Khokhloma - what is it? First of all, it is an old Russian folk craft. Khokhloma painting, golden Khokhloma, a vast layer of Russian culture. The symbol of the painting in the style of "Khokhloma" is a fiery Firebird, a fantastic character. The capital of the craft is the city of Semenov, located north of Nizhny Novgorod. Unlike Gzhel art production, which unites 27 villages and villages into one “bush”, Khokhloma was concentrated in one place. Therefore, its development lasted long enough. The artistic component of the craft was also important, since talented craftsmen are not often found, but there was no learning as such.
History of the Golden Khokhloma
The art craft of Khokhloma dates back to the end of the 17th century, during the heyday of icon painting. The period of settlement of the Novgorod lands by Old Believers, who did not accept the church reform of Patriarch Nikon, coincided with the emergence of new ways of gilding icons. It was in Nizhny Novgorod lands, villages and villages that they learned to paint icons in gold, but without the use of precious metal. The wooden salaries of the icons were sprinkled with silver, ground into dust, then covered with a layer of linseed oil and placed in the oven. The silver coating miraculously turned into sparkling gold. The technologies of that time were not provided with additional means to facilitate the process, everything was done manually. Some masters somehow adapted themselves and invented simple tools to help themselves, but on the whole the Khokhloma painting was completely provided only by manual labor. The main tasks of the production were turning works that required certain qualifications. Some masters made the blanks, ground them and burned them others, and still others painted them. But in any case, the results of joint labor were good and production flourished.
The origin of high art
So on the Volga appeared gold painting Khokhloma. From the icons quickly moved to the production of dishes made of wood, covered with golden drawings. Silver was not enough, and it was replaced with tin. The drawings did not become worse, on the contrary, the painting acquired a noble matte shade, and after polishing the colors began to sparkle like the sun. Semenov artists began to unite in the artel, painting "under Khokhloma" gained wide popularity far beyond the borders of the Nizhny Novgorod province. One by one, merchants came, ordered masters of painted wooden utensils in huge batches, and the craft began to develop at a rapid pace.
At first, they were cut from linden and painted with Khokhloma patterns of spoons and scoops. Grateful descendants even erected a monument to Semyon Lobster as a tribute to the masters and artists of that time. Craftsmen worked tirelessly; Nizhny Novgorod dishes were brought in and successfully sold at the great Makarievsky market place, the most famous Russian fair. Reached dishes and to Moscow. At that time, foreign representatives of the merchants, Germans, French, British were constantly present in the capital of Russia. They immediately noticed unusual Khokhloma goods.
Khokhloma - what is it from the point of view of the world community?
In the middle of the 19th century, the Khokhloma painting on dishes, furniture and clothes became known abroad. The World Exhibition in Paris, held in 1889, opened the way for the Golden Khokhloma around the world. Khokhloma painting went for export in a wide stream. The markets of Western Europe, Southeast Asia, India, China, and later the North American continent traded products of Russian folk crafts.
The high demand for products of the Trans-Volga masters became an incentive for the further development of the Golden Khokhloma. The assortment of production has grown many times, except for spoons, dishes and plates, barrels, spices steaks, salt shakers, various supplies, glasses and mugs were made. Especially prized in the West are the so-called brothers - huge vessels in the shape of a boat with a dozen buckets. The name spoke for itself, this dish was intended for fraternal feast. Festive theme always accompanied Khokhloma products. And the inexhaustible source of plots and themes for them is all of Russia. Khokhloma is inextricably linked with the source itself, and with its history.
Dishes and not only
In addition to dishes, large series produced household items: jewelry boxes, snuff boxes, small furniture products, towels, cabinets, tables and benches. Khokhloma gold could be ordered, it was worth an order of magnitude more expensive, but the price did not bother anyone. By the end of the 19th century, Khokhloma became more expensive, since its production became much more complicated. Vegetative ornaments appeared, which continued the original traditions, but at the same time they carried in themselves that special natural style of artistic writing, which distinguishes Khokhloma. Pictures made in those days by enthusiastic artists, sketches and sketches confirm the development of new trends in the art of Khokhloma painting.
Khokhloma products were noticeably enlarged, they were painted in the manner of "Kudrin", with gold leaves and flowers, in the style of a picture of a woman's scarf, when the ornament consists of several fragments merging into one image. One of the most revered Khokhloma drawings was the "herbal letter", and in the first half of the 20th century, the artists created a "Khokhloma ornament." So there was a classic style. At the same time, the coloring of the picture became even more complicated, the strokes became thinner, and the plot acquired signs of certainty. The artistic style called "Khokhloma", the pictures and sketches of which confirm this, continued its development. At the same time, art forms resembling Khokhloma painting, Fedoskino miniatures and Zhostovo trays appeared in central Russia. A little later, the factories for the production of Gzhel ceramic ware, which soon became as popular as the Khokhloma wooden one, started working. Artistic Russian folk crafts successfully developed, Gzhel, Khokhloma, Zhostovo, Fedoskino - this is not a complete list of crafts that can be compared with high art.
The art of Khokhloma is a rather complicated process, coupled with many technical subtleties. It is not enough to color the product correctly - its shape and parameters must also be perfect. If the master decided to cut a swan-shaped brother from wood and paint it in the style of golden Khokhloma, then first of all the resulting shape should repeat all the elegance of the noble bird, and its neck will certainly have to be with the swan-like bend that we see in nature.
Khokhloma - what is it from a technical point of view? Guided by the rule of authenticity of the product, its compliance with certain canons of highly artistic level, the specialists of Khokhloma Painting CJSC have derived a formula for the quality of their products, which formed the basis for the production of Khokhloma products. Thus, all technological processes at an enterprise are not subject to the requirements of the market, which stimulates continuous production, but to the laws of artistic conjuncture, oriented towards the buyer, who has a taste. This policy of management has already borne fruit, orders began to come from souvenir shops, and from well-known art salons and galleries.
The process of making art products in the style of Khokhloma is the most complicated technological chain. Wood is used only hardwood, with preference being given to linden, as the most plastic and responsive material. The material passes through a stage of natural drying in the open air for one year, then the logs and the komli are dismissed into blanks, which are dried for another three months. After that, the wood is already suitable for machining on lathes. Selected pieces are used to make dolls, large vases are carved out of solid racks. For spoons and buckets, wood of the sapwood is suitable; it is fairly easy to cut and does not crack.
Carved and cut blanks are called "linen", before painting this "linen" is dried again, already at a temperature of about 100 degrees. After this, the products are ground and re-loaded into the furnace, heated to 120 degrees. Then the workpieces are polished, chipped and gouged on the surface are puttied and covered with a thin layer of drying oil. Shortly before complete drying, the billet is coated with aluminum powder and triturated so that the entire surface is evenly coated. Next, matt silver cups, spoons and saucers, vases and bowls come to artists for final finishing - Khokhloma artistic painting.
After painting the product is varnished three times, with intermediate heating to 130 degrees. In this case, the aluminum coating gets a golden hue, the product is ready for packaging and shipment.
Types of painting
In the 18th century, the Khokhloma painting reached its climax, the demand for art products increased, and the Nizhny Novgorod masters were already at the top of their creativity. It was then that two main types of Golden Khokhloma murals were formed - “horseback” and “background”.
Khokhloma, the patterns of which were painted in the style of "horse" painting, is a drawing on a gold field, performed in black and red colors. The artist draws in thin strokes an openwork drawing, while following any one of the styles listed below:
- "Gingerbread" - a stylized image of the sun, enclosed in a geometric shape, square, rhombus or faceted circle. At first glance, the method was simple, but it wasn’t to look away from the solar circle in the frame of the curl rays, so great was the great luminary with its surrounding frames.
- "Herbalist" - herbal ornament, drawing sedge coastal or meadow grass.
- "A leaf, under a berry" - a list with a set of leaves and berries, flowers and small stalks intertwining with each other in a fancy way.
In contrast to the "riding", Khokhloma, the patterns of which were applied with gold on the base of red or black color, was considered the "background". The most interesting type of painting on the background is "Kudrin", which consists in a stylized image of leaves and flowers. Repetitive marvelous curls, turning into fancy patterns, flowers, foliage and all sorts of berries, garden and forest. This style of painting is also noteworthy for its wide use in the design of contour strokes, which advantageously shade certain details.
From the mid-20th century, the Khokhloma painting began to be systematized, catalogs with the most interesting specimens were printed, and the best ones were honored with a certificate. The works of master artists in the style of "Khokhloma", photos and sketches of which were printed in the press, became participants in various competitions and exhibitions. The authors of art products received prizes and awards for their work. At such exhibitions, anyone could purchase a product made in an artistic manner called "Khokhloma". A photo for memory with the master-manufacturer was made immediately. For a long time afterwards, the beautiful lacquered thing pleased her master.
Khokhloma through the eyes of a child
In Soviet times, preschool institutions, gardens, and even nurseries received furniture made in the style of Khokhloma painting. And although this artistic style has always been considered an “adult”, the children sincerely rejoiced at every table painted by the artist. Of course, it was not manual work, the products were painted in a furniture factory, using screen printing. But the impression of high art of the Khokhloma painting was present, and the children were pleased. Together with the kids, their parents were happy. Thus, children's Khokhloma was no worse than an "adult."
Theme for school essays
Training programs are varied. Khokhloma - what is it, from the point of view of the teacher? In the schools of Moscow and the Moscow region, as well as in other Russian cities, the theme of Russian folk arts and crafts is included in the educational programs, where the art of Khokhloma painting is in the first place. Its centuries-old history and worldwide fame give pupils the opportunity to express their personal opinions, put it on paper and get an assessment. It can be a whole essay on a topic or a short story. Khokhloma as an art continues to develop successfully; it is completely worthy of the attention of high school students. However, lower grades can also participate in debates.
Khokhloma in the song genre
Fine art is often combined with other categories of creativity. The art of Khokhloma painting is no exception. The song "Khokhloma" has long gained popularity. It is performed by singers and singers, choir and individual soloists. The melody is beautiful, poems are also heartfelt, written from the heart. At competitions, the song "Khokhloma" more than once took pride of place.
A bit of history
The history of Khokhloma painting dates back to the Middle Ages. According to one of the legends, a man lived in the Nizhny Novgorod woods on the river bank a long time ago. No one knew how he appeared in these parts, but many managed to find out that he was a craftsman.
This man cut dishes from wood and painted it in such a way that it seemed as if it was made of gold. The king ordered to find the master and lead. But he disappeared in an unknown direction, but he taught the murals of all the inhabitants of the surrounding villages.
According to another version, the idea of such a painting belongs to the Old Believers. There is also an opinion that Khokhloma appeared before the Old Believers. One way or another, but today the village of Kovernino, located in Nizhny Novgorod, is considered the birthplace of such a craft.
How are products made?
Manufacturing technology products with Khokhloma painting is not easy. First, coarse billets (made of baklushi) are made of wood. Then the master, using a lathe, removes all the excess wood with a chisel. Gradually, the workpiece acquires the shape of a future product, and then gets the final desired shape.
Next, the blanks are ground with purified liquid clay, then dried for 7 or 8 hours, and then covered with linseed oil (linseed oil) in several layers. At the same time, the master dips a tampon into the oil prepared from calf or sheep skin, with which he rubbing the linseed oil into the surface, spreading it evenly throughout the workpiece.
When the oil dries “tack-free” (this is a condition in which the surface has dried, but still sticks to your fingers a little), the next stage begins - tinning. Aluminum powder is rubbed into the product, which gives the mirror-silver shine.
Then begins the most interesting, namely the painting. Masters use oil paints of red and black colors (they are considered basic), as well as green, yellow, white and brown.
Moreover, real craftsmen never draw contours, but immediately draw a picture. Typically, several special tools are used to create drawings: a brush (it applies thin elegant patterns) “frog” and “poke” (a piece of sheep wool) with which the masters draw the bases of flowers and berries, as well as stencils used for applying geometric ornaments.
When the product is completely painted, it will be varnished in several layers, and then placed in a furnace heated to about 150 degrees, and left there for several hours. As a result, a lacquer-oily golden thin film is formed, and the surface will acquire a glossy shine and beautiful tint.
What do the patterns look like?
Khokhloma Russian and Ukrainian patterns are made in natural themes and consist of plant elements, such as berries and blades of grass. All of them in the photo and in life look cute and gentle, due to the lack of sharp corners and straight lines. Curls, spirals, soft lines prevail.
There are two main techniques for creating patterns: horse and background. At first, the master puts on openwork drawings in black or red paint on the background of the product. With the background technique, the background can be black or red, and the drawings themselves are applied with gold paint and some others.
There are several groups of ornaments:
- Herbal painting. Vegetative ornaments which look as field and meadow grasses prevail. Spikelets, curls, stalks and so on can occur.
- Painting "under the berry" or "under the sheet." In this case, in the painting you can see oval leaves, flowers, as well as berries. Such a pattern is more interesting and complex.
- "Gingerbread". Usually in the center of the product is drawn a geometric shape (square or rhombus), which is decorated with curls, blades of grass, berries, flowers. In the center of the figure is drawn a symbolic sun.
- "Kudrin." On a red or black background is a lot of curls, painted with golden paint.
The main elements of the painting:
- Osochka. It looks like a bracket and is drawn with a slight movement of the brush tip from top to bottom.
- Капелька. Кисть просто прикладывается к бумаге.
- Травинка – это мазок кисти с плавным незначительным утолщением в середине.
- Усик – непрерывная линия одной толщины, закрученная в спираль.
- Завиток. Этот элемент выполняется как усик, но закручивается меньше, а в его середине имеется значительное утолщение.
- The bush consists of several blades of grass, droplets, antennae, sedges and curls, placed symmetrically.
- The berry is drawn by a strip of paper folded into a tube.
Today Khokhloma is a very fashionable pattern, which is used not only by craftsmen, but also by designers of furniture and clothing. For example, the famous designer Denis Simachev produced a whole line decorated with Khokhloma ornaments. His clothes look stylish, youth and bright, thanks to which is very popular.
The origins of the craft
The famous painting of Khokhloma not only looks fabulous, but the birth of such art is surrounded by legends and entwined with magic.
Khokhloma is a colorful and very detailed painting.
It is known that Khokhloma is a Russian folk craft whose origins originate in the area of the glorious and majestic Veliky Novgorod. In connection with the advent of the famous painting there is a legend. For a long time, on the bank of the picturesque river, in the Nizhny Novgorod district, there lived a craftsman with “golden hands”. He skillfully cut out spoonfuls from wood, and then painted them in a magical way, so much so that it seemed to everyone as if they were made of pure gold! The fame of the national craftsman quickly spread around the district, and then reached the king himself. The ruler was angry, why such a talented master, and suddenly not in his service at the court. Then the king sent the servicemen into the deep forests to deliver the master to the court. The servants of the master were looking for, and he seemed to have collapsed through the earth. The following happened: the craftsman magically found out that the king's servants were following him, and disappeared from sight, so much so that they never saw him again. But before he left, he taught his skillful kind people so that in each hut there was a bowl and spoons glittering with gold.
Russian people decorated Khokhloma dishes, cutlery and more
In fact, there is a scientific fact that painting on wood and special technology brought schismatics to the Trans-Volga region, who fled in order to escape the cruel royal oppression. Among the runaway schismatics were many skilled craftsmen, icon painters, artists. They taught the local population such an unusual painting. Beautifully painted dishes were sold in a large shopping village, which was called Khokhloma. When the merchant was asked where he brought such a miracle, he willingly answered: “From Khokhloma!”. Since then, it was so customary to refer to the unusually beautiful, in the Russian folk style, the painting of Khokhloma.
Wood carving and painting under the Khokhloma are still quite popular Russian craft in some areas.
Features of the craft
Any folk craft is an integral part of arts and crafts. The main feature of the Khokhloma painting is a unique golden ebb. An interesting fact is that in fact in the painting there is not a drop of real gold.
Gold Khokhloma looks very rich
A scattering of colors, wonderful ornaments, the deep meaning of each drawing and symbolism - all this highlights the art of painting in folk style. Each craft has its own characteristics, which make the art of drawing recognizable throughout the world, Khokhloma is not an exception.
Painting Khokhloma quite diverse
The features are as follows:
- specific color scheme using only a few juicy shades, A popular combination of red and gold
high art of drawing Khokhloma has many small details.
exclusively handmade The work is delicate and painstaking
lack of strict geometry, smooth shapes and lines, Fine patterns Khokhloma
large figurative expressiveness of painting, Khokhloma painting is clear accents and bright patterns
This unique effect is achieved with the help of special technologies, the foundations of which have remained unchanged for several centuries.
Hand painted for Khokhloma
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So historically, that Russia at all times was famous for craftsmen, the fame of which went far beyond its borders. The fact is that our ancestors were able not only to create, but also to preserve all the traditions, passing them to their descendants. That is why each craft is not only an incredible aesthetics, but also a strict manufacturability of the process of creating a national masterpiece. It's all about the special secrets and rules that the masters follow today:
- The first stage is the manufacture of blanks. In Russia, such a process was called “to beat baklushi”. The work is extremely responsible and painstaking: first, bars of the right size are prepared, and then all the excess is “removed” from them with the help of special cutters. So the bars are given the clear shape of a spoon, bowl, plate, pot, cup or any other items. An important secret is that raw wood is used for blanks, so it must be properly dried. These are the workpieces obtained by the masters
Khokhloma consists of many traditional artistic techniques and techniques, knowing the secrets and features of which you can perform it yourself. The wooden dishes decorated with the painting in the Khokhloma style are not only beautiful, but also practical and eco-friendly.
Painting under Khokhloma allows you to create such masterpieces
Such painting is a classic of folk art. Those who know a lot about art call fishing “golden autumn”. And indeed, the palette, brilliance, incredibly soulful and understandable to everyone drawing - all this is permeated with the warmth and freshness of a clear autumn day.
What is the secret of such a unique art? The thing is that when applying the pattern uses a certain color range. This is due to the fact that iconography became the source of the Khokhloma painting, so many colors in such different crafts still overlap with each other. Traditional colors are gold, shades of red, black. Sometimes the pattern is complemented by yellow, green, brown, or white. So that the drawing was textured, clear and bright, according to tradition, oil based paints are used for painting. Drawing a picture is a creative process that requires not only an appropriate state of mind, but also certain knowledge.
Not utensils uniform
Today Khokhloma is used not only in the production of souvenirs or dishes. Khokhloma patterns are a new trend in the modern world of high fashion. They are part of the popular all over the world style a la russe, which has already managed to conquer many. The first to use Khokhloma ornaments in clothes was Denis Simachev. Blouses, skirts, tops, pants - all this was generously decorated with Khokhloma, which was a real revolution in the fashion world. In addition to the incredibly distinctive evening dresses, a unique collection of sportswear was presented, which was also decorated with Khokhloma folk motifs.
Since then, such an ornament adorned more than one collection, with each season only gaining momentum in popularity. Authentic prints in modern fashion help to create a unique and original image. But there is an important advice from stylists: if you wear a bright top, decorated with colorful gold ornaments, you should add the image with plain trousers or a skirt to achieve harmony and balance.
Today, the Khokhloma ornament is perceived by us as something native, light and incredibly picturesque. Luxury painting is not only able to decorate our home or fashionable image. Looking at the filigree patterns, pleasant memories come to mind, the eye is pleased with the riot of colors, the richness and ornateness of the ornament. Flawless Khokhloma, like no other craft, is capable of transmitting the warmth of the master’s hands and a part of his soul to us.
The craft originated in the second half of the XVII century in the villages of the Trans-Volga region. Khokhloma - a large sales center, "gave" the painting the corresponding name. A characteristic feature is gilding of wooden surfaces and generous decoration with various patterns. The free brush way allowed to work in two key areas at once: background painting and horse composition.
On the left bank of the Volga there were a lot of villages, where fishing flourished. Residents of the villages of Glibino, Khryashchi, Shabashi, Besdely, Mokushino brought goods to Khokhloma. The true homeland of Khokhloma is Koverninsky district of the Nizhny Novgorod region.
Coloring "under gold" is often associated with the Old Believers of the Trans-Volga region. They pursued the "old faith" and settled in the more often deaf forests. Among them were many talented artists who, using a thin brush pattern, wrote icons and decorated ancient books. The inhabitants of the Volga region succeeded in turning and woodcarving. The merger of two traditions gave birth to the Khokhloma trade. He absorbed the rich presentation and pretentiousness of icon painters, as well as the traditional forms and impeccability of the lines of craftsmen of the Trans-Volga region.
There are also some beautiful legends. One of them is about icon painter Andrei Loskuta, who at one time fled from the capital because of the reforms of the patriarch. He found shelter in the deep woods and continued to paint icons “in the old manner. However, the patriarch was informed of the whereabouts of the fugitive and that he was teaching the “old” icon letter of the residents of nearby villages. The icon painter-rebel burned himself voluntarily in a fire, before that bequeathing his students to preserve his skill.
According to another legend, in the thicket of the forest there lived an unknown master, to whom he himself had invented such a splendid letter on wood. From time to time, he bestowed on residents of nearby villages his creations. After some time, the fame of the marvelous master reached the king. He immediately sent his subordinates to the forest to bring the founder of the Khokhloma to the chambers. However, the master did not want to go into submission to the king. The talented stranger was never found. So from ordinary people and not taken away simple fishing.
(painted on a white background)
Traditional Khokhloma creations are to some extent paradoxical: the masters managed to create really complex compositions with the help of a rather poor palette of colors. Wealth and interesting texture formed by the obligatory golden base. "Under the gold" was either the background, or the key elements of the ornament.
(painted on black background)
Other central colors of the palette are black and red. It was possible to impart completeness and versatility to the pattern due to the use of white color and ocher.
(painting on red alle)
Much less common were murals on a turquoise, emerald, orange, scarlet background. The true goal of any Khokhloma master is to convey a high idea through perfectly matched colors, creating a complex and high-tech game of brush strokes.
Elements and motives of Khokhloma painting
There are "riding" and "background" letter. In the first case, the wizard forms a pattern on a gold background using black, red and white tones. It is with the example of the Khokhloma drawings that one can very clearly examine the whole “soul” of the Russian people, a special presentation, a warm and somewhat naive philosophy of an entire people. These are his well-known “grass knives” and “spikelets”, a love of still life, where the masters particularly generously used bright juicy colors, the ability to create complex compositions with delicate strokes.
Herbal painting represented by motives "under sedge." The oldest type of pattern is written with curls, brushstrokes, small berries, spikelets on a silvered background. Skillful craftsmen could form a motif of a hen or a rooster, which, for example, sits on a branch among dense foliage,
(berries and leaves)
"Berry" and "leaf" differs from the previous technique in larger “greasy” strokes. Masters form oval leaves, round berries, stylizing the composition with massive plant forms. Patterns with clusters or leaves, strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, large cherries are considered to be especially popular. On the placer of tulips, asters, buttercups, daisies, bells, the craftsmen managed to arrange currants, gooseberries and rowan,
"Gingerbread" or "camelina" usually performed inside cups, dishes, drinking bowls. These are geometric shapes that fit into a square or a rhombus. In the center draw the "sun". The periphery of the ornament is enriched with miniature details.
The top letter is always created with thin delicate brush strokes. The composition is light and airy, as if illuminated by a golden glow from the inside. As a rule, it is a rather simple way of applying paints, which allows to somehow improvise, alter the composition at your own discretion at the height of the work.
In the background letter initially form the canvas with outline shapes. Then paint the surrounding background with red and black paint. Background painting is more complicated and time consuming process. There is no place for improvisation, but the initial idea needs to be implemented exactly as the master invented at the very beginning.
Technique of Khokhloma painting
(In the art painting workshop, Semenov, USSR)
Prepared wood products are dried and primed with wapa or liquid clay. Billets dry for at least 7 hours. Then the wooden surface is carefully treated with linseed oil. Total procedure must be repeated 3-4 times during the day.
The next stage is tinning. Aluminum powder is rubbed into the wood. The procedure is performed manually using a leather swab. After that, the products become shiny and ready for painting.
For drawing a picture, only thin brushes of various “calibers” will fit. The finished drawing is left to dry for a while, and then opened with varnish. The final stage is hardening in a furnace at a temperature of +160 degrees. It was then that forms a luxurious "golden" film.
What is the difference between Khokhloma and Gorodetsky paintings
The unique Khokhloma painting is difficult to confuse with other folk crafts. Masters use only floral ornaments. The key feature of the painting is the golden background. Rich modulations are spectacularly shaded by laced horse-like drawings and massive large elements of a red-black palette with background painting.
Unlike Khokhloma, the Gorodetsky ornaments completely lack gold motifs. However, against the background of the minimal color palette of Khokhloma, the masters of the Gorodets painting used a lot of colors, playing with shades, modulations, whitening. If it is impossible to find situational drawings in the murals for Khokhloma, then in the Gorodetsky craft, images of various celebrations, entertainment events and just pictures of everyday life were popular.
These murals may seem similar only at first glance. Having carefully studied the characteristics of the industries it becomes clear that they are radically different from each other.