mg of vitamin C. The advantages of the variety include excellent yield - up to 6 kg from a bush and the transportability of berries. The ability to be stored for several days without losing consumer qualities will be encountered infrequently.
- Penguin. The shoots are low - up to 1.5 m. The berries are medium in size - up to 5 g, as is the yield - 2.5 kg. The taste of the berries strongly depends on the type of soil and weather. Frost resistance up to -26 degrees, but for the repair grade it does not matter. Fruiting from early August to frost.
Planting in open ground
Raspberry tree can be planted both in spring and autumn. The main condition in the spring is that the buds have not yet swelled, and in the fall the leaves have already flown around. Planting during the active growing season does not tolerate a plant. Do not plant raspberries directly in front of the frost - for rooting the bushes need at least 3 weeks.
So that raspberries do not hurt, and pests do not annoy her, they don’t plant them after solanaceous crops or strawberries, even the neighborhood with them is not desirable for raspberry trees. Moreover, it is not necessary to plant a plantation where the raspberry panns were already. But the neighborhood with the apple of this shrub is favorable for both cultures, the bushes are planted on the south side of the tree.
Site selection and soil
Not only the future harvest, but also the health of the bushes directly depends on the right place for planting. The soil should be light in texture, well pass moisture and air, have a neutral reaction. Sandy soils dry quickly and are poor in nutrients. If there is no choice, you will have to add clay and peat when planting. Clay soils for raspberries are not suitable - if it rains heavily, the root system can melt. A high standing of groundwater leads to the same result. The best soil is fertile loam.
Raspberries are very sensitive to lack of lighting. Even a slight shading during the day reduces the yield of berries and the amount of sugar in them.
How to plant a raspberry tree
The soil must be prepared at least a month before planting.
- Under the digging make for each linear meter to 2 buckets of humus, 1-2 glasses of ash and 150 g of complete mineral fertilizer.
- If there are few seedlings, for each one an individual planting hole is 40 cm wide and 40 cm in diameter. When laying a large plantation, it is more rational to dig trenches for the entire length of landings 40 depth and 60 cm wide. Their orientation is from south to north.
- The top layer of soil is mixed with humus - a bucket in a pit and 2 - in 1 m trench, ash - ½ and a glass, phosphorus and potash mineral fertilizer of 20-30 g.
- They pour a small mound, straighten the roots of raspberries, they can be preliminarily held for a couple of hours in a solution of a root formation stimulator.
- Sprinkle the roots with the earth, without deepening the root collar by more than 2 cm. The distance between the bushes must be at least 1 m, it is dictated by the dimensions of the crimson tree.
- Water each plant by pouring a bucket of water in a tree circle.
- Cut the stem at a height of 30 cm.
- Mulch the soil around it with any organic material.
Formation, trimming and shelter for the winter
In order for the stem shoots to become real trees they need to be formed correctly. Since each shoot takes up a lot of space, they are not left in the bush for more than 6-7. Cut out the weakest and most damaged. This operation is best done along with the removal of the seed-bearing trunks after harvest. The formation of the standard raspberry.
- At the beginning of June, and in the south and at the end of May, they nip the main shoot, cutting off the top 5 cm. By this time, it must grow to 1.2 m. It is impossible to lag behind with pinching, otherwise the side branches, which will grow on the bush after it, do not have time to mature before winter and freeze.
- In the spring of next year, pinch all the side shoots to grow third-order branches.
In remontant varieties, it is possible to perform only one nip, since they only leave one-year shoots.
This method of formation is suitable for any raspberry, but not standard varieties will have to be tied up very carefully due to the heavy crop load.
Not remontant shtambovy grades due to their poor frost resistance need shelter for the winter. To bend such a bush to the ground at a time will not succeed - it just breaks. Do it gradually over several days, bending lower and lower. The bushes prepared for wintering are covered with lutrasil.
Repairman varieties need annual pruning for the winter at the root. It is inexpedient to leave annual shoots to harvest from them for the second year in summer - the autumn harvest will ripen later and will be much less than expected. It should be carried out as late as possible, since the outflow of plastic substances from the stems to the root continues until frost.
Breeding methods for raspberry wood
Raspberry seeds are propagated for breeding purposes, since in 50% of cases it does not retain parental traits. When sown with seeds, the main advantage of a crimson tree is that the stem stem may be lost.
Traditionally raspberries are propagated by root shoots. This method is simple, affordable and does not require much effort. They dig out the regrown shoot and transplant it to a new place.
It must meet the following criteria:
- stem thickness not less than 0.8 cm,
- well developed root lobe with roots not shorter than 10 cm,
- intact buds on the root of the neck - future shoots of replacement,
- no signs of disease.
Some gardeners use for breeding "nettles" - young green shoots. As soon as they grow up to 25 cm, they are transplanted to a seedling bed for growing, and in the fall they determine a permanent place for them.
Raspberry breeds well and root cuttings. To do this, prepare pieces of roots 20 cm long and up to 8 mm thick. They should be taken at a distance of about 60 cm from the mother bush. Dug in a groove, by the fall they will give full-fledged shoots.
The division of the bush should be used if a new place is chosen for the plantation. Each delenka should have well-developed roots and 2-3 shoots, which, when planted, cut at a level of 20-30 cm.
Fight against diseases and pests
Most often raspberry annoying raspberry beetle, raspberry moth, strawberry-raspberry weevil, gallichny mosquito.
Against a raspberry beetle, effective treatment during the period of the formation of sparkles by Iskra, Decis or Confidor. Autumn digging destroys beetle pupae. These same measures are effective against raspberry-raspberry weevil. They are carried out in the same time frame.
To prevent the larvae of the raspberry moth from eating the buds, it is necessary to timely cut out the seed-bearing shoots, under the bark of which they hibernate.
Against gall midges, the raspberry jam is processed by Aktellik during the summer of the mosquito - in spring and summer.
Для профилактики грибковых болезней малину обрабатывают медьсодержащими фунгицидами или препаратом Топаз: первый раз перед распусканием почек, а второй – бутонов.
Если листья малины начинают желтеть без видимых причин, на них появляются светло-зеленые или желтые пятна – это хлороз. Борьбы с заболеванием не существует. Все больные растения уничтожают.
При формировании малины двойной обрезкой каждый куст становится ветвистым. It looks beautiful, but they take up a lot of space. Therefore, the distance between the bushes in a row should be about 1.5 m, and the rows themselves should be at a distance of at least 2 m. On each stalk, up to 8 side shoots are left for fruiting.
Reviews of a raspberry tree indicate that its stalk is strong, it does not fall to the ground, but can be bent on the weight of leaves and fruits. Therefore, it can be fixed by tying each bush to a separate support. To do this, you need to drive a wooden stake near them and tie a bush to it. You can use the trellis.
Raspberry root superficial. Therefore, the plant can not extract water in a drought. It is necessary to compensate for it by irrigation, which is carried out as needed. It is especially important to provide the plant with enough moisture when the fruits are formed and mature.
Fertilizer is applied under the crimson tree in the spring. Wood ash is used. Then the ground around you need to water. Before the raspberry blooms, and during the ripening of the fruits make a solution of mullein. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied to enhance growth, phosphate and potash - during the formation of fruits.
To less moisture evaporated, it is good to mulch the soil with humus. Reviews about raspberry tree gardeners with experience advise to fertilize raspberries before mulching, laying out chicken droppings between rows. This improves the yield and condition of the bushes.
To the bush was like a tree, you need to periodically remove the root growth around it. This should be done at a depth of about 7 cm. It is left only if it is going to be allowed into reproduction.
The fruits of raspberry tree are widely used. They contain vitamin C and other nutrients. In cosmetology, an extract obtained from raspberries is used.
Berries are used to make delicious jam. They do not lose their healing properties even after treatment. In the summer you need to eat as many berries as possible fresh. Reviews of a raspberry tree indicate that the fruits of the varieties Tarusa and Fortress do not crumple during transportation. To do this, they need to carefully put in plastic boxes so that they are not compressed. You can freeze them, use dried. To do this, you can use the fruit, dried by the sun with an insufficient amount of moisture. Gather them with sprigs, dry them. Stacked for storage in banks. In winter, pour boiling water or add to the usual tea.
Reviews of a raspberry tree suggest that colds are cured with the help of their fruits in winter. Raspberry leaves are also used for this purpose. With their help, some intestinal diseases are treated. From the tops of the branches in the spring, you can get a delicious and healthy spring tea with raspberry flavor.
Diseases and pests of standard raspberries
Varieties of standard raspberries do not have sufficient resistance to diseases, in particular fungal. Therefore, they need to be periodically processed with copper-containing preparations and fungicides.
In early spring, they are treated with a weak solution of Bordeaux liquid. In the summer, they use "Skor" or "Fitosporin", a biological agent to fight fungal diseases.
The main pest of the crimson tree is the crimson beetle. It damages the leaves and berries of the plant. Externally, the crimson beetle looks like a small gray weevil. Length - about 6 millimeters. The larvae of this beetle breed in the soil. If the ground under the bush periodically loosen, some of the larvae will disappear. But this is not enough to fight insects. In the spring, during the blooming of leaves and budding, the bushes are treated with insecticides.
Sometimes light spots appear on raspberry leaves. They signal uncomfortable conditions. The growing place may be too dark or very humid.