The plant is home to Sri Lanka and India, in which it has long been common in culture. It is grown not only in the gardens, but along the roads. In recent years, the wooden apple has been widely cultivated in the countries of Southeast Asia, especially in Malaysia and the Philippines. It grows well in a subtropical and tropical climate, does not tolerate frosts, light-requiring, but in general is very unpretentious.
Description of wooden apple fruits
The fruit is round in shape and has one interesting feature - a solid wood shell. Its diameter is from 5 to 12.5 centimeters. The inside of the fruit contains a sticky mealy pulp of brown color. It is very aromatic and has a sweet, slightly astringent taste. Inside the pulp are numerous small white seeds. By the way, this fruit has nothing to do with the apple. More like a mango or pineapple.
The flesh is consumed fresh. But in order to extract it from the fruit, you need to break the shell of the fruit with a solid object. It's not easy to do.
Useful properties of wooden apple
Wooden apple contains a lot of vitamins and mineral elements. It is rich in ß-carotene (provitamin A), as well as B group vitamins (especially thiamine and riboflavin). The content of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is not as high as that of other rut ones. The pulp of the fruit is rich in citric and other organic acids, mineral elements and mucus.
The plant leaves contain stigmasterin, bergapten, psoralen, orientin, tannins, saponins, and essential oils. Alkaloids, fatty acids, coumarins, sterols and other biologically active substances are found in the pericarp.
The pulp of the fruit is mixed with palm syrup, coconut milk and sugar, thus obtaining something like a sorbet. Wood apple is also widely used in the production of beverages, confectionery, jams, chutneys, jellies and jams.
In Sri Lanka, make a cream of fruit. In Indonesia, the pulp of ripe fruit is mixed with sugar and eaten, such a mixture for breakfast is especially popular. In Thailand, young green plants are used for the manufacture of salad.
In its homeland, it has long been used to treat digestive problems, diseases of the cardiovascular system, as well as to improve memory.
Ripe fruits of wooden apple have astringent and tonic effect, are used in the treatment of diseases of the stomach. And the immature fruits have an even more astringent effect, therefore they are used for diarrhea and even dysentery. For the same purpose, as well as for vomiting, indigestion and hiccups, the leaves of the plant are used.
Juice from the fruit of the plant is good for infectious diseases of the mouth and throat (stomatitis, gingivitis, tonsillitis, etc.).
The seeds contained in the fruit are used in the symptomatic treatment of heart disease.
In Indochina, the bark of the tree and the thorns cut from the branches are used in the preparation of decoction, which treat excessive menstruation, liver disease, nausea and bites.
From the trunks and branches of the tree get gum, which is used in medicine and painting. From the peel of the fruit produce dye for cotton and silk.
In Nepal, the people of Newara have a custom: girls are married first to this fruit! The fruit, which they refer to as “Bel,” personifies a peculiar deity that the parents of the “bride” choose for the girl. According to legends, this custom will allow a girl already “in real life” to avoid the fate of a widow, since if she is married to an immortal deity, then it’s impossible to become a widow.
Recently, a wooden apple is grown as a houseplant. It reproduces both seeds and cuttings. Begins to bear fruit in the 2-3rd year.
The wood of this plant is an excellent building material, as it is resistant to rotting. It is used in the construction of houses, the manufacture of pillars and agricultural tools.
The peel of a wooden apple is so strong that it can be used as a dish.
For many centuries, the pulp of the fruit has been used as soap and household detergent.
A sticky layer forms around the seeds in immature fruits, which is used as a very strong glue. It is used even in jewelry, and if this glue is mixed with lime, it will be completely waterproof and can be used as a putty.
The rind of the fruit of a wooden apple is rich in essential oils, therefore it is used as a fragrance for hair.
Lemon feronia is a member of the Ruta family, characterized by slow growth. It has its own distinctive features in appearance, taste, growing conditions.
The height of the trees varies from 2 to 10 meters. The bark is wrinkled, there are thorns up to 5 cm long, and the leaves are long (from 5 to 12.5 cm), dark green in color. When rubbed with fingers, the leaves emit a delicate aroma similar to citrus or aniseed.
Flowering occurs at about 15 year growth of the tree. In Malaysia, feronia blooms in February and March. Flowers appear in small panicles, have red petals up to 1 cm in length.
After some time, green fruits are formed, which gradually become gray. Externally, round fruit does not look like citrus. They have a fairly hard shell that is difficult to clean. The sizes of feronium are small - up to 12 cm in diameter. The inside of the fruit is white seeds and sticky knitting pulp, colored brown. It can be either sour (in unripe fruit) or sweet (in ripe fruit). The taste of a wooden apple is often compared to pineapple or mango.
The places of origin for the wooden apple are the territories of India and Sri Lanka. The plant is quite unpretentious, in these countries it can be wild-growing, sometimes it is planted along the roads in the gardens. Gradually, the area expanded to almost the whole of Southeast Asia. Fruit ripening times may vary in different countries, for example, in Malaysia, they reach their maturity in October-November, and in India, the harvest time of an ivory apple is a longer period (from October to March).
Indoor cultivation is quite rare, since nevertheless, it is necessary to create special conditions for the development of a wooden apple. Reproduction occurs in several ways, including using seeds. The soil should be well drained and fertilized. In order for the plant to develop properly, it should be located on the sunny side of the home. In the summer, provide moderate but constant watering. And the optimum temperature in the room is + 25-30 degrees Celsius.
An important factor is the increased humidity, which can be maintained by spraying. The autumn and winter period is associated with a significant reduction in irrigation, and temperature conditions are limited to a range of 16 to 18 degrees.
Chemical composition of feronium
The ripe fruit of the wooden apple fruit have a sweet taste and the maximum amount of healthy substances. Because of this, they are very popular with both locals and tourists.
Limonia acidissima is a low-calorie product. Calorie feronium is only 50 kcal, of which:
- Protein - 0.3 g, which is equivalent to 1 kcal (2%),
- Carbohydrates - 12 g, which equates to 48 kcal (96%),
- Fats - 0.2 g, and have an energy value of 2 kcal (4%).
Lemon feronia in its composition has a mass of beneficial substances, among which the most important for the body are the following:
- Beta carotene. This unsaturated hydrocarbon, entering the body, is transformed into an important vitamin A that enhances the protective functions of the body, reduces cholesterol in the blood, has a beneficial effect on the skin and organs of vision, accelerates tissue regeneration and supports immunity.
Riboflavin. This is a beauty vitamin, because It has a beneficial effect on the skin, nails and hair. Vitamin B2 is involved in most redox processes, because Included in many enzymes. A beneficial effect on the composition of the blood, immunity, participating in the formation of red blood cells and antibodies. It is important for protective, reproductive, regenerative processes, etc.
Thiamine. Participates in the exchange of organic substances in the body. Vitamin B1 is involved in the processes of nerve impulses. Beneficial effect on the brain, improves memory, attention, thinking, normalizes psycho-emotional state. Slows down aging, reduces the negative effects of tobacco and alcohol, and much more.
Vitamin C. Its content in feronium is insignificant, but the value does not weaken. Eating a wooden apple, you can increase your immunity, maintain a young skin. Vitamin C is actively involved in the formation of carnitine, which is the basis for the formation of energy in the body.
Tannins. These organic substances are good for the digestive tract, because have anti-inflammatory effects. Promote the elimination of carcinogenic substances from the body.
Ivory Apple Essential Oil. It is a wonderful flavoring.
Orientin. This is a flavonoid. Able to slow down the aging process, protect against the effects of free radicals, stimulates the growth of new cells, fights wrinkles.
Alkaloids. Contained in the pericarp. Used in the manufacture of medicines. Depending on the structure, they can have different effects (analgesic, stimulating, overwhelming, etc.)
Saponins. Improve the permeability of cell membranes. They contribute to the dilution of sputum in the bronchi, but can have a toxic effect on the gastrointestinal tract, causing vomiting, nausea. Possess diuretic, toning, sedative properties.
Gum. Contained in trunks and branches. It is used as thickeners, stabilizers in the food, paper and other types of industry.
Coumarins (psoralen). Contained in the pericarp. May have antispasmodic, antitumor effects, prevent the formation of blood clots.
Useful properties of Persian lemon
The chemical composition of citric feronium fully demonstrates its beneficial properties.
The beneficial effects of a wooden apple on the human body can be described as follows:
- Vision improvement. It occurs due to the supply of nutrients, while beta-carotene is the most important for the visual organs.
Improve body defenses. Strengthening immunity. Increased resistance to viruses and external influences. Actively used in the treatment of stomatitis and sore throat, has antipyretic properties.
Treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Fruit has an astringent effect in diarrhea. Relieves symptoms of vomiting, indigestion, hiccups.
Tonic effect. Improving memory and increasing concentration, increasing mental abilities.
How to eat an elephant apple
Lemon feronium fruits are considered edible, therefore they are used not only as a medicine, but also as a food product.
To clean a wooden apple, it should be split like a coconut, without using kitchen utensils, it is almost impossible to open the fruit.
Options for cooking an ivory apple:
- Purified pulp should be mixed with palm syrup, sugar and coconut milk to get fragrant sherbet.
Feronium pulp mixed with sugar is boiled over low heat to get jam.
The young leaves of the tree are used to make salads. This application is typical of the people of Thailand.
To quench your thirst you can make a drink. To do this, the core of the fruit is carefully kneaded and diluted with water (1.5-2 liters per fruit) with the addition of a small amount of sugar. This mixture should be infused for several hours. This recipe came from Sri Lanka.
Indonesians prefer to eat for breakfast the inside of lemon citron with sugar.
Mashed pulp can be added to fruit salads, to be used as a basis for making jelly.
The easiest way to buy a wooden apple is during the harvest period in the countries of Southeast Asia. In dried form, this fruit is supplied to large stores in our country. Tea can also be ordered online. Approximate prices for it: for 250 g - 340 rubles, for 100 g - 160 rubles.
Variants of use of feronium
So, the benefits of the fruit of an ivory apple are obvious to the human body, but there are other options for using this plant:
- The medicine. From the fruits, pericarp, feronium leaves make decoctions, medicines.
Cosmetology. The pulp of the wooden fruit is used to create creams to improve the skin, decoctions for rinsing oxen in order to give them a pleasant smell. Feronium essential oil is used in the manufacture of shampoos.
Chemical industry. With the special processing of the peel, resistant dyes are produced for fabrics such as chintz and silk.
Household use. A sticky mass is used as a household glue, which is formed around the still immature seeds. The same material is used in jewelry. The dense skin in some cases serves as a dish, and with the help of the core you can wash your hands or dishes.
Watch the video about feronii:
Wooden apple (feronium): properties
Calories: 50 kcal.
Energy value of the product Wooden apple (feronium):
Protein: 0.3 g.
Fat: 0.2 g
Carbohydrates: 12 g.
Wooden apple (elephant apple or furoniya) - plant of rut family. For the first time learned about this fruit in India and Sri Lanka. Today it is also possible to meet this plant in Southeast Asia.
Round gray fruits have a fairly hard wood shell and reach a diameter of no more than 12 cm (see photo). Inside is a mealy knitting pulp of brown color, which is distinguished by its sweetness and stickiness. It has a large number of small white seeds.
As far as taste is concerned, feronia with an apple has nothing in common, it looks more like pineapple or mango. To enjoy the pulp, a solid shell will have to break like a coconut.
The beneficial properties of feronium are possible due to its vitamin and mineral composition. Thus, the composition of the wooden apple includes vitamin A, which is necessary for vision and helps reduce the risk of various eye diseases. Due to the content of ascorbic acid, the fruits increase and strengthen the immune system, as well as help the body to resist the effects of viruses and infections.
Feronia has astringent and tonic effect. In addition, the fruit helps to improve memory and stimulate mental abilities.
A wooden apple is considered a low calorie product. Feronium contains proteins, carbohydrates and fats.. In addition, the composition of this fruit includes nutrients that have a positive effect on human health, namely:
- Beta-carotene. This substance helps to reduce the level of cholesterol in the blood, accelerate the regeneration of skin tissue, strengthen the immune system, as well as improve visual perception.
- Vitamin C. It helps strengthen the immune system and helps to saturate the body with a substance such as carnitine.
- Tannins. Normalize the work of the stomach and intestines, helping to remove the inflammatory process.
- Orientin. It slows down the aging process, smoothes wrinkles and ensures the growth of new cells.
- Riboflavin. Maintains hair, skin and nails in good condition. It also has a positive effect on the composition of the blood and is actively involved in the formation of antibodies and red blood cells.
- Thiamine This substance has a positive effect on brain activity, activating thinking, memory, attention and helping to stabilize the psycho-emotional state. In addition, thiamine in the composition of feronium can slow down the aging process, as well as reduce the effect of alcohol and tobacco on the body.
Since the wooden apple contains such a tremendous amount of various useful substances, the medicinal plant provides:
- treatment of gastrointestinal diseases (diarrhea, and also helps to get rid of vomiting and hiccups),
- enhancing the protective functions of the body (strengthening the immune system, getting rid of sore throat, stomatitis),
- pain relief during the menstrual cycle,
- улучшение зрительного восприятия (благодаря тому, что в организм поступает бета-каротин),
- improved memory, thought processes and good concentration.
Based on this, it can be said that a wooden apple gives the body a mass of beneficial and healing substances that have a beneficial effect on the overall body system and overall health.
The flesh of a wooden apple eat as a standalone product or used in cooking as an ingredient for other dishes. The fruits are used to make sorbet, mousse, jelly and other desserts. Different drinks are made from the juicy pulp of feronium, and it is also used as a filler for candy, yogurt, ice cream, etc. In addition, jam and jam are made from this fruit. Use a wooden apple and in canned fruit. In Sri Lanka, the pulp is made into a cream that is used in various pastries and confectionery.
In Thailand, they eat not only the elephant apple itself, but also the young leaves of the plant, which are great for salads.
The fruits of wooden apple are edible, and therefore are used in many recipes for making all kinds of desserts.
How do they eat an elephant apple? For example, to get a delicious sherbet, you need fruit pulp, and for this you should first split the feronium (like coconut). After the fruit pulp of an elephant apple is mixed with syrup, coconut milk and sugar.
But to boil the jam, the feronium pulp is mixed with sugar and boiled over a quiet fire.
To quench their thirst, the people of Sri Lanka prepare a refreshing drink from an elephant apple. It will be necessary to dilute the pulp of one ripe feronium fruit with the addition of a small amount of sugar in two liters of water. Drink infused for several hours, and then consumed.
The people of Indonesia are very fond of eating a little wooden apple with sugar in the morning for breakfast.
The chopped pulp of feronium can also be put in various fruit salads or used to make sweet jelly.
Even from the dried fruit slices make tea, which is first brewed, and then allowed to infuse a little. It is recommended to add either honey or sugar to this tea in order to increase the taste of a hot drink.
The benefits of wooden apple and treatment
The use of wooden apple (feronii) is widely used in traditional medicine. For example, fruit juice is recommended for stomatitis and sore throat. Unripe fruits have an astringent effect, so it will be useful to use them for diarrhea and dysentery.
Broth, prepared on the basis of leaves, it is useful to use for vomiting, hiccups and stomach problems.
Feronium seeds, which are used during the treatment of heart diseases, also have useful properties.
Even in folk medicine, used spines and bark of the plant, which help with heavy menstruation, liver problems and nausea.
Now we will describe what the plant itself looks like. The fruit of a wooden apple has a gray-green color of a round shape, growing up to 12 cm in diameter and having a solid wood shell. Inside it is a sweet and sour aromatic knitting pulp of brown color with a lot of white small seeds, which are also edible. Fruits appear on tall, slow-growing trees, with dark green foliage, when rubbed with a lemon smell.
The homeland of an elephant apple is Sri Lanka and India, where it is possible to meet this tree everywhere. It is also widely cultivated throughout Southeast Asia.
We get to the edible part and try overseas fruit
Those who have never tried this unusual fruit will immediately ask themselves the question: “How is it eaten?” Now we will describe the whole process. To get to the edible flesh of the fruit, you need to break the wood shell of the fruit, several times tapping it with a full force with a hammer or a heavy object. The edible part appeared cut out with a knife, cut into pieces and consumed.
The taste of the fruit is sweet and sour, absolutely not like our apple, but it resembles pineapple or plum. Unripe fruit is very sour and not everyone will like it.
In Sri Lanka, the elephant apple is most often used to make thirst-quenching drinks. To do this, finely chop the fruit, diluted in 2 liters of water, add a small amount of sugar and leave to infuse for several hours. Sometimes coconut milk or banana is added for sweetness.
Storehouse of healing substances
Lemon feronia is unique not only in its taste, but also in its composition. It contains such extremely useful substances as:
- vitamins A, B1, B2,
- vitamin C,
- micro and macronutrients (iron, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, etc.),
- essential oils,
Sweet and sour doctor
Due to the presence of the above substances, lemon citron has a beneficial effect on the human body, namely:
- Ascorbic acid strengthens the immune system, helps fight colds, is a powerful antioxidant.
- Vitamin A has a beneficial effect on the organs of vision, improves the condition of the skin and hair, is involved in cell regeneration and the immune system.
- Orientin (flavonoid) slows down the aging process, restores the skin’s natural protective barrier and fights free radicals.
- Thiamine (vitamin B1) improves the functioning of the nervous system, is involved in metabolism.
- Tannins improve the work of the gastrointestinal tract, have anti-inflammatory properties.
- Alkaloids have an analgesic effect, improve the condition of blood vessels.
- Saponins remove phlegm from the bronchi, also have a diuretic and tonic effect.
- Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is a beauty vitamin, participates in redox processes, is important for reproductive and protective function.
- Coumarins prevent the formation of blood clots, have an antispasmodic effect.
Everywhere is useful
Ivory apple is used in various industries, sometimes even quite unexpected:
- In cooking. Wooden apple is not only used as a separate product, but also used in many recipes. From the pulp of feronia lemon make sherbet, jellies, mousses and other desserts. It is also used to make drinks, smoothies and cocktails. The edible portion is added to fruit salads. In addition, jams and preserves, creams for cakes, fillers for ice cream, sweets, yogurts, etc. are made from wooden apples.
In some countries, the young leaves of wooden apple are added to salads.
From the dried fruit pieces of this fruit brew healthy tea.
- In folk medicine. From the fruits and leaves make infusions or decoctions. Juice is squeezed out of the pulp and also used to treat diseases.
- In cosmetology. The edible part is used for the production of creams and lotions for the face, shampoos and balms for hair. Rinse curls with decoction after washing.
- In the chemical industry. Fabric dyes are made from recycled peels.
- At home. The glue used is a sticky mass that forms around unripe seeds. Thick peel is sometimes used as a dish.
- In construction. Due to the dense structure of feronium wood is extremely popular in the construction of houses, pillars and other structures. It is also used for the manufacture of agricultural tools. The sticky flesh is mixed with lime and coated with the composition of the wall to get a waterproof layer.
If you are interested in this overseas fruit, now you can order it in online stores. And you can make a healthy smoothie or bake a delicious ivory pie.