From the beginning of the 15th century in Germany, buildings began to be erected, bearing in them were sections of dark-colored wooden beams connected at certain angles.
Soon throughout Europe, they began to build houses for various purposes, the wooden beams in the construction of which not only served as a frame, but at the same time were important decorative elements. The free space between the panels was filled with insulation: saman, clay, bricks. To protect structures from rotting, the basement floors were lined with stones.
Thus, the architectural style Fachwerk was formed. The term itself comes from the German words Fach (section, panel) and Werk (construction).
The technology turned out to be so profitable that after a few centuries, the construction of such buildings continues to be actively conducted around the world.
Half-timbered houses have several directions, which are characterized by the following distinctive features:
▫ Franconian style. Architectural designs of houses and cottages in Thuringia, Westphalia and North Rhine have been completed. Characteristic of multi-storey, symmetry of the facade decor and curved lines of the patterns. Be sure to have an attic.
▫ South German Gothic or Alemanian. Refers to southwestern German architecture. Houses have a high roof, which unites two or more sloping levels. Mandatory pair bolts and vertical racks.
▫ The Lower Saxon half-timbered style is distinguished by a large number of facade decorations.
▫ Columbazh. This style of architectural housing projects in France. Differs existing vertical racks, which are located on all walls of the building.
Houses built in this style became especially popular in the 16th century. In the past century, these architectural projects again interested many developers.
The main elements of the style
Improvement of construction technologies and the emergence of new materials contributed to the further development of this style, which is successfully used today for the construction of not only individual luxury homes and cottages, but also for architectural complexes and entire villages.
At the heart of a modern house in the style of Fachwerk can be a frame made of laminated timber, steel or reinforced concrete. To fill the free space between the purlins used foam block, aerated concrete, insulation. Recently used mineral wool or polypropylene plates with membrane layers - windproof and moisture proof. Instead of the usual window units install windows.
In the second half of the last century, the renovated Fachwerk appeared. The original and unusual steel look at home with a finish in the form of a solid glass facade and frames of modern materials. Sometimes install tinted glass or light dusting.
When panoramic windows use single-chamber double-glazed windows with multifunctional or energy-saving glass, with argon filler. Windows may have additional features, such as:
- protection of the room from overheating and powerful ultraviolet rays,
- self-darkening - achieved by installing an electrically-chrome package with a blue or white tint,
- installation of packages with armored glass,
- double-glazed windows with electric heating.
If earlier the supporting frame was not hidden inside the premises, then with modern planning, gypsum-fiber plates are used for this.
Common features of modern half-timbered buildings are expressed in light walls with a prominent bar of dark color wood. Contrast patterns that are formed by a bar are called colors, shapes, geometry, and a cross.
A distinctive feature of houses of this type is considered floor protrusions, which initially provided protection of the front wall of the first floor from precipitation, and subsequently contributed to an increase in living space. At the stage of individual design, the question of the number of floors in a building, the presence of terraces and balconies, and the number of entrance groups is also discussed. You can choose for your future home look and material for the frame and its individual elements, which will significantly affect its exterior design.
Facade of the house in the style of fachwerk
The uniqueness of the half-timbered houses lies in the fact that the outside of the frame is not covered and concealed. It is easy to determine the style of this structure, since the facade of the building is divided by bearing elements into separate planes. The glazing area of half-timbered houses can reach up to 75%, but in a cold climate and sudden changes in temperature, such construction is considered unprofitable. In this case, use of architectural projects, where there is no panoramic windows and the area of window and door openings is small, often used to imitate the frame, using the overhead decorative elements.
The roof of the building in this style is usually gable, there is no attic, the overhangs are wide. To cover the roof tile is used, or its modern and cheaper counterpart - metal.
To imitate facades in the style of half-timbered houses, buildings erected from a wide variety of building materials, having basically any design, will be suitable. The best decorative beams and bars are obtained from polyurethane, which is almost indistinguishable from wood, and is not exposed to moisture and is not damaged by insects.
Little about the overall design
Currently, architects have created a huge number of different half-timbered house projects, with the original design of the facades, which can be complemented by other styles, such as:
▫ classic minimalism - a characteristic feature of which is large windows, built-in furniture and combined rooms,
▫ American ranch - cheap materials, asymmetrical design, the maximum area of the first floor,
▫ German version of country style - involves the functionality and practicality of the whole environment, creating a unique comfort due to the use of high-quality materials in the design of the house, the presence in the interior of modern technical means, the thoughtfulness of the location of decorative elements.
Sometimes it is allowed to combine several styles to get the best effect in the design of the facade and its logical completeness.
The main positive quality is considered to be an excellent microclimate inside the house, created by the properties of natural wood to let in air and release useful substances even after processing. Wood has a low coefficient of thermal conductivity and can reliably protect the housing in the event of a cold snap. The finished timber can improve not only the facade of the building, but also its interior, thus creating an original interior design.
Half-timbered houses in European countries
The improvement of carpentry skills, the accumulation of construction experience, the desire for low-cost housing in the 15th century led to the emergence of the fachwerk technology of building buildings in Germany. Such houses have become widespread throughout Europe, particularly in its northern regions, from Poland to Brittany. The name of the design scheme fully reflects its essence and comes from the German "Fach" (panel) and "Werk" (construction).
Medieval buildings on the Römberg square in Frankfurt am Main, Germany:
In Europe in the Middle Ages, structures were made of solid wood, and the free space of wall planes was filled with a mixture of clay and straw, reed, branches and other debris. The combination of racks, beams and bracings left in the original form, and plastered surfaces gave a special peculiarity to the narrow facades. Well-off citizens could afford to use expensive wood panels decorated with carvings. At the moment, there are such houses that are over 500 years old.
Since 1995, the historical part of the German city of Quedlinburg, where more than 1,300 objects of colorful architecture have survived, has been protected by UNESCO:
The revival of the popularity of half-timbered houses
Traditional half-timbered constructions made of modern materials look no less impressive than the medieval ones.
The epoch of mass individual construction in the 1970s gave a new birth to technology, but in a rethought, futuristic form, in which the famous German school Bauhaus played a significant role. Instead of wood at this time, architects began to use reinforced concrete and steel. The popularity acquired large glass planes, which replaced the blank walls. The invention of laminated wood over several decades has made it possible to embody an old building technology in a new way. This material is more durable and perfect compared to the traditional bar. At the moment, such houses in an updated form are very prestigious and popular in Sweden, Switzerland, Germany and many other countries, with the USA and Canada being no exception.
Due to the development of technology and changes in architectural tastes, the style has now acquired new variations:
- frame that does not have diagonal elements,
- large panoramic windowsproviding excellent lighting and having good thermal insulation qualities
- half-timbered imitation, performed using the overlaid wooden elements mounted on pre-plastered walls - this option is purely decorative.
From the house Kager with the windows of the windows a beautiful view of the surroundings.
Features of the design scheme of the house
The main feature of the fakhverka is the performance of the supporting functions of the frame, while the walls serve exclusively for enclosing the premises. The use of frame-frame technology allows you to simultaneously save building materials and reduce the weight of the building, which makes it possible to build a lightweight foundation, ensure the stability and rigidity of the building, minimize the construction time.
Bearing elements of the walls and roofs are made of glued laminated timber, mainly pine. Racks and horizontal girders form the skeleton of the walls. Diagonal braces provide frame stiffness and seismic resistance of the structure. The timber of the bottom trim is attached to the foundation, covered with a layer of waterproofing, by means of anchor bolts. On the side of the floor insulation is performed with polystyrene foam.
The internal partitions have a frame structure and are made of timber fixed to the supporting elements with frame dowels and filled with soundproofing material.
Assembly of bearing parts is traditionally carried out by means of fairly complex and precise connections - cuttings, dovetail, blind spike and the like. At the moment it is allowed to use metal corners, plates, brackets in especially important fixings. They are desirable to arrange in places inaccessible gaze.
Filling the frame cells is carried out after the installation of window and door units. For this purpose, use almost any plate materials:
- antiseptic pine wood,
- polymer panels - the most common and budget option,
- cement particle boards (DSP),
- gypsum-fiber boards (GVL),
- waterproof plywood.
A variety of finishing options allows you to create both strict and elegant facades, for which blanks are pre-painted with moisture-resistant compositions or choose a colored lining. Then the material is fastened to the structure frame with the help of screws. Warm the house with the help of mineral wool made of basalt or quartz fiber.
Exterior finish options:
The currently popular solution is stained glass glazing from heat-saving low-emission glazing based on argon aggregates. They reduce heat loss and, consequently, the cost of heating. Most of the glazing is deaf, packages with opening transoms are mounted in separate cells. Windows are inserted directly into the frame with a preselected quarter.
Interesting! Since antiquity, the facades of half-timbered houses were decorated with amulets:
- imitation of the letter "S" on the corners - protection from lightning,
- sockets, symbolizing the sun, attract abundance and wealth,
- creepy masks at the corners drive away evil spirits,
- a symbol resembling “F” protects against fire.
Facade decorated with rosettes
The electrical and water distribution is done inside the floor cakes. All communications are laid in corrugated hoses. Polyethylene pipelines are used for water supply. In homes, especially of stained glass type, a practical solution is the installation of underfloor heating. Wiring to sockets, switches, lighting fixtures is performed inside partitions. Often arranged a complex system of forced ventilation.
Roof construction and coating
The roof of the house is traditionally truss with two or four slopes, but there are also modern architectural solutions with a flat roof. A characteristic feature is the absence of an attic and an attic, the presence of wide overhangs protecting walls from precipitation.
Metal roofing, ondulin, various types of soft roofing can be used as a roof covering. The use of natural weight tiles or slate with significant weight is undesirable - they increase the load on the supporting structures. The concept of stained glass can be continued on the part of the roof. Modern technologies offer for this purpose electrochromic translucent fillings that provide automatic shading and high durability of the coating.
At the moment, the roof can have quite bizarre configurations with the traditional overhang of levels and a large removal of overhangs.
Features of interior design
The most common styles of forming the internal space of the house correspond to its appearance - it is country, Provence, eco-style, Scandinavian, minimalism, which is characterized by an abundance of light, free layouts, some asceticism and light shades. Less often you can meet the classics or postmodernism. The high-tech interior with its minimalism and abundance of metal looks perfect.
Structural elements in the interior:
The minimalist interior of the bedroom is formed by dark ceiling beams, contrasting with light shades of finish:
Ultra-modern interior in high-tech style, built on the contrast:
Option living room with a panorama of the river:
The tree in the interior sets its style:
Pros and cons of the half-timbered technology
Buildings are pleasing to the eye with accuracy and lightness, but from a practical point of view, they are characterized by the convenience of the construction process - it is similar to the assembly of the designer and is carried out in a short time with minimal effort. At the same time, the constructions are distinguished by a long service life and durability - three-hundred-year-old buildings are still preserved in excellent condition.
The advantages of houses include:
- the possibility of designing premises of any dimensions without the construction of internal load-bearing walls,
- aesthetic appeal
- high speed of construction relative to brick, stone and timber houses,
- environmental friendliness
- lack of shrinkage and ease of construction, allowing the use of lightweight foundations,
- opportunities for the implementation of design ideas,
- resistance to deformation and seismic activity,
- the possibility of using panoramic glazing due to the fact that there is practically no shrinkage,
- ease in disguise engineering communications,
- the possibility of overlapping beams large spans.
The style allows you to implement the most daring architectural ideas, creating spectacular exteriors - lightweight external stairs are perfectly combined on the facades with structural elements and a roof of an unusual configuration:
Unfortunately, humanity has not invented the ideal style of construction, but most of the problems over several centuries of the construction of half-timbered houses have been solved. The walls of adobe have essentially lost to brick constructions in the ability to retain heat, but at the moment the situation has been changed by the emergence of new innovative heaters.
The disadvantages of technology include:
- high construction cost:
- low fire safety, which is typical for all wooden houses,
- the need for regular processing of special means to protect the wood from damage by insects, fungi, mold.
Impressions of people living in half-timbered houses
From the cozy country house with stained glass windows on the first floor there is a view of the lawn and the surrounding forest, which makes it possible to feel unity with nature.
Reviews of owners of cottages are diverse, but mostly they have a positive or neutral color. The hosts emphasize that building them, especially projects involving panoramic glazing, preferably outside the city. Such houses are characterized by increased comfort, excellent natural light, sound insulation and heat-saving qualities. Но при выборе варианта с большими остекленными плоскостями, даже в средней полосе России расходы на отопление оказываются на 30% выше, чем при эксплуатации обыкновенных зданий.
В отзывах отдельно подчеркивается просторность комнат и тот факт, что все коммуникации спрятаны в пол и не портят вид интерьера. The universality of architecture is noted - you can decorate the interior space in any contemporary modern style. The most popular at the moment is country, minimalism, hi-tech.
The reviews also noted the inconvenience of buildings that are common to all wooden houses. It is a necessity in strict compliance with fire safety and regular processing of structures to protect against mold and insects.
Buildings can be erected according to the finished drawings or individual projects. The main difficulty of their development is the required maximum detailing of all structural elements. For example, if their construction requires 1000, then each of them must be separately calculated and drawn. The same applies to all nodes, connections, and so on.
The project of the house “Davinci-haus” with an area of 579 m 2 on the slope and bank of the river from the company LLC “Leadwood House” is distinguished by originality and blends harmoniously into the surrounding landscape:
Interior pool overlooking the river:
Lower tier layout with pool, bar and gym:
Second tier with a spacious living room:
Copenhagen with an area of 381 m2 with panoramic windows from the company freeDomHaus in the village of Liikola Slub, located in the Leningrad region:
Plan of the 1st floor with office and SPA-zone:
Floor plan of the 2nd floor with 4 bedrooms and a spacious dressing room:The Accord 162 project with an area of 241 m 2, developed by the Finnish company Lumi Solar:
1st level with two terraces, a veranda and a flowing space of the common area:
2nd level with a second living room light and an internal balcony:
The mansion with an area of 224 m 2 with a partial panoramic filling of the planes with double-glazed windows from the ASPDOM studio:
Level 1 Plan:
Four-bedroom mansard plan:
The project of the company "Good Wood" with an area of 184 m 2
Layout of the 1st floor:
Attic floor layout:
A variant of an unusual cottage with an area of 244 m 2 with a flat roof from the studio “Fаhwerk”:
Living room - wooden beams create comfort in the room:
Plan of the 1st floor with spacious terraces and free connection zones:
Plan of the 2nd floor with a second living room and gallery:
The Euro House project with an area of 259.47 m 2 - the development of the Drevgrad studio. Dark wood and panoramic windows harmoniously fit into the forest landscape:
Layout of the 1st floor with garage, two terraces, common area and office:
Layout of the 2nd floor with two bedrooms and a second light above the living room:
One-storey cottage from the company "Modern wooden houses" - white painted wood is combined with large glass planes:
Cottage plan with free flow of common area, 4 bedrooms and sauna:
The “Hannover” mansion with an area of 234 m2 from INTECH company with a cement-sand tile roof:
Plan of the 1st floor with a common area, garage and guest room:
Plan of the attic floor with 3 bedrooms:
The project of a cottage with an area of 118 m 2 with filling of walls with ceramic blocks and a tiled roof from the company "Z500":
1st level with common areas, office and terrace:
Attic level with 3 bedrooms:
Modern half-timbered houses
Historically, such houses in different countries differed depending on the architectural style that was relevant during the construction and on national features. Currently, the most elite option - the presence of panoramic windows, filling the frame. A comfortable indoor climate is created through the use of modern technical equipment of the home. Traditional brick, concrete blocks, sandwich panels can also be used to fill the walls.
Half-timbered architecture - non-standard approach:
The peculiarity of "rural romance" in a modern version:
Cottage-castle from a fairy tale of childhood:
Terraced half-timbered construction - the optimal solution for the southern regions:
Examples of German half-timbered houses
In modern Germany, there are close to 2 million buildings of this type. There are several styles of German buildings, but their general tendency is the striving for the original decor of the facades.
Modern use of structures for the bridge in Berlin:
Another interpretation of the half-timbered architecture in the high-rise architecture of Germany:
The option of preserving historic buildings in Kramerburg:
Half-timbered buildings with stained glass
Glazing can reach 60% of the external wall areathat today is a sign of high-end construction. Such a decision "blurs" the boundaries of the house, contributing to the unity of man and the surrounding landscape.
Panoramic glazing in a modern variation of the house is, first of all, the possibility of merging the interior and the surrounding landscape, the opportunity for man to feel one with the world, not delimiting yourself with it:
For example, being in a house, stay ashore:
In the forest, too, not bad, despite the radically modern approach to architecture:
Notice! Outside, the landscape can also be reflected, but your personal life remains hidden from prying eyes:And this office is a half-timbered structure with innovative glass packs:
One-story half-timbered houses
This is the most affordable option for a cottage of this type, despite the use of modern materials and technologies. The height of one floor, without an attic, provides extreme ease of construction, which saves on the construction of the foundation and the entire building. The area of such houses, not exceeding 100 m 2, makes it easy to place them in small plots and provide comfortable conditions for a family of 3 people.
Cottage "Kova Fahverk" made in the traditional style with the addition of a spacious terrace and large windows on the facade, illuminating the living room:
Compact home with an unusual shape with sun details is ideal for privacy:
A cottage with an area of 122 m 2 provides comfortable conditions for a family:
Unusual implementation of technology from the "wild" logs:
Price and construction time "turnkey"
Due to the specificity of the design solutions, the cost of designing and constructing a half-timbered building is significantly higher than the usual frame house. The total amount depends on the complexity of the architectural, structural, engineering parts of the project, the materials used. The construction of the supporting frame of the house costs an average of about $ 300. The remaining funds are filling of wall structures, erection of partitions, roofing, finishing works, laying of utilities.
The choice of the project depends only on your needs, taste preferences and financial possibilities:
Full construction period, which can be done at any time of the year, ranges from 3 to 6 months. When the project is completely ready, the production of the frame in production takes up to 2 weeks, the same amount - its assembly on the site. The remaining work can be completed in 2 months.
The important moments of building their own hands
Half-timbered houses are one of the most complex frame technologies, therefore the construction of such a building is the most reliable to trust specialists. Independent construction of a cottage requires serious skills and experience with wooden structures, thorough knowledge of the calculation of the rigidity of spatial schemes. A negative example exists now near St. Petersburg - a large number of half-timbered houses due to the violation of technology soon collapsed, although in Europe they stand for centuries.
Not the most technologically difficult for the construction of their own hands option:
The manufacturer supplies to the construction site finished wooden structures, pre-treated with insect repellent and rot and having grooves for connecting parts. When assembling a house with your own hands, it is required to consider the technological sequence of work:
- the first stage is the construction of the basement, as a rule, of the light type, with a width of up to 0.5 m,
- the device of waterproofing and laying strapping with fastening the timber with anchors,
- assembling a frame from glued timber exactly according to the schemes provided by the manufacturer,
- construction of internal partitions from a bar of smaller section with their fixing to semi-frame dowels,
- installing roof rafters
- installation of wall panels so that the frame elements remain outside,
- heat insulation,
- laying of engineering communications in the floor and frame,
- when using panoramic glazing - installation of floor heating systems,
- roof covering
- exterior and interior.
Even this, at first glance, a complex project can be realized with your own hands:
The choice of the half-timbered style is an excellent way to demonstrate one's own originality and at the same time a certain commitment to the classics. It is especially relevant nowadays, when people, thanks to modern technologies, are practically independent of climatic conditions. Today, there are ample opportunities to replace a simple copy of the style with the addition of new unusual elements to it.
External support beams
Its most important feature is the bearing beams, which traditionally did not hide the facing, which visually traced the house into segments. The classic version of the fakhverka: beams of dark, stained wood and light walls. How did they achieve such an effect in the 15th century and now?
At first, a frame was built of wooden beams: horizontal, vertical and diagonal, after this cavity between them was filled with adobe - hardening filler made of clay and straw.
Now, although the construction of frame houses continues to this day, there is no need to deny yourself a stone dwelling, even if you set yourself a firm goal to build a half-timbered cottage. This can be realized both in the version with a wooden frame, filled with bricks, or using plain plaster in the lining, and the external wooden structures to be mounted as a decorative element.
Light walls and dark beams
Half-timbered peculiar clear color separation. The frame beams were dark tones, while the walls were treated with light plaster.
Previously, wood color was due to the peculiarity of wood processing, and colored plaster was rare and was not particularly appreciated.
But now nothing is holding you back. If you wish, you can use any type of wood - especially if the frame part is exclusively decorative. Or paint it in any color. Even invert - make the wood white and the walls dark. But remember that such experiments great damage the atmosphere of the style.
Overhang of the second floor above the first
This feature can often be found in historic half-timbered houses. This created a specific silhouette of such buildings and allowed to make elegant canopies over the entrance door.
The reasons for this feature are not in the expansion of space, as many believe, but in an attempt to protect a tree exposed to water from rain. By overhanging, the builders ensured that the water flowed immediately to the ground, without touching the lower floors.
In view of the modernity of the materials, methods of their protection from the external environment and the frequent decorativeness of half-timbered structures, the practical expansion of the upper floors is of no practical use. However, you can resort to this method for authenticity, increasing the usable area or to make a canopy over the porch or veranda.
One of the features of the fakhverkogovogo style - many small windows. The facade could be simply stuck with them, which, up to a certain point, creates a truly cozy look.
In the Middle Ages, this was due to the fact that it was not possible to make large windows, and glass as a material was expensive and difficult to access. Especially in the variants when the floor was divided into many small rooms, in each of them it was necessary to make a window.
Nothing limits you either in the number of windows or in their size. But installing a malicious panoramic window in the half of the wall is a sure way to kill the whole coziness of a half-timbered atmosphere. It is better to arrange several windows in a row, which, by the way, is more rational from the point of view of ventilation.
Attic or high roofs
Equally important in creating a sharp silhouette of half-timbered houses are roofs. Usually they were made attic or very high, which in the transfer to the narrow streets of old Europe formed a “toothed” silhouette of residential quarters.
The shape of the roof was due to two factors: the protection of the house from precipitation and the desire to expand the usable space at the expense of the attic. Given the density of the building, another half-house under the roof was simply necessary.
Building a house on your own plot, you are limited only by its size and you do not have any urgent need to organize an attic. But a sharp roof is an indispensable element of a half-timbered house and one cannot get away from it if you want to endure style.
And still, sloping roofs do a good job with our rainfall and lots of snow.
Vertical orientation of buildings
Almost all the half-timbered buildings, especially the early ones, were striving upwards. If you look at the streets in the old cities of Germany, regardless of style, the houses are located closely and almost crawl over each other.
This is due to the already mentioned narrowness peculiar to the cities of Europe: the usable spaces were occupied by pulling upwards.
If you build a house on your plot, most likely this problem is not worth it for you. And not everyone likes to jump up the stairs to the fourth floor. However, it will not be superfluous to make at least one turret, as a tribute to the specific feature of the half-timbered houses.
These are the main features of the half-timbered style. Of course, there are much more details there, but we have described enough to harmoniously stylize a modern house under construction from the 15th century.
Half-timbered houses are an old architectural style that has tightly entered the culture. And although the tradition to design country houses in different historical manners has a place to be, half-timbered houses are an infrequent guest in our latitudes. What is strange, given that the high, "Gothic" outlines of these German houses are in tune with our Russian architectural styles, and very many admit the external cosiness of the half-timbered houses.
The choice of this particular style is a good way to show both your dedication and commitment to a certain classic. Especially now, when we are almost not kept by climatic conditions, there is an opportunity not only to blindly copy this style, but also to bring something new and unusual into it.
Do you like the houses in the style of fakhverk and you desperately wanted to build just that? Feel free to contact TopDom architectural bureau - our designers, architects and builders will create for you an individual project of a country house in the style of fachwerk and quickly bring it to life as a result of complex construction.
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Historically, half-timbered houses appeared in the Middle Ages. The first building dates back to 1347, and it is located in Germany in Quedlinburg. It has historical significance as an architectural monument.
Gradually, this type of houses begins to cover the whole of Europe, especially the northern countries. Due to the fact that carpentry is flourishing due to the take-off of shipbuilding, the rise of buildings is also felt in the art of erection of buildings. The main achievement of the popularity of this technology is wood savings, because the design does not provide for the construction of massive and thick bearing walls, the technique is to create a strong vertical frame.
The word fachwerk has German roots and comes from the combination of the words Fach, which means a panel or section, and Werk - a structure.
Bearing frame consists of solid wooden vertical posts, horizontal beams, diagonal braces. Thanks to all these elements, the structure acquires a serious fundamentality and reliability, because half-timbered houses built in the 15th century in Germany, Poland, Britain and other countries still adorn the streets of the old part of cities and are their hallmark.
Since the design does not provide for the erection of walls, the cells between the beams in the Middle Ages were filled with clay saman, strengthened with a fence from thin branches, formed after the drying of the clay, the gaps were covered with wool. The plastered surface was ready for painting.
In modern construction, the methods of erecting interior partitions are much more technological, fast and convenient. The most popular and inexpensive material for this is drywall. Между двух гипсокартоновых плит прокладывается минеральная вата или любой другой шумо- и тепло-изоляционный материал, внешняя поверхность стены штукатурится, декорируется обоями или окрашивается.More costly and expensive internal and external walls are built of brick and stone.
Save on the construction of external walls will help the sandwich panels. This building material has a three-layer structure. The outer webs are made of a hard durable material (metal, PVC), and the inner layer is designed for heat and noise insulation.
In the creation of the frame, modern technologies also have a place to be. Medieval construction to serve for such a long time helped the feature of the vertical location of the beams, because the water from the rain flowed down them, never linger, and thus did not destroy the wooden base. But the new method of creating glued bars increases the service life of such a house, in addition, the feature of the material does not allow the house to quickly ignite in the event of a fire, and also saves from the appearance of mold.
Classic German half-timbered houses are, as a rule, a box with a high gable tiled roof. On the white-plastered or red-bricked walls, the entire construction of the beams painted in dark color is clearly visible. In this case, this design is functional and decorative. Usually there are three floors in the building, including the attic. The windows are rather small, but there are a lot of them, which allows to let in a lot of light inside the house.
Modern construction technologies allow building houses using the half-timbered method in various architectural variations.
Nowadays, a half-timbered house is not just a box. The shape and dimensions of such a house have been greatly improved; now this is a multi-level architecturally interesting building that is ready to satisfy any request.
The sizes and forms of frame houses from the bearing beams any. It can be a small one-storey country house for holidays, with an attic and unequal gable roof. And it is made in the style of hi-tech with a lean-to roof. For permanent residence fit a large and spacious house of different heights with a combined roof. For extravagant solutions, part of the roof is made of a dome shape.
Due to the fact that there are no load-bearing walls in the house, the future planning is carried out completely at the request of the owner. The walls in this case are partitions that solve the problems of sound insulation and privacy.
A bit of history
House - a structure erected for living. With the passage of historical time, the requirements for housing increased, which led to the emergence of houses, different in proportions and type of construction. In order to adapt to the environment, terrain and climate. Due to these factors, names are formed: castle, palace, villa, chalet, cottage, and so on.
For medieval cities of Central Europe - German states, in particular, the architectural model of the so-called half-timbered house is typical.
Half-timbered houses, in German, is a load-bearing wooden frame, assembled from supports and beams connected vertically, horizontally and diagonally. The resulting spaces, of various shapes and sizes, were filled with saman, brick, sometimes wood. Then they were plastered flush with the beams, leaving in sight the geometry of the framework structure, giving the latter also decorative properties.
Thus, there is a combination of functional and aesthetic motives. Both solutions are extremely successful: houses of this type have been standing for several centuries, and the elegant simplicity of the facades and walls is elegant and beautiful.
Photos of half-timbered houses were distributed among those who have never seen them, along with images of other "beautiful". Including in the form of wallpaper on PC screens. Which once again emphasizes the originality and even some fabulousness of these creations of human hands.
Fakhverk began to revive en masse. The reason for this is practicality plus the development of the building materials industry.
Modern designs of half-timbered houses visually have little in common with traditional ones, but the principle from which the name derives is the same - a visible wooden frame that stands out in color from the rest of the area of the walls.
The changes went in the direction of simplifying and simplifying the design, thanks to the quality of the materials and fasteners used.
The areas of cells have expanded all the supporting structure, in other words, there are fewer elements. Diagonal braces, which played an important role in the construction of the facade and in strengthening the frame, were no longer needed. Lost their functionality.
Glued laminated timber, which replaced solid logs, is much stronger and stronger, beams from this material need fewer supports. Fillers of inter-gully spaces are not heavy bricks and clay, as in the old days, but light panels that have all the necessary strength, insulation and energy-saving characteristics. There is no need for a deep and solid foundation.
For the customer, the construction begins with viewing the catalogs of half-timbered houses, on the website of the nearest company, or in the office itself. If you have your own project, the timing of adaptation of existing developments to the wishes of the client is discussed.
The technology of a half-timbered house allows the implementation of any form and shape, from simple and unpretentious, to the most complex and bizarre. This also applies to the internal layout - the frame is voluminous.
The solidity of the structure is achieved by careful and tight fitting of the parts to be joined. This requires extreme accuracy of measurement and compliance with the distances and sizes of grooves and studs. Most often, this condition is achievable only with stationary equipment.
For this reason, it can be argued that the construction of a half-timbered house takes place on the production area of a construction company.
At the customer’s site, the foundation is cast - a 20-30 mm thick concrete slab - and installation. With the observance of all sections of the project documentation and construction rules - waterproofing, thoroughness, horizontal and vertical. The imported wooden parts of the frame, numbered for ease of assembly, are treated with protective substances and attached to the foundation.
This is followed by the filling of openings of external walls and internal partitions, floorings and ceilings. Roofing, doors, windows, installation of heating and communications, finishing works, painting - and the process is over. Stylish modern home ready in a short time.
Window to the floor. Or glass wall
Features of modern architecture - straightness, some angularity, even, with a predominance of extensive flat surfaces, and great windows. Half-timbered houses both of these directions.
Panoramic glazing of a half-timbered house is an integral part of the style, it just suggests itself. The window of a private house in the entire wall is an unusual phenomenon in the post-Soviet space, much attention is paid to the description of the benefits and advantages.
First, a lot of daylight is captured. Secondly, the size of the room extends to the nearest trees, or to the horizon - depending on the location of the house. And the opposite effect - the appearance becomes part of the interior.
In the conditions of the cottage settlement, only the facade remains behind the glass, behind which there is a living room, a dining room and a kitchen - public spaces. The remaining walls overlooking the fence or neighbors - deaf.
Perhaps the location of the house in the depths of the site, with the release of the specific side on his own equipped surroundings. Or "turn" in the direction of the courtyard. There are many options - there would be a plot.
Glazing is made using frameless three-chamber double-glazed windows, the formula of which can be selected depending on the climate and geographic region. Tempered glass, which is several times stronger than usual, is usually installed on the outside and is difficult to break. On the inside - solar, or energy-saving glass. Protect from excessive heat in the summer and heat loss in the winter. From this point of view, a modern window can be of any size.
The interior, or interior of a half-timbered house, is selected taking into account the peculiarities of the style - conciseness, simplicity, minimalism, the predominance of horizontal lines. Narrow, elongated hinged details of the situation, squat sofas leave room for a sense of freedom. The colors are not dominated by bright, light, pastel colors.
Half-timbered has a great future, without any doubt. Thanks to environmental friendliness, style, reliability, lightness and short implementation time.
The construction of half-timbered houses: technology proven over centuries
Created in Germany, half-timbered houses, the construction technology of which practically did not undergo significant changes, appeared as a result of an acute shortage of quality wood in medieval Europe. Therefore, a wooden frame was created from wood, and the space between the beams was originally filled with clay, which was replaced by more durable materials: stone and brick. Another undoubted advantage in the conditions of the Middle Ages was the ability to quickly restore a destroyed or half-timbered house with their own hands. For the constantly at war Europe at that time it was very important.
Classic half-timbered house
Half-timbered house - practicality and beauty in one person
The basis of the half-timbered house is a complex wooden frame consisting of horizontal, vertical and diagonal elements, which are the main feature of the architectural style of half-timbered houses. Diagonal elements - braces located between the beams and racks, add structure stiffness and strength. To create the frame structure, wood was used - spruce, oak, fir, Douglas, and the strength of the frame is achieved by accurately calculating the loads and accurately connecting all the details.
The basis of the half-timbered house - a complex wooden frame
Manual wood processing and the perfection of the details give the house elegance
Horizontal, vertical and diagonal bars are the main feature of the architectural style of fachwerk
The vertical arrangement of the beams fully justified itself - today you can find houses built more than 500 years ago. The reason for this longevity is that a well-polished vertical gully makes rainwater flow quickly, practically not lingering or absorbing. And this is the fundamental difference between half-timbered houses and traditional chopped Russian huts, in which the logs were located horizontally and, as a result, absorbed moisture more, which led to a more rapid gradual destruction of wood.
Half-timbered design gives the house a special charm
Thanks to the vertical arrangement of the beams, the rainwater flows quickly, almost without stopping and absorbing
Half-timbered houses: the resurgence of popularity
The interest in half-timbered houses was revived in the mid-seventies of the last century, primarily due to the appearance of new, technologically advanced materials. Modern design trends have allowed to give a new sound and content already become classical methods of decoration and construction. And although modern half-timbered houses are quite different from the classical samples, they are also popular with lovers of classical European village style.
Modern design trends have allowed to give a new sound and content of half-timbered houses.
The interest in half-timbered houses was revived in the mid-70s of the last century.
Modern half-timbered houses are gaining popularity.
If clay was used initially to fill the space between the beams, then wooden panels, stone or brick, then with the advent of double-glazed windows, it became possible to build half-timbered houses with full glazing. Fully glass facade looks very impressive and elegant, while maintaining the visual dismemberment of the wall - the main architectural feature of the buildings in the style of fachwerk.
The construction of half-glazed houses with full glazing is becoming more and more popular.
Fully glass facade looks very impressive and elegant
One of the features of the half-timbered architecture is the decorative function of the framework. This is its main difference from conventional frame houses, in which, when finished, the bearing beams are hidden. The special arrangement of the frame elements not only visually separates the facade on panels of various shapes, but also creates a bizarre pattern (they are also called "figures"): "man", "Andrew's cross", "wild man" and others.
Half-timbered facade with a pattern "Andrew's Cross"
Tip! To make the exterior of the house more decorative and attractive, corner posts are decorated with carvings, and curved shapes, such as the horse's head, rides, etc., give beams to the beams that protrude onto the facade.
Half-timbered houses are minimalist, elegant, surprisingly simple, but always individual.
At the same time, modern technologists have made it possible to obtain a warm “glass” house — the installed special, low-emission glass units let in solar shortwave radiation, but at the same time act as an insurmountable barrier to thermal longwave. As a result, to calculate the heating power of such a house, the traditional formula for stone and concrete houses is often used - 1 W of power per 10 m 2. At the same time, the glass only looks fragile in appearance - in fact, it is made according to the technology and can be up to 6 mm thick. In addition, even if all of a sudden, which is unlikely under normal conditions, such a glass will break, the fragments will not fly apart - they will remain hanging on an elastic polymer film.
Modern technologists can get a warm "glass" house
Half-timbered glass house
As a result, using a half-timbered structure, you can create large glazed areas, turning the entire facade into one big glass wall. Thus, it becomes possible to realize the effect of merging with nature and the surrounding space. Landscapes that surround the house, as if becoming part of the interior.
The glass facade allows you to realize the effect of merging with nature and the surrounding space.
Another reason for the increased popularity of half-timbered houses was the use of glued laminated timber instead of ordinary wood, which made it possible to gain a very strong frame. In this case, the elements of the frame (glued laminated timber and metal fastenings that connect the elements of the frame) additionally act as a decorative part of the exterior and interior of the building. In addition, a solid frame allows you to create any layout of the building, in which spacious open spaces with external glass walls coexist with cozy and quiet secluded rooms inside the building. And since the concept of "bearing wall" is absent in principle, the entire load falls on the frame, in such a house you can easily redevelop at any time.
Currently, at the construction of a half-timbered house, glued laminated timber displaces ordinary wood.
Durable frame allows you to create any layout of the building
The use of glued laminated timber to obtain the frame made it possible to get rid of a number of drawbacks characteristic of natural wood:
- increased fire safety - glued laminated timber ignites at higher temperatures than ordinary wood. In addition, it does not burn, but smolders, until the last moment preserving its shape and carrying capacity, thereby giving significantly more time than a natural cant to evacuate people.
Glued laminated timber made it possible to get rid of a number of drawbacks characteristic of natural wood when building a half-timbered house
- no shrinkage - over time, glued laminated timber practically does not change its linear dimensions, which allows you to proceed to the internal and external decoration immediately after installation of the frame
- immunity to moisture, resistance to mold and fungi
- high strength - according to this indicator, glued laminated timber 2 times exceeds solid wood
Beautiful and cozy house in the style of fachwerk
Tip! Installing a raised beam on top of a brickwork or decorative plaster allows you to visually imitate the features of the framework architecture, adding to the house presentable and impressive.
Installing a raised beam on top of brickwork or decorative plaster allows you to accurately simulate the characteristics of the half-timbered style
The classic German half-timbered house usually has a gable roof, traditional materials are used as a roofing covering: soft roof, tiles and its imitation.
Classic German half-timbered house
Modern glass half-timbered house is a lifestyle in harmony with nature
Modern glass half-timbered house with a flat roof
Modern technologies allow the construction of 3 or even 4-storey half-timbered houses, but usually in private housing are limited to two floors or one and a spacious attic. The increase in the number of floors requires a significant strengthening of the frame, which greatly complicates the work and increases the cost. Основной проблемой становится создание прочных межэтажных перекрытий — даже использование каркасных балок в качестве лагов и укладка половиц из легкой прочной древесины значительно увеличивает нагрузку на каркас.
Исключительное чувство открытости и бесконечности придает вашему дому совершенно новый смысл
Многоэтажные фахверковые дома должны иметь прочные межэтажные перекрытия
The cost of a half-timbered house depends largely on the area of the glazing, with a sufficiently high degree of glazing, its price is comparable to the cost of a log house. Significantly save money by using sandwich panels to fill the interframe space, which provide high thermal insulation.
Sunlight floods the interior and creates a feeling of luxury and freedom
Half-timbered style will emphasize your taste and wealth
Using a sandwich panel to fill the interframe space, you can significantly save money when building a half-timbered house
Half-timbered houses - tradition and modernity, the development of style, see the video:
The most important advantage of half-timbered houses is the ability to create external walls from any material. Of course, given the climate of the area. Thanks to this feature, glass became the most common material for the construction of external partitions. That is why the popularity of houses on technology fakhverk so increased. Thick, up to 6 mm, durable glass of impressive size is used as walls in such houses.
Absolute unity with nature is achieved by completely transparent walls. The house is breathing. The already large rooms seem huge, clean, airy, unlimited. Full sense of serenity and presence. This is a great solution for houses made in ecostyle, as well as high-tech style.
Keep in mind that such options are suitable for building a house that will be located remotely from other houses, otherwise the neighbors will always be aware of your life.
However, a fully glass house is an expensive pleasure.
The most courageous are ready to use only this material for the decoration of the facade. Modern technologies allow you to install glass so that the house remains warm in the end, and the high quality of glass prevents the possibility of damage. But even if the canvas is broken, the fragments will remain on a special film, which will not allow sharp pieces to scatter.
Combined options are most popular because they allow you to arrange a part of the rooms for privacy. For example, the master and guest bedrooms, as well as the nursery, are best made of deaf material, while the living room, dining room, winter garden or indoor pool can be visually combined with nature and a beautiful park landscape.
The presence of at least one wall, made entirely of glass, in modern half-timbered design is considered mandatory. But this is not the only material that is suitable for the construction of walls in such houses.
The inner cells of the future walls are filled with special material., which has heat, noise insulation, waterproof properties that exclude the occurrence of mold. This inner layer is sheathed outside with durable and reliable plywood plates. This technology allows you to create a homely atmosphere of peace and comfort.
A brick is also suitable for building walls, it is reliable and versatile, suitable for both internal partitions and the external facade. In this case, the beams are necessarily reinforced.
Exterior finish can also be any. Deaf non-glass walls can be plastered. This is a relatively inexpensive option, is popular for decorating any type of houses. By the way, it is white plastered facades in combination with contrasting dark brown beams that are the corporate style of classic German half-timbered houses.
Initially, this type of house appeared in Western Europe - in Germany. Everyone at least once saw such buildings with his own eyes or in the photo - they fascinate with the spirit of antiquity, which is characteristic even for modern half-timbered buildings, and unusual charm of the facades.
Building such houses began in the 15th century. Actually, half-timbered houses were called a supporting building structure in the form of a rigid timber frame, wooden horizontal, vertical and diagonal beams of which formed sections connected at a certain angle.
To fill the gaps between the system of beams, racks and braces used clay, adobe, stone, then began to use brick, plaster and sheathed with wood panels. Nowadays, modern insulation materials in the form of sandwich panels and moisture-resistant plywood are used, and lining made of bricks, natural stone, lining, and wood is performed on top.
Important! Whatever the finishing is done, the frame should be visible on the facade, since it is thanks to him that the structure is endowed with a special attractiveness and spectacular appearance. It is the frame that is an expression of the half-timbered style.
To protect the wooden structure from moisture and extend its service life, the basement was lined with stone.
Interesting. The basis of the style name includes two German words fach, which translates as "section", "panel" and werk - "construction".
In due course Europe began to be built up with similar houses which had not only residential purpose. And the role of wooden beams was not only to ensure the carrying capacity of the frame, but was also an important decorative feature of the facade and interior design.
Such buildings are still being built due to the fact that the price of construction justifies itself, as well as an interesting appearance.
This style is divided into 4 directions, the features of which can be traced in the appearance of buildings:
Features of interior design
A special frame, which is used in the construction of half-timbered houses, affects not only the appearance of the building, but also the interior design. Hide beam system will not work, so it is used as a decorative element.
To design a house in a rustic style, use the following techniques:
- The surface of the beams is subjected to artificial aging to create the atmosphere of a real half-timbered German house of the 16th century,
- Most of the finishing is done with natural wood,
- The flooring is made of board or tile,
- The furnishings are sturdy and massive, picked up in a retro version,
- The use of coarse natural textiles, such as cotton, linen, burlap,
- On the floor you can lay self-woven carpets and walkways, but so that they do not completely cover the plank floor,
- Be sure to have a hearth fireplace or stylized German stove.
Important! Modern technology should be hidden behind the ancient facades of the kitchen set and other stylized furniture, or behind partitions with applied wood details with plaster or open facing with stone or brick.
For interior design in a minimalist modern style using the following solutions:
- Even at the design stage of the house it is necessary to provide a significant area of glazing.otherwise the minimalism in a half-timbered house will not work - every room must have space and plenty of natural light,
- For painting beams and rafters using white paint
- The flooring is made of light parquet,
- The walls should be bright and concise, as well as the design of the fireplace,
- Furniture is purchased only necessary, which corresponds to the requirements of minimalism style.
For a classic interior design, use the following techniques:
- For decorating beams using artistic carving,
- The flooring is made of natural wood in the form of boards or type-setting parquet,
- On the walls, you can use wallpaper, light textured plaster or paint,
- Zoning of the space by internal wooden partitions is welcomed,
- Furniture is selected in accordance with the stated style - classic, expensive, as well as textiles with decorative elements,
- The center in the interior is a fireplace in the form of a fireplace or a German firebox.
As can be seen, the interior of a half-timbered house can be any, the only thing that remains is the presence of the beam system and the hearth, as the main accent element. The rest of the possible unlimited flight of fancy in managing the volume, combining and dividing the internal space, the use of beams, rafters and other structural elements.
What color range to choose?
As noted earlier, this style can be considered conditional, for which the main distinguishing feature is the presence of several architectural details - hearth, beams and rafters; to create a half-timbered interior it is necessary to focus on these elements.
When choosing colors, they are guided by the shade of the walls - if they are light, the beams are made in a contrasting dark brown or black color and, on the contrary, with dark walls, the beams are painted white.
For the decoration of the walls often choose a soft pastel color scheme consisting of beige, milk, sand, peach tones and ivory. In combination with brown contrasting beams, the atmosphere of the room becomes cozy, calm and restrained.
Accent elements can be made in pistachio, terracotta, mustard or burgundy color, which allows you to create a warm, home interior.
Choosing finishing materials
When finishing the interior in this style, it is recommended to give preference to natural materials. Wooden beams are made of dark wood, you can use a dark varnish. Apply light plaster or opaque monophonic wall-paper to furnish of walls.
The flooring is made of natural stone, parquet or aged tiles with imitation scuffs.
During the construction of internal partitions, their frame is left “in sight”, that is, they look like the walls on the facade. Therefore, a similar technology is used for their decoration - the free space between the wooden elements is reveted with stone or panels, which makes it possible to particularly expressly emphasize the fachwerk in the interior.
At the same time, it is possible to imitate frame elements with the help of a layout made of wooden overlay planks.
The furnishings should have a simple and concise appearance:
- For classic and country style, it is better to choose good retro-models in the form of wardrobes, soft armchairs and sofas with thick upholstery fabric, wooden chairs.
- For the bedroom you can buy a large high bed with a pronounced headboard. The furniture may have ornaments of carving or art forging.
- For modern design you can buy comfortable upholstered furniture in a restrained style and colors.
Like any country style or minimalism - and in a half-timbered house, it is often these styles that are used to decorate the interior space, the interior needs a lot of natural light.
If the design of the house was provided for a large window, the issue is resolved. If not, it is necessary to make the room as bright as possible at the expense of artificial sources in the form of candlesticks or lamps imitating them, wall sconces around the perimeter of the rooms. Or, with the help of spot lighting and spots, when the interior is decorated in a modern style.
A chandelier or several pendant lamps can be used as a central light source. On the floor you can put a floor lamp.
How to decorate the room
This style is characterized by the use of the following decorative elements in the interior:
- Pictures - and, the plot can be any, depending on the chosen direction in the design,
- Forged elements in the form of frames, candlesticks, accessories and other furnishings,
- Simple textiles in the form of fabric mats, linen curtains and tablecloths, thick bedspreads, pillows without romantic patterns,
- Live plants that can be put on the floor or windowsill, hang on the walls or decorate them through the partition.
Beams in the interior, in addition to decorative, can perform a practical function - used to fix light sources, play the role of a shelf or a bracket.
Forged and wooden elements of decor are a common phenomenon for this style, so the cartwheel or horseshoe on the wall will look quite harmonious.
Important! The furnishings and decor should not overlap the walls, otherwise the very idea of an open frame will be lost.
The video in this article will tell you how to do the half-timbered interior with your own hands.